City of London (UK Parliament constituency)

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City of London
Former Borough constituency
for the House of Commons
1298 (1298)1950 (1950)
Replaced by Cities of London and Westminster

The City of London was a United Kingdom Parliamentary constituency. It was a constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of England then of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1707 to 1800 and of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1950.

Boundaries and boundary changes[edit]

The City of London in the Metropolis, showing boundaries used from 1868 to 1885

This borough constituency consisted of the City of London, which is the historic core of the modern Greater London.

The southern boundary of the City is the north bank of the River Thames. The City of Westminster is situated to the west. The districts of Holborn and Finsbury are to the north, Shoreditch to the north-east and Whitechapel to the east.

London is first known to have been enfranchised and represented in Parliament in 1298. Because it was the most important city in England it received four seats in Parliament instead of the normal two for a constituency. Previous to 1298 the area would have been represented as part of the county constituency of Middlesex. The City formed part of the geographic county, even though from early times it was not administered as part of Middlesex.

The City was represented by four MPs until 1885 and two thereafter until 1950.

The City of London was originally a densely populated area. Before the Reform Act 1832 the composition of the City electorate was not as democratic as that of some other borough constituencies, such as neighbouring Westminster. The right of election was held by members of the Livery Companies. However the size and wealth of the community meant that it had more voters than most other borough constituencies. Namier and Brooke estimated the size of the City electorate, in the latter part of the 18th century, at about 7,000. Only Westminster had a larger size of electorate.

During the course of the 19th and 20th centuries the metropolitan area of London expanded enormously. The resident population of the City fell as people moved to the new suburbs. However the City authorities did not want to extend their jurisdiction beyond the traditional "square mile", so the Parliamentary constituency was left unchanged as its resident population fell. By the 20th century almost all electors in the City qualified as business voters, due to the ownership of shop or office premises in the City. The business voters were a type of plural voter so when that voting qualification was abolished by the Representation of the People Act 1948 the City had far too few voters to remain a Parliamentary constituency.

In 1950 the area was merged for Parliamentary purposes with the neighbouring City of Westminster, to form a new single-member constituency of Cities of London and Westminster.

There are special provisions concerning the City and Parliamentary boundaries. Rule 3 of the Rules for Redistribution of Seats, used by the Boundary Commission for England in its General Review of Parliamentary Constituency Boundaries starting in 2000, provided that:-

"There shall continue to be a constituency which shall include the whole of the City of London and the name of which shall refer to the City of London".

Members of Parliament 1707-1950[edit]

See City of London (elections to the Parliament of England) for citizens known to have represented the City in Parliament before 1707

Parliaments of Great Britain 1707–1800[edit]

From To Name Born Died
1707 1715 Sir William Withers (T) c. 1654 31 January 1721
1708 1710 Sir John Ward (W) c. 1650 12 March 1726
1710 1715 Sir Richard Hoare (T) 8 September 1649 6 January 1719
1710 1714 Sir George Newland (T) c. 1646 26 March 1714
1710 1715 Sir John Cass (T) 28 February 1661 5 July 1718
1715 1722 Robert Heysham (W) 16 August 1663 25 February 1723
1715 1722 Sir John Ward (W) c. 1650 12 March 1726
1715 1724 Peter Godfrey (T) 1665 10 November 1724
1715 1722 Sir Thomas Scawen (W) c. 1650 22 September 1730
1722 1727 Richard Lockwood (T) 1676 30 August 1756
1722 1761 Sir John Barnard (W) c. 1685 29 August 1764
1722 1727 Francis Child (T) c. 1684 20 April 1740
1724 1727 Sir Richard Hopkins ... 2 January 1746
1727 1734 Sir John Eyles, Bt (W) 1683 11 March 1745
1727 1741 Micajah Perry (W) ... 22 January 1753
1727 1741 Humphry Parsons (T) c. 1676 21 March 1741
1734 1741 Robert Willimot (T) ... 19 December 1746
1741 1747 George Heathcote (T) 7 December 1700 7 June 1768
1741 1747 Sir Daniel Lambert (T) 7 September 1685 13 May 1750
1741 1742 Sir Robert Godschall (T) c. 1692 26 June 1742
1742 1754 Sir William Calvert (W) c. 1703 3 May 1761
1747 1758 Slingsby Bethell (W) 16 March 1695 1 November 1758
1747 1754 Stephen Theodore Janssen (W) ... ...
1754 1773 Sir Robert Ladbroke c. 1713 31 October 1773
1754 1770 William Beckford 19 December 1709 21 June 1770
1758 1768 Sir Richard Glyn 13 June 1711 1 January 1773
1761 1774 Hon. Thomas Harley 24 August 1730 1 December 1804
1768 1774 Barlow Trecothick c. 1718 28 May 1775
1770 1780 Richard Oliver 7 January 1735 16 April 1784
1773 1784 Frederick Bull c. 1714 10 January 1784
1774 1780 John Sawbridge 1732 21 February 1795
1774 1781 George Hayley ... 30 August 1781
1780 1780 John Kirkman 1741 19 September 1780
1780 1790 Nathaniel Newnham c. 1741 26 December 1809
1780 1795 John Sawbridge 1732 21 February 1795
1781 1796 Sir Watkin Lewes c. 1740 13 July 1821
1784 1793 Brook Watson 11 February 1735 2 October 1807
1790 1800 Sir William Curtis 25 January 1752 18 January 1829
1793 1800 Sir John Anderson, Bt c. 1735 21 May 1813
1795 1800 William Lushington 18 January 1747 11 September 1823
1796 1800 Harvey Christian Combe 1752 4 July 1818
  • Note:-
  • (a) Expelled

Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801[edit]

MPs 1801–1885[edit]

Election Member Party Member Party Member Party Member Party
1801 Sir William Curtis, Bt Tory Sir John Anderson, Bt William Lushington Non-partisan Harvey Christian Combe Whig
1802 Sir Charles Price Tory
1806 Sir James Shaw, Bt Tory
1812 John Atkins Tory
1817 by-election Sir Matthew Wood, Bt (W, L)
1818 Thomas Wilson Tory Robert Waithman Whig John Thomas Thorp Whig
1820 Sir William Curtis, Bt Tory George Bridges Tory
1826 William Thompson Tory Robert Waithman (W, L) William Ward Tory
1831 William Venables Whig
1832 George Grote Liberal Sir John Key, Bt Liberal
March 1833 by-election George Lyall Conservative
August 1833 by-election William Crawford Liberal
1835 James Pattison Liberal
1841 John Masterman Conservative George Lyall Conservative Lord John Russell Liberal
1843 by-election James Pattison Liberal
1847 Baron Lionel de Rothschild Liberal
1849 by-election Sir James Duke, Bt Liberal
1857 Robert Wigram Crawford Liberal
1861 by-election Western Wood Liberal
1863 by-election George Goschen Liberal
1865 William Lawrence Liberal
1868 Charles Bell Conservative
1869 by-election Baron Lionel de Rothschild Liberal
1874 William Cotton Conservative Philip Twells Conservative John Gellibrand Hubbard Conservative
1880 Sir Robert Fowler, Bt Conservative William Lawrence Liberal
1885 reduced to two seats

MPs 1885–1950[edit]

Election Member Party Member Party
1885 John Gellibrand Hubbard Conservative Sir Robert Nicholas Fowler, Bt Conservative
1887 by-election Thomas Baring Conservative
Apr 1891 by-election Hucks Gibbs Conservative
Jun 1891 by-election Sir Reginald Hanson, Bt Conservative
1892 Alban Gibbs Conservative
1900 Sir Joseph Cockfield Dimsdale (C) Conservative
1906 Sir Edward George Clarke Conservative
Feb 1906 by-election Arthur James Balfour Conservative
Jun 1906 by-election Sir Frederick Banbury, Bt Conservative
1918 Coalition Conservative Coalition Conservative
1922 by-election Edward Grenfell Conservative
1922 Conservative
1924 by-election Sir Vansittart Bowater, Bt Conservative
1935 by-election Sir Alan Garrett Anderson Conservative
1938 by-election Sir George Broadbridge, Bt Conservative
1940 by-election Sir Andrew Rae Duncan National
1945 by-election Ralph Assheton Conservative
1950 Constituency abolished

Elections[edit]

In multi-member elections the bloc voting system was used. Voters could cast a vote for one to four (or up to two in two-member elections 1885-1950) candidates, as they chose. The leading candidates with the largest number of votes were elected. In 1868 the limited vote was introduced, which restricted an individual elector to using one, two or three votes, in elections to fill four seats.

In by-elections, to fill a single seat, the first past the post system applied.

After 1832, when registration of voters was introduced, a turnout figure is given for contested elections. In multi-member elections, when the exact number of participating voters is unknown, this is calculated by dividing the number of votes by four (to 1868), three (1868–1885) and two thereafter. To the extent that electors did not use all their votes this will be an underestimate of turnout.

Where a party had more than one candidate in one or both of a pair of successive elections change is calculated for each individual candidate, otherwise change is based on the party vote.

Candidates for whom no party has been identified are classified as Non Partisan. The candidate might have been associated with a party or faction in Parliament or consider himself to belong to a particular political tradition. Political parties before the 19th century were not as cohesive or organised as they later became. Contemporary commentators (even the reputed leaders of parties or factions) in the 18th century did not necessarily agree who the party supporters were. The traditional parties, which had arisen in the late 17th century, became increasingly irrelevant to politics in the 18th century (particularly after 1760), although for some contests in some constituencies party labels were still used. It was only towards the end of the century that party labels began to acquire some meaning again, although this process was by no means complete for several more generations.

Sources: The results are based on the History of Parliament Trust's volumes on the House of Commons in various periods from 1715–1820, Stooks Smith from 1820 until 1832 and Craig from 1832. Where Stooks Smith gives additional information this is indicated in a note. See references below for further details of these sources.

Dates of general and by-elections from 1660-1715 (excluding general elections at which no new MP was returned)

  • 27 Mar 1660
  • 19 Mar 1661
  • 10 Feb 1663
  • 17 Feb 1679
  • 15 May 1685
  • 9 Jan 1689
  • 14 May 1689
  • 11 Mar 1690
  • 2 Mar 1693
  • 25 Oct 1695
  • 30 Jul 1698
  • 1 Feb 1701
  • 20 Mar 1701
  • 24 Nov 1701
  • 18 Aug 1702
  • 17 May 1705
  • 16 Dec 1707
  • 14 May 1708
  • 16 Nov 1710

Parliament of Great Britain election results 1713–1800[edit]

1710s

1720s1730s1740s1750s1760s1770s1780s1790s

Elections in the 1710s[edit]

