Chuño

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Chuño
Chuño.jpg
Place of originBolivia and Peru
Main ingredientsPotatoes

Chuño (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈtʃuɲo]) is a freeze-dried potato product traditionally made by Quechua and Aymara communities of Bolivia and Peru,[1] and is known in various countries of South America, including Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Peru. It is a five-day process, obtained by exposing a frost-resistant variety[citation needed] of potatoes to the very low night temperatures of the Andean Altiplano, freezing them, and subsequently exposing them to the intense sunlight of the day (this being the traditional process). The word comes from Quechua ch'uñu, meaning 'frozen potato' ('wrinkled' in the dialects of the Junín Region).

Origins[edit]

The existence of chuño dates back to before the time of the Inca Empire in the 13th century, based on findings that have been made of the product at various archaeological sites. Specifically, they have been found at Tiwanaku, site of a culture which developed in the Collao Plateau, a geographic zone which includes territories of Bolivia and Peru.

It had been described in 1590 by Spanish chronicler José de Acosta.[2] Due to its portability, long shelf life, and nutritional value, chuño was eaten by Inca soldiers on marches.[3] Indeed Carl Troll argued that the nighttime sub-freezing temperatures of southern Peruvian highlands that allowed for chuño production favoured the rise of the Inca Empire.[4]

Production[edit]

Chuño is made during June and July, during which time the temperatures reach around −5 °C (23 °F) at elevations of over 3,800 metres (12,500 ft).[5] After harvest, potatoes are selected for the production of chuño, typically small ones for ease of processing. These small potatoes are spread closely on flat ground, and allowed to freeze with the low night temperatures and dehydrate in the daytime, for about three nights. This process results in natural freeze-drying.

By the end of this process, usually around May, the potatoes are taken to chuñochinapampas – flat areas where the potatoes can be laid out. The term is Aymara in origin and translates to “the place where the chuño is made”.[5] Once they make it to the chuñochinapampas, they are trampled by foot. This eliminates what little water is still retained by the potatoes, and removes the skins, enabling subsequent freezing and drying. They remain as they are for over a week, depending on weather conditions.

During the process of manually squeezing water out of the potatoes via stepping on them, whole families will participate. The previous freeze-drying breaks down cell walls, making it easier to remove water from the potatoes.[6] They build a small pile of potatoes with their feet and then "dance" on the pile, removing the skins as they do so. This will not entirely remove the skins, so the remaining skin is removed by hand afterwards.[7]

Starting from this basic freeze-dry process, two varieties are obtained:

White chuño[edit]

White chuño is obtained by washing the frozen potatoes. The washing may take various forms. In Bolivia [1], the potatoes are spread on blankets or straw and constantly sprayed with water to moisten. In Peru, the frozen potatoes are transported to a river, and deposited in pools. This washing typically takes about a week. The final step is drying in the sun. The result is now called chuño, also known as papas secas. In Bolivia, white chuño is also called tunta.

Black chuño[edit]

Black chuño is obtained directly from the original freezing, trampling, and refreezing process. The product is not washed or exposed to water again; after freezing and trampling, it is simply sun-dried. Black chuño production has less regional variation than white chuño, and is more likely to be kept and consumed by farmers than the more commercialized white chuño.[6]

Preservation and consumption[edit]

Maiz with chuño and chili

Once dried, and with minimal care in storage, the product can last for a very long time, sometimes decades.[3]

Consumption is varied, from desserts to prepared dishes, as well as chuño flour, which is an essential ingredient in many dishes of Peruvian cuisine. Chairo is one of the most traditional Bolivian soups and it is made with chuño, meat, and vegetables. Especially in Bolivia, chuño is not considered the same as a regular potato. In certain recipes, chuño and potatoes should not be used interchangeably.[7] Chairo, for example, is not considered the same without the ground chuño. The other ingredients - wheat, carrots, etc - can be substituted, but not the chuño. It is also traditional in southern regions of Peru such as Arequipa and Puno. Another soup, this one made using whole chuño, is jakonta. More simply, chuño can be eaten with a variety of sauces.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Timothy Johns: With bitter Herbs They Shall Eat it : Chemical ecology and the origins of human diet and medicine, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson 1990, ISBN 0-8165-1023-7, p. 82-84
  2. ^ "Potato (white)". The Cambridge World History of Food. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2013.
  3. ^ a b Romero, Simon (August 10, 2016), "A Space-Age Food Product Cultivated by the Incas", The New York Times
  4. ^ Gade, Daniel (2016). "Urubamba Verticality: Reflections on Crops and Diseases". Spell of the Urubamba: Anthropogeographical Essays on an Andean Valley in Space and Time. p. 86. ISBN 978-3-319-20849-7.
  5. ^ a b Rosendo, Inma Gil (June 13, 2017). "Chuño, the millennial secret of the Andes to get a potato to last 20 years". BBC.
  6. ^ a b de Haan, Stef (August 15, 2012). "Effect of production environment, genotype and process on the mineral content of native bitter potato cultivars converted into white chuño". Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 92: 2098–2105. doi:10.1002/jsfa.5589.
  7. ^ a b Haines, Helen (2010). Adventures in Eating: Anthropological Experiences of Dining from Around the World. University Press of Colorado.