This article may have too many section headers dividing up its content. (February 2017)
|Traded as||NYSE: BABA|
|Founded||4 April 1999|
Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China
|Products||E-commerce, online auction hosting, online money transfers, mobile commerce|
|Revenue||CN¥250.266 billion (US$39.898 billion, 2018)|
|CN¥69.314 billion (US$11.050 billion, 2018)|
|CN¥61.412 billion (US$9.791 billion, 2018)|
|Total assets||CN¥717.124 billion (US$114.326 billion, 2018)|
|Total equity||CN¥436.438 billion (US$69.578 billion, 2018)|
Number of employees
|66,421 (March 31, 2018)|
|Subsidiaries||Alibaba.com, Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao F.C., Shenma, Taobao, Tmall, UCWeb, Daraz, AliExpress, Juhuasuan.com, 1688.com, Alimama.com, Ant Financial, Cainiao, Lazada, South China Morning Post, Youku Tudou, Alibaba Cloud|
Alibaba Group Holding Limited (Chinese: 阿里巴巴集团控股有限公司; pinyin: Ālǐbābā Jítuán Kònggǔ Yǒuxiàn Gōngsī) is a Chinese multinational conglomerate specializing in e-commerce, retail, Internet, AI and technology. Founded in 1999, the company provides consumer-to-consumer, business-to-consumer and business-to-business sales services via web portals, as well as electronic payment services, shopping search engines and cloud computing services. It owns and operates a diverse array of businesses around the world in numerous sectors, and is named as one of the world's most admired companies by Fortune.
At closing time on the date of its initial public offering (IPO) – US$25 billion – the world's highest in history, 19 September 2014, Alibaba's market value was US$231 billion. As of June 2018[update], Alibaba's market cap stood at US$542 billion. It is one of the top 10 most valuable and biggest companies in the world. In January 2018, Alibaba became the second Asian company to break the US$500 billion valuation mark, after Tencent. As of 2018[update], Alibaba has the 9th highest global brand value.
With operations in over 200 countries and territories, Alibaba is the world's largest retailer, one of the largest Internet and AI companies, one of the biggest venture capital firms, and one of the biggest investment corporations in the world. The company hosts the largest B2B (Alibaba.com) and B2C (Taobao, Tmall) marketplaces in the world. Its online sales and profits surpassed all US retailers (including Walmart, Amazon and eBay) combined since 2015. It has been expanding into the media industry, with revenues rising by triple percentage points year on year. It also set the record on China's Singles' Day 2018 for the world's biggest online and offline shopping day, with a total of $30,802,477,608 spent on the site on that day.
- 1 History
- 2 Companies and affiliated entities
- 2.1 E-commerce and retail service platforms
- 2.2 Cloud computing and AI technology
- 2.3 Fintech and online payment platforms
- 2.4 Entertainment services
- 2.5 Others
- 3 Corporate governance
- 4 Controversies
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Founding and name
One day I was in San Francisco in a coffee shop, and I was thinking Alibaba is a good name. And then a waitress came, and I said, "Do you know about Alibaba?" And she said yes. I said, "What do you know about?", and she said, "Open Sesame". And I said, "Yes, this is the name!" Then I went on to the street and found 30 people and asked them, "Do you know Alibaba?" People from India, people from Germany, people from Tokyo and China ... they all knew about Alibaba. Alibaba – open sesame. Alibaba is a kind, smart business person, and he helped the village. So ... easy to spell, and globally known. Alibaba opens sesame for small- to medium-sized companies. We also registered the name "Alimama", in case someone wants to marry us!"
According to Li Chuan, a senior executive at Alibaba, the company was planning in 2013 to open traditional brick and mortar retail outlets in partnership with Chinese real estate company Dalian Wanda Group. Additionally, Alibaba purchased a 25% stake in Hong Kong-listed Chinese department store chain Intime Retail in early 2014. In early 2017, Alibaba and Intime's founder Shen Guojun agreed to pay as much as 19.8 billion Hong Kong dollars (US$2.6 billion) to take the store chain private. Alibaba's stake—28% from 2014's US$692 million investment—would rise to about 74% after the deal.