General Election 1713: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Tory Sir Richard Hoare 3,842 12.84 N/A
Tory Sir George Newland 3,826 12.78 N/A
Tory Sir John Cass 3,802 12.70 N/A
Tory Sir William Withers 3,763 12.57 N/A
Whig John Ward 3,730 12.46 N/A
Whig Robert Heysham 3,688 12.32 N/A
Whig Peter Godfrey 3,657 12.22 N/A
Whig Thomas Scawen 3,625 12.11 N/A
  • 6,787 voted. The losing candidates demanded a scrutiny, which did not change the result. (Source: Copy of the pollbook
General Election 29 January 1715: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Robert Heysham 3,499 13.86 N/A
Whig Sir John Ward 3,475 13.76 N/A
Tory Peter Godfrey 3,471 13.75 N/A
Whig Sir Thomas Scawen 3,439 13.62 N/A
Tory Sir John Cass 2,884 11.42 N/A
Tory Sir William Withers 2,879 11.40 N/A
Tory Sir William Stewart 2,828 11.20 N/A
Tory Sir George Mertinns 2,774 10.99 N/A

Elections in the 1720s[edit]

General Election 9 May 1722: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Tory Richard Lockwood 4,235 18.40 +18.40
Whig John Barnard 3,980 17.29 +17.29
Tory Peter Godfrey 3,852 16.74 +2.99
Tory Francis Child 3,784 16.44 +16.44
Tory Humphrey Parsons 3,593 15.61 +15.61
Whig Robert Heysham 3,573 15.52 +1.66
  • After a scrutiny the members returned were unchanged and vote totals were amended to Lockwood 4,025; Barnard 3,840; Godfrey 3,723; Child 3,575; Heysham 3,441; Parsons 3,393.
  • Death of Godfrey 10 November 1724
By-Election 11 December 1724: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan Sir Richard Hopkins 3,332 53.37 +53.37
Non Partisan Charles Goodfellow 2,911 46.63 +46.63
Majority 421 6.74 N/A
Non Partisan gain from Tory Swing N/A
General Election 24 November 1727: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Sir John Eyles 3,643 13.71 +13.71
Whig John Barnard 3,620 13.62 -3.67
Whig Micajah Perry 3,494 13.15 +13.15
Tory Humphry Parsons 3,370 12.68 -2.93
Non Partisan Sir John Thompson 3,340 12.57 +12.57
Tory Richard Lockwood 3,086 11.61 -6.79
Non Partisan Sir John Williams 3,017 11.35 +11.35
Non Partisan Sir Richard Hopkins 3,010 11.32 +11.32
  • After a scrutiny the members returned were unchanged and vote totals were amended to Eyles 3,539; Barnard 3,514; Perry 3,396; Parsons 3,255; Thompson 3,244; Lockwood 2,977; Hopkins 2,921; Williams 2,914.

Elections in the 1730s[edit]

General Election 10 May 1734: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Tory Humphrey Parsons 3,932 21.92 +9.24
Whig Sir John Barnard 3,841 21.41 +7.79
Whig Micajah Perry 3,725 20.76 +7.61
Tory Robert Willimot 2,984 16.63 +16.63
Tory John Barber 2,381 13.27 +13.27
Tory Robert Godschall 1,078 6.01 +6.01
  • Note (1734): Poll 7 days (Source: Stooks Smith)

Elections in the 1740s[edit]

General Election 13 May 1741: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Sir John Barnard 3,769 21.35 -0.06
Tory George Heathcote 3,322 18.82 +18.82
Tory Daniel Lambert 3,217 18.23 +18.23
Tory Sir Robert Godschall 3,143 17.81 +11.80
Whig Micajah Perry 1,713 9.71 -11.05
Non Partisan Sir Edward Bellamy 1,312 7.43 +7.43
Non Partisan Admiral Edward Vernon 1,175 6.66 +6.66
  • Note (1741): Poll 7 days (Source: Stooks Smith)
  • Death of Godschall 26 June 1742
By-Election 13 July 1742: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig William Calvert Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig gain from Tory Swing N/A
General Election 10 July 1747: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Sir William Calvert 3,806 20.85 +20.85
Whig Sir John Barnard 3,781 20.71 -0.64
Whig Slingsby Bethell 3,146 17.23 +17.23
Whig Stephen Theodore Janssen 3,008 16.48 +16.48
Tory Sir Daniel Lambert 2,530 13.86 -4.37
Tory Sir Robert Ladbroke 1,986 10.88 +10.88

Elections in the 1750s[edit]

General Election 7 May 1754: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan Sir John Barnard 3,553 18.96 -1.75
Non Partisan Slingsby Bethell 3,547 18.93 +1.70
Non Partisan Sir Robert Ladbroke 3,390 18.09 +7.21
Non Partisan William Beckford 2,941 15.70 +15.70
Non Partisan Sir Richard Glyn 2,655 14.17 +14.17
Non Partisan Sir William Calvert 2,650 14.14 -6.71
  • Note (1754): Poll 7 days, 5,931 voted (Source: Stooks Smith)
  • Death of Bethell 1 November 1758
By-Election 30 November 1758: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan Sir Richard Glyn Unopposed N/A N/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A

Elections in the 1760s[edit]

General Election 4 April 1761: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan Sir Robert Ladbroke 4,306 23.36 +5.27
Non Partisan Hon. Thomas Harley 3,983 21.61 +21.61
Non Partisan William Beckford 3,663 19.87 +4.17
Non Partisan Sir Richard Glyn 3,285 17.83 +3.66
Non Partisan Sir Samuel Fludyer, Bt 3,193 17.32 +17.32
  • Note (1761): Poll 7 days (Source: Stooks Smith)
General Election 25 March 1768: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan Hon. Thomas Harley 3,729 19.02 -2.59
Non Partisan Sir Robert Ladbroke 3,678 18.76 -4.60
Non Partisan William Beckford 3,402 17.35 -2.52
Non Partisan Barlow Trecothick 2,957 15.08 +15.08
Non Partisan Sir Richard Glyn 2,823 14.40 -3.43
Non Partisan John Paterson 1,769 9.02 +9.02
Non Partisan John Wilkes 1,247 6.36 +6.36