On 5 September 2014, the group—in a regulatory filing with the US Securities and Exchange Commission—set a US$60- to $66- per-share price range for its scheduled initial public offering (IPO), the final price of which would be determined after an international roadshow to gauge the investor interest in Alibaba shares to shareholders.
On 18 September 2014, Alibaba's IPO priced at US$68, raising US$21.8 billion for the company and investors. Alibaba was the biggest US IPO in history. On 19 September 2014, Alibaba's shares (BABA) began trading on the NYSE at an opening price of $92.70 at 11:55 am EST. On 22 September 2014, Alibaba's underwriters announced their confirmation that they had exercised a greenshoe option to sell 15% more shares than originally planned, boosting the total amount of the IPO to $25 billion.
In September 2018 Jack Ma, company co-founder, announced that he would step down as chairman in a year's time so he could focus on philanthropy. In response to the announcement The Economist stated that Ma had a significant impact in China and worldwide via contributions and dedication to various businesses.
Companies and affiliated entities
E-commerce and retail service platforms
In 2016, Alibaba's Taobao and Tmall, two of the world's largest and most popular online retail marketplaces, achieved a total transaction volume of 3 trillion yuan (US$478.6 billion). The company aims to double the transaction volume to 6 trillion yuan by 2020. As of February 2018[update], Taobao reached 580 million monthly active users, while Tmall achieved 500 million monthly active users. It is also rapidly expanding its e-commerce network abroad. Alibaba has also announced that it will invest 100 billion yuan over five years to build a global logistics network, underpinning an aggressive overseas expansion, and demonstrating Alibaba's commitment to building the most efficient logistics network in China and around the world. It is investing 5.3 billion yuan in Cainiao Logistics to boost its stake to 51 percent from 47 percent. The investment would value Cainiao, a joint venture of top Chinese logistics firms, at around US$20 billion.
Alibaba.com, the primary business of Alibaba, is as of 2014[update], the world's largest online business-to-business trading platform for small businesses. Founded in Hangzhou in eastern China, Alibaba.com has three main services. The company's English language portal Alibaba.com handles sales between importers and exporters from more than 240 countries and regions. The Chinese portal 1688.com was developed for domestic business-to-business trade in China. In addition, Alibaba.com offers a transaction-based retail website, AliExpress.com, which allows smaller buyers to buy small quantities of goods at wholesale prices.
Alibaba.com went public at the Hong Kong Stock Exchange in 2007, and was delisted again in 2012.
In 2013, 1688.com launched a direct channel that was responsible for $30 million in daily transaction value.
Launched in 2010, AliExpress.com is an online retail service made up of mostly small Chinese businesses offering products to international online buyers. It is the most visited e-commerce website in Russia. It allows small businesses in China to sell to customers all over the world, resulting in a wide variety of products. It might be more accurate to compare AliExpress to eBay, though, as sellers are independent; it simply serves as a host for other businesses to sell to consumers. Similar to eBay, sellers on Aliexpress can be either companies or individuals. It connects directly Chinese businesses with buyers. The main difference from Taobao is that it's aimed primarily at international buyers, mainly in USA, Russia, Brazil or Spain.
Taobao Marketplace, as of 2013[update], was China's largest consumer-to-consumer online shopping platform. Founded in 2003, it offers a variety of products for retail sale. In January 2015 it was the second most visited web site in China, according to Alexa.com. Taobao's growth was attributed to offering free registration and commission-free transactions using a free third-party payment platform.
Advertising makes up 85 percent of the company's total revenue, allowing it to break even in 2009. Taobao's 2010 profit was estimated to be 1.5 billion yuan (US$235.7 million), only about 0.4 percent of their total sales figure of 400 billion yuan (US$62.9 billion) that year, way below the industry average of 2 percent, according to iResearch estimates.
According to Zhang Yu, the director of Taobao, between 2011 and 2013 the number of stores on Taobao with annual sales under 100 thousand yuan increased by 60%; the number of stores with sales between 10 thousand and 1 million yuan increased by 30%; and the number of stores with sales over 1 million yuan increased by 33%.