Elections in the 1770s[edit]

  • Death of Beckford 21 June 1770
By-Election 11 July 1770: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan Richard Oliver Unopposed N/A N/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
  • Death of Ladbroke 31 October 1773
By-Election 23 December 1773: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan Frederick Bull 2,695 52.07 +52.07
Non Partisan John Roberts 2,481 47.93 +47.93
Majority 214 4.13 N/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
General Election 18 October 1774: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan John Sawbridge 3,456 17.81 +17.81
Non Partisan George Hayley 3,390 17.47 +17.47
Non Partisan Richard Oliver 3,354 17.28 +17.28
Non Partisan Frederick Bull 3,096 15.95 +15.95
Non Partisan William Baker 2,802 14.44 +14.44
Non Partisan Brass Crosby 1,913 9.86 +9.86
Non Partisan John Roberts 1,398 7.20 +7.20

Elections in the 1780s[edit]

General Election 19 September 1780: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan George Hayley 4,062 21.63 +4.16
Non Partisan John Kirkman 3,804 20.26 +20.26
Non Partisan Frederick Bull 3,150 16.77 +0.83
Non Partisan Nathaniel Newnham 3,036 16.17 +16.17
Non Partisan John Sawbridge 2,957 15.75 -2.06
Non Partisan Richard Clarke 1,771 9.43 +9.43
  • Death of Kirkman 19 September 1780
By-Election 28 November 1780: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan John Sawbridge Unopposed N/A N/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
  • Death of Hayley 30 August 1781
By-Election 2 October 1781: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan Sir Watkin Lewes 2,685 53.05 +53.05
Non Partisan Richard Clarke 2,387 46.95 +37.52
Majority 309 6.11 N/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
  • Death of Bull 10 January 1784
By-Election 26 January 1784: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan Brook Watson 2,097 66.78 +66.78
Non Partisan Brass Crosby 1,043 33.22 +33.22
Majority 1,054 33.57 N/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
  • Note (1784 be): Poll 3 days (Source: Stooks Smith)
General Election 7 May 1784: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan Brook Watson 4,776 24.19 +24.19
Non Partisan Sir Watkin Lewes 4,541 23.00 +23.00
Non Partisan Nathaniel Newnham 4,467 22.63 +6.46
Non Partisan John Sawbridge 2,812 14.24 -1.51
Non Partisan Richard Atkinson 2,803 14.20 +14.20
Non Partisan Samuel Smith 286 1.45 +1.45
Non Partisan Rt Hon. William Pitt 56 0.28 +0.28
  • Note (1784): Poll 7 days. Mr Pitt was returned on the show of hands, but retired before the poll. (Source: Stooks Smith)

Elections in the 1790s[edit]

General Election 26 June 1790: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan William Curtis 4,346 22.16 +22.16
Non Partisan Brook Watson 4,101 20.91 -3.28
Non Partisan Sir Watkin Lewes 3,747 19.10 -3.90
Non Partisan John Sawbridge 3,686 18.79 +4.55
Non Partisan Nathaniel Newnham 2,670 13.61 -9.02
Non Partisan William Pickett 1,064 5.42 +5.42
  • Note (1790): Poll 7 days (Source: Stooks Smith)
  • Appointment of Watson as Commissary General
By-Election 6 March 1793: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan John William Anderson Unopposed N/A N/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
  • Note (1793): Mr Newnham was a candidate, but declined to go to the poll. (Source: Stooks Smith)
  • Death of Sawbridge 21 February 1795
By-Election 12 March 1795: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan William Lushington 2,334 59.94 +59.94
Non Partisan Harvey Christian Combe 1,560 40.06 +40.06
Majority 774 19.88 N/A
Non Partisan hold Swing N/A
  • Note (1795): Poll 3 days (Source: Stooks Smith)
General Election 2 June 1796: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Non Partisan William Lushington 4,379 20.97 +20.97
Non Partisan William Curtis 4,313 20.66 -1.50
Non Partisan Harvey Christian Combe 3,865 18.51 +18.51
Non Partisan Sir John William Anderson, Bt 3,170 15.18 +15.18
Non Partisan William Pickett 2,795 13.39 +7.97
Non Partisan Sir Watkin Lewes 2,356 11.28 -7.82
  • Note (1796): Poll 7 days (Source: Stooks Smith)

Parliament of the United Kingdom election results (4 seats) 1801–1885[edit]

1800s

1810s1820s1830s1840s1850s1860s1870s1880s

Elections in the 1800s[edit]

General Election 6 July 1802: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Harvey Christian Combe 3,377 23.91 +5.40
Tory Sir Charles Price 3,236 22.91 +22.91
Tory William Curtis 2,989 21.16 +0.50
Tory Sir John William Anderson, Bt 2,387 16.90 +1.72
Whig Benjamin Travers 1,371 9.71 +9.71
Non Partisan Sir Watkin Lewes 652 4.62 -6.66
Non Partisan William Lushington 113 0.80 -20.17
  • Note (1802): Poll 7 days (Source: Stooks Smith)
General Election 31 October 1806: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Harvey Christian Combe 2,294 24.11 +0.20
Tory James Shaw 2,275 23.91 +23.91
Tory Sir Charles Price 2,254 23.69 +0.78
Tory Sir William Curtis 2,213 23.26 +2.10
Tory John Atkins 314 3.30 +3.30
Whig John Peter Hankey 164 1.72 +1.72
  • Note (1806): Poll 3 days (Source: Stooks Smith)
General Election 1807: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Tory Sir Charles Price 3,117 26.30 +2.61
Tory Sir William Curtis 3,059 25.81 +2.55
Tory James Shaw 2,863 24.15 +0.24
Whig Harvey Christian Combe 2,588 21.83 -2.28
Whig John Peter Hankey 226 1.91 +0.19
  • Note (1807): Mr Hankey died on the afternoon of the first day's polling. All the candidates voted for him. (Source: Stooks Smith)

Elections in the 1810s[edit]

General Election 5 October 1812: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Harvey Christian Combe 5,125 22.85 +1.02
Tory Sir William Curtis 4,577 20.40 -5.41
Tory Sir James Shaw 4,082 18.20 -5.95
Tory John Atkins 3,645 16.25 +16.25
Whig Robert Waithman 2,622 11.69 +11.69
Whig Matthew Wood 2,373 10.58 +10.58
Non Partisan Claudius Stephen Hunter 8 0.04 +0.04
By-Election 10 June 1817: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Matthew Wood Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig hold Swing N/A
General Election 16 June 1818: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Matthew Wood 5,700 22.38 +11.80
Tory Thomas Wilson 4,829 18.96 +18.96
Whig Robert Waithman 4,693 18.43 +6.74
Whig John Thomas Thorp 4,335 17.02 +17.02
Tory Sir William Curtis 4,224 16.58 -3.82
Tory John Atkins 1,688 6.63 -9.62
  • Note (1818): Poll 7 days, 7,978 voted. (Source: Stooks Smith)

Elections in the 1820s[edit]

General Election 7 March 1820: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Whig Matthew Wood 5,370 19.22 -3.16
Tory Thomas Wilson 5,358 19.18 +0.22
Tory Sir William Curtis 4,908 17.57 +0.99
Tory George Bridges 4,259 15.25 +15.25
Whig Robert Waithman 4,119 14.74 -3.69
Whig John Thomas Thorp 3,921 14.04 -2.98
  • Note (1820): Poll 7 days (Source: Stooks Smith)
General Election 9 June 1826: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Tory William Thompson 6,483 24.71 +24.71
Whig Robert Waithman 5,042 19.21 +4.47
Tory William Ward 4,991 19.02 +19.02
Whig Matthew Wood 4,880 18.60 -0.62
Whig William Venables 4,514 17.20 +17.20
Whig Alderman Garrett 330 1.26 +1.26
  • Note (1826): Poll 7 days. 8,639 voted. Alderman Garrett was proposed without his consent. (Source: Stooks Smith)

Elections in the 1830s[edit]

General Election 1830: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Tory William Thompson Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig Robert Waithman Unopposed N/A N/A
Tory William Ward Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig Matthew Wood Unopposed N/A N/A
General Election 29 April 1831: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Tory William Thompson Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig Robert Waithman Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig Matthew Wood Unopposed N/A N/A
Whig William Venables Unopposed N/A N/A
General Election 12 December 1832: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal George Grote 8,412 23.92 N/A
Liberal Matthew Wood 7,488 21.29 N/A
Liberal Robert Waithman 7,452 21.19 N/A
Liberal Sir John Key, Bt 6,136 17.45 N/A
Conservative George Lyall 5,112 14.54 N/A
Liberal Michael Scales 569 1.62 N/A
Turnout 18,584 61.88 N/A
  • Note (1832): 11,500 voted. Grote and Scales were classified as Radical candidates. (Source: Stooks Smith)
  • Death of Waithman 6 February 1833
By-Election 27 February 1833: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative George Lyall 5,569 55.16 +40.62
Liberal William Venables 4,527 44.84 +44.84
Majority 1,042 10.32 N/A
Turnout 18,584 54.33 -7.55
Conservative gain from Liberal Swing N/A
  • Resignation of Key
By-Election 12 August 1833: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal William Crawford 4,041 66.85 +22.01
Conservative Francis Kemble 2,004 33.15 -22.01
Majority 2,037 33.70 N/A
Turnout 18,584 32.53 -21.80
Liberal hold Swing -22.01
General Election 5 January 1835: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Matthew Wood 6,418 16.86 -4.43
Liberal James Pattison 6,050 15.90 +15.90
Liberal William Crawford 5,961 15.66 +15.66
Liberal George Grote 5,955 15.65 -8.27
Conservative George Lyall 4,599 12.08 -2.46
Conservative William Ward 4,560 11.98 +11.98
Conservative Thomas Wilson 4,514 11.86 +11.86
Turnout 18,288 62.64 +0.76
  • Note (1835): 18,228 registered electors (Craig's figure is used in the turnout calculation). 11,456 voted. Grote was classified as a Radical candidate. (Source: Stooks Smith)
General Election 1837: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Matthew Wood 6,517 21.43 +4.57
Liberal William Crawford 6,071 19.96 +4.30
Liberal James Pattison 6,070 19.96 +4.06
Liberal George Grote 5,879 19.33 +3.68
Conservative John H. Palmer 5,873 19.31 +19.31
Turnout 19,678 60.64 -2.00
  • Note (1837): 19,466 registered electors (Craig's figure is used in the turnout calculation). 11,932 voted. Grote was classified as a Radical candidate. (Source: Stooks Smith)

Elections in the 1840s[edit]

General Election 28 June 1841: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative John Masterman 6,339 12.80 +12.80
Liberal Sir Matthew Wood, Bt 6,315 12.75 -8.68
Conservative George Lyall 6,290 12.70 +12.70
Liberal Rt Hon. Lord John Russell 6,221 12.56 +12.56
Conservative Matthias Wolverley Attwood 6,212 12.54 +12.54
Liberal James Pattison 6,070 12.26 -7.70
Liberal William Crawford 6,065 12.25 -7.71
Conservative John Pirie 6,017 12.15 +12.15
Turnout 19,068 64.94 +4.30
  • Note (1841): 19,678 registered electors (Craig's figure is used in the turnout calculation). (Source: Stooks Smith)
  • Death of Wood 25 September 1843
By-Election 20 October 1843: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal James Pattison 6,532 50.64 +38.38
Conservative Thomas Baring 6,367 49.36 +49.36
Majority 165 1.28 N/A
Turnout 20,030 64.40 -0.54
Liberal hold Swing N/A
  • Appointment of Russell as Prime Minister and First Lord of the Treasury
By-Election 8 July 1846: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Rt Hon. Lord John Russell Unopposed N/A N/A
Liberal hold Swing N/A
General Election 28 July 1847: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Rt Hon. Lord John Russell 7,137 14.29 +1.73
Liberal James Pattison 7,030 14.07 +1.81
Liberal Baron Lionel Nathan de Rothschild 6,792 13.60 +13.60
Conservative John Masterman 6,722 13.46 +0.66
Liberal Sir George G.de H. Larpent, Bt 6,719 13.45 +13.45
Conservative R. Cooper Lee Bevan 5,268 10.55 +10.55
Conservative John Johnson 5,069 10.15 +10.15
Conservative James William Freshfield 4,704 9.42 +9.42
Liberal William Payne 513 1.03 +1.03
Turnout 20,057 66.99 +2.05
  • Note (1847): 20,472 registered electors (Craig's figure is used in the turnout calculation). 13,437 voted. De Rothschild and Payne were classified as Reformer candidates. (Source: Stooks Smith)
  • Resignation of de Rothschild to seek re-election after rejection of the Jewish Disabilities Bill
By-Election 4 July 1849: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Baron Lionel Nathan de Rothschild 6,017 68.13 +54.53
Conservative Lord John Manners 2,814 31.87 +31.87
Majority 3,203 36.27 N/A
Turnout 21,270 41.52 -22.88
Liberal hold Swing N/A
  • Note (1849): De Rothschild was classified as a Reformer candidate. (Source: Stooks Smith)
  • Death of Pattison June 1849
By-Election 27 July 1849: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Sir James Duke Unopposed N/A N/A
Liberal hold Swing N/A

Elections in the 1850s[edit]

General Election 1852: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative John Masterman 6,195 24.28 +10.82
Liberal Rt Hon. Lord John Russell 5,537 21.70 +7.41
Liberal Sir James Duke, Bt 5,270 20.65 +20.65
Liberal Baron Lionel Nathan de Rothschild 4,748 18.61 +5.01
Liberal Robert Wigram Crawford 3,765 14.76 +14.76
Turnout 20,728 30.77 +36.22
By-Election 3 January 1853: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Rt Hon. Lord John Russell Unopposed N/A N/A
Liberal hold Swing N/A
By-Election 14 June 1854: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Rt Hon. Lord John Russell Unopposed N/A N/A
Liberal hold Swing N/A
By-Election 3 March 1855: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Rt Hon. Lord John Russell Unopposed N/A N/A
Liberal hold Swing N/A
General Election 27 March 1857: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Sir James Duke, Bt 6,664 22.44 +1.79
Liberal Baron Lionel Nathan de Rothschild 6,398 21.54 +2.93
Liberal Rt Hon. Lord John Russell 6,308 21.24 -0.46
Liberal Robert Wigram Crawford 5,808 19.56 +4.80
Liberal Raikes Currie 4,519 15.22 +15.22
Turnout 19,115 38.84 +8.07
  • Resignation of de Rothschild to seek re-election after rejection of the Jewish Disabilities Bill
By-Election 28 July 1857: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Baron Lionel Nathan de Rothschild Unopposed N/A N/A
Liberal hold Swing N/A
General Election 1859: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Sir James Duke, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
Liberal Baron Lionel Nathan de Rothschild Unopposed N/A N/A
Liberal Rt Hon. Lord John Russell Unopposed N/A N/A
Liberal Robert Wigram Crawford Unopposed N/A N/A
By-Election 27 June 1859: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Rt Hon. Lord John Russell Unopposed N/A N/A
Liberal hold Swing N/A

Elections in the 1860s[edit]

By-Election 29 July 1861: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Western Wood 5,747 52.30 +52.30
Conservative William Cubitt 5,241 47.70 +47.60
Majority 506 4.61 N/A
Turnout 18,562 59.20 N/A
Liberal hold Swing N/A
  • Death of Wood 17 May 1863
By-Election 2 June 1863: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal George Joachim Goschen Unopposed N/A N/A
Liberal hold Swing N/A
General Election 10 July 1865: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal George Joachim Goschen 7,102 19.93 N/A
Liberal Robert Wigram Crawford 7,086 19.89 N/A
Liberal William Lawrence 6,637 18.63 N/A
Liberal Baron Lionel Nathan de Rothschild 6,525 18.31 N/A
Conservative George Lyall 4,197 11.78 N/A
Conservative Robert Nicholas Fowler 4,086 11.47 N/A
Turnout 15,534 57.35 N/A
By-Election 21 December 1866: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Rt Hon. George Joachim Goschen Unopposed N/A N/A
Liberal hold Swing N/A
General Election 16 November 1868: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Rt Hon. George Joachim Goschen 6,520 15.08 -4.85
Liberal Robert Wigram Crawford 6,258 14.48 -5.41
Liberal William Lawrence 6,215 14.38 -4.25
Conservative Charles Bell 6,130 14.18 +14.18
Conservative Philip Twells 6,099 14.11 +14.11
Conservative Sills J. Gibbons 6,013 13.91 +13.91
Liberal Baron Lionel Nathan de Rothschild 5,995 13.87 -4.44
Turnout 20,185 71.39 +14.04
  • Note (1868): Craig refers to Baron R.N. de Rothschild, but Stenton confirms the candidate was Baron L.N. de Rothschild
  • Appointment of Goschen as President of the Poor Law Board
By-Election 21 December 1868: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Rt Hon. George Joachim Goschen Unopposed N/A N/A
Liberal hold Swing N/A
  • Death of Bell 9 February 1869
By-Election 22 February 1869: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Liberal Baron Lionel Nathan de Rothschild Unopposed N/A N/A
Liberal gain from Conservative Swing N/A

Elections in the 1870s[edit]

General Election 10 February 1874: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative William James Richmond Cotton 8,397 18.71 +18.71
Conservative Philip Twells 8,330 18.57 +4.46
Conservative John Gellibrand Hubbard 8,210 18.30 +18.30
Liberal Rt Hon. George Joachim Goschen 6,787 15.13 +0.05
Liberal William Lawrence 6,654 14.83 +0.45
Liberal Baron Lionel Nathan de Rothschild 6,490 14.46 +0.59
Turnout 22,626 66.10 -5.29
  • Note (1874): Craig refers to Baron R.N. de Rothschild, but Stenton confirms the candidate was Baron L.N. de Rothschild

Elections in the 1880s[edit]

General Election 3 April 1880: City of London (4 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative William James Richmond Cotton 10,326 21.34 +2.63
Conservative Robert Nicholas Fowler 10,274 21.23 +21.23
Conservative Rt Hon. John Gellibrand Hubbard 10,256 21.20 +2.90
Liberal William Lawrence 5,950 12.30 -2.53
Liberal Richard Biddulph Martin 5,837 12.06 +12.06
Liberal Walter Morrison 5,743 11.87 +11.87
Turnout 24,042 67.09 +0.99
  • Reduction of constituency to two seats, in the 1885 redistribution

Parliament of the United Kingdom election results (2 seats) 1885–1950[edit]

1880s

1890s1900s1910s1920s1930s1940s

Elections in the 1880s[edit]

General Election 25 November 1885: City of London (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Sir Robert Nicholas Fowler, Bt 12,827 38.86 +17.63
Conservative Rt Hon. John Gellibrand Hubbard 8,802 26.67 +5.47
Liberal Stephen Philpot Low 5,817 17.62 +17.62
Independent Conservative William James Richmond Cotton 5,563 16.85 -4.49
Turnout 29,152 68.6 +1.5
General Election 1 July 1886: City of London (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Sir Robert Nicholas Fowler, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
Conservative Rt Hon. John Gellibrand Hubbard Unopposed N/A N/A
By-Election 27 July 1887: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Thomas Baring Unopposed N/A N/A
Conservative hold Swing N/A

Elections in the 1890s[edit]

  • Death of Baring 2 April 1891
By-Election 18 April 1891: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative (Henry) Hucks Gibbs Unopposed N/A N/A
Conservative hold Swing N/A
  • Death of Fowler 22 May 1891
By-Election 3 June 1891: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Sir Reginald Hanson, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
Conservative hold Swing N/A
General Election 7 July 1892: City of London (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Sir Reginald Hanson, Bt 10,556 43.94 N/A
Conservative Alban George Henry Gibbs 9,258 38.54 N/A
Independent Conservative James Thomson Ritchie 4,207 17.51 N/A
Turnout 32,664 41.3 N/A
General Election 12 July 1895: City of London (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Alban George Henry Gibbs Unopposed N/A N/A
Conservative Sir Reginald Hanson, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A

Elections in the 1900s[edit]

General Election 29 September 1900: City of London (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Hon. Alban George Henry Gibbs Unopposed N/A N/A
Conservative Sir Joseph Cockfield Dimsdale Unopposed N/A N/A
  • Disqualification of Gibbs for undertaking a contract with the Admiralty
By-Election 8 February 1904: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Hon. Alban George Henry Gibbs Unopposed N/A N/A
Conservative hold Swing N/A
General Election 16 January 1906: City of London (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Sir Edward George Clarke 16,019 38.13 N/A
Conservative Hon. Alban George Henry Gibbs 15,619 37.17 N/A
Liberal Felix G. Schuster 5,313 12.65 N/A
Liberal Sir (Joseph) West Ridgeway 5,064 12.05 N/A
Turnout 31,030 68.7 N/A
  • Resignation of Gibbs
By-Election 27 February 1906: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Rt Hon. Arthur James Balfour 15,474 78.92 +78.92
Free Trader Thomas Gibson Bowles 4,134 21.08 +21.08
Majority 11,340 57.83 N/A'
Turnout 31,030 63.19 -5.5
Conservative hold Swing N/A
  • Resignation of Clarke
By-Election 15 June 1906: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Sir Frederick George Banbury, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
Conservative hold Swing N/A

Elections in the 1910s[edit]

General Election 17 January 1910: City of London (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Rt Hon. Arthur James Balfour 17,907 44.96 +44.96
Conservative Sir Frederick George Banbury, Bt 17,302 43.44 +43.44
Liberal Sir Hugh Bell, Bt 4,623 11.61 +11.61
Turnout 30,010 74.7 +6.00
General Election 2 December 1910: City of London (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Rt Hon. Arthur James Balfour Unopposed N/A N/A
Conservative Sir Frederick George Banbury, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
General Election 14 December 1918: City of London (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Coalition Conservative Rt Hon. Arthur James Balfour Unopposed N/A N/A
Coalition Conservative Rt Hon. Sir Frederick George Banbury, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A

Elections in the 1920s[edit]

By-Election 19 May 1922: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Edward Charles Grenfell 10,114 62.08 N/A
Independent Conservative Sir Thomas Vansittart Bowater, Bt 6,178 37.92 N/A
Majority 3,936 24.16 N/A
Turnout 44,083 36.96 N/A
Conservative hold Swing N/A
General Election 15 November 1922: City of London (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Rt Hon. Sir Frederick George Banbury, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
Conservative Edward Charles Grenfell Unopposed N/A N/A
General Election 6 December 1923: City of London (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Rt Hon. Sir Frederick George Banbury, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
Conservative Edward Charles Grenfell Unopposed N/A N/A
By-Election 1 February 1924: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Sir Thomas Vansittart Bowater, Bt 12,962 70.11 N/A
Liberal Henry Bell 5,525 29.89 N/A
Majority 7,437 40.23 N/A
Turnout 44,130 41.89 N/A
Conservative hold Swing N/A
General Election 29 October 1924: City of London (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Sir Thomas Vansittart Bowater, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
Conservative Edward Charles Grenfell Unopposed N/A N/A
General Election 30 May 1929: City of London (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Sir Thomas Vansittart Bowater, Bt 16,149 43.86 N/A
Conservative Edward Charles Grenfell 16,092 43.70 N/A
Liberal Thomas Owen Jacobsen 4,579 12.44 N/A
Turnout 46,469 45.2 N/A

Elections in the 1930s[edit]

General Election 27 October 1931: City of London (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Sir Thomas Vansittart Bowater, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
Conservative Edward Charles Grenfell Unopposed N/A N/A
By-Election 26 June 1935: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Sir Alan Garrett Anderson Unopposed N/A N/A
Conservative hold Swing N/A
General Election 14 November 1935: City of London (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Sir Alan Garrett Anderson Unopposed N/A N/A
Conservative Sir Thomas Vansittart Bowater, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
  • Death of Bowater 28 March 1938
By-Election 6 April 1938: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Sir George Thomas Broadbridge, Bt Unopposed N/A N/A
Conservative hold Swing N/A

Elections in the 1940s[edit]

  • Resignation of Anderson
By-Election 5 February 1940: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
National Rt Hon. Sir Andrew Rae Duncan Unopposed N/A N/A
National gain from Conservative Swing N/A
General Election 5 July 1945: City of London (2 seats)
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
National Rt Hon. Sir Andrew Rae Duncan 5,332 39.48 N/A
Conservative Sir George Thomas Broadbridge, Bt 5,309 39.31 N/A
Liberal Sir Andrew McFadyean 1,487 11.01 N/A
Independent Stanley Walter Alexander 1,379 10.21 N/A
Turnout 10,851 63.9 N/A
By-Election 31 October 1945: City of London
Party Candidate Votes % ±%
Conservative Ralph Assheton 4,506 74.99 +74.99
Liberal Arthur Strettell Comyns Carr 1,503 25.01 +14.00
Majority 3,003 49.98 N/A
Turnout 11,650 51.58 -12.3
Conservative hold Swing N/A
  • Constituency abolished 1950

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Boundaries of Parliamentary Constituencies 1885-1972, compiled and edited by F.W.S. Craig (Political Reference Publications 1972)
  • British Parliamentary Election Results 1832-1885, compiled and edited by F.W.S. Craig (The Macmillan Press 1977)
  • British Parliamentary Election Results 1885-1918, compiled and edited by F.W.S. Craig (The Macmillan Press 1974)
  • British Parliamentary Election Results 1918-1949, compiled and edited by F.W.S. Craig (The Macmillan Press 1977)
  • The House of Commons 1715-1754, by Romney Sedgwick (HMSO 1970)
  • The House of Commons 1754-1790, by Sir Lewis Namier and John Brooke (HMSO 1964)
  • The Parliaments of England by Henry Stooks Smith (1st edition published in three volumes 1844-50), second edition edited (in one volume) by F.W.S. Craig (Political Reference Publications 1973)
  • Who's Who of British Members of Parliament: Volume I 1832-1885, edited by M. Stenton (The Harvester Press 1976)
  • The Times, various editions, was used to obtain dates of elections or unopposed returns and first names of candidates not available in the above books (from 1885 to 1910). The dates of declarations are used before 1885 and the dates of the General Election polling day from 1918.
  • Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "L" (part 3)[self-published source][better source needed]
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Tamworth
Constituency represented by the Prime Minister
1846–1852
Succeeded by
vacant. Next was Tiverton in 1855