Also, there are other parts of Taobao. Tmall.com was introduced in April 2008 as an online retail platform to complement the Taobao consumer-to-consumer portal and became a separate business in June 2011. As of October 2013[update] it was the eighth most visited web site in China, offering global brands to an increasingly affluent Chinese consumer base. In addition, there is Juhuasuan, a group shopping website in China. It was launched by Taobao in March 2010 and became a separate business in October 2011. Juhuasuan offers "flash sales", products that are available only for a fixed time period, which can last from one or two days to a full month. To buy at the discounted price, buyers must purchase the item within that defined time. Plus, Taobao launched a service known as eTao. eTao was beta-launched by Taobao in October 2010 as a comparison shopping website, and became a separate business in June 2011. It offers search results from most Chinese online shopping platforms, including product searches, sales and coupon searches. Online shoppers can use the site to compare prices from different sellers and identify products to buy. According to the Alibaba Group web site, eTao offers products from Amazon China, Dangdang, Gome, Yihaodian, Nike China and Vancl, as well as Taobao and Tmall.
Fliggy (formerly Alitrip) is an online travel platform, which is designed as an online mall for brands such as airline companies and agencies. The slogan of 'Fliggy Corporate' is 'The piggy that flies' and 'Travelling is just like being a pig - we eat, sleep and have fun.' This platform was launched in late October 2016. Fliggy set the target audience as younger generation and it strives to become a one-stop service when they plan their trips, particularly in overseas travel.
On August 7, 2017, Alibaba Group and Marriott International hotel group announced a comprehensive strategic co-operation. Two companies will set up a joint venture company. Through the docking technology system and the superiority resources, Fliggy has Marriott hotel flagship store. It has the same function with Marriott Chinese website and Marriott mobile app to create the best global travel experience for consumers.
Lazada Group is a Singaporean e-commerce company founded by Rocket Internet in 2011. Lazada operates sites in Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam. Its sites launched in March 2012, with a business model of selling inventory to customers from its own warehouses. In 2013 it added a marketplace model that allowed third-party retailers to sell their products through Lazada's site. Lazada features a wide product offering in categories ranging from consumer electronics to household goods, toys, fashion and sports equipment. In April 2016, Alibaba Group announced that it intended to acquire a controlling interest in Lazada by paying $500 million for new shares and buying $500M worth of shares from existing investors. In March 2018, Alibaba announced its plan to invest an additional $2 billion in the company, totaling a $4 billion investment. Alibaba also plans to appoint Alibaba co-founder Lucy Peng as Lazada's new CEO.
On 11 June 2014, Alibaba launched US shopping site 11 Main. The 11 Main marketplace hosts more than 1,000 merchants in categories such as clothing, fashion accessories and jewellery as well as interior goods and arts and crafts and it plans to keep adding more, said the company. On 23 June 2015, Alibaba announced that it is selling 11 Main to OpenSky, an online-marketplace operator based in New York.
Cloud computing and AI technology
Alibaba Cloud (Aliyun)
Alibaba Cloud aims to build a cloud computing service platform, including e-commerce data mining, e-commerce data processing, and data customisation. It was established in September 2009 in conjunction with the 10th anniversary of Alibaba Group. It has R&D centres and operators in Hangzhou, Beijing, Hong Kong, Singapore, Silicon Valley and Dubai. In July 2014, Alibaba Cloud entered into a partnership deal with Inspur. Alibaba Cloud is the largest high-end cloud computing company in China. In 2009, Alibaba acquired HiChina, the largest domain registration service and web hosting service company in China, and built it into Alibaba Cloud.
AliOS (formerly Yun OS and Aliyun OS) is an operating system designed for mobile devices. It is a Linux distribution developed by Alibaba Cloud.
Fintech and online payment platforms
Launched in 2004, Alipay is a third-party online payment platform with no transaction fees. It also provides an escrow service, in which buyers can verify whether they are happy with goods they have bought before releasing money to the seller. In addition, Ant Financial, another Alibaba company, has operated Alipay payments services since 2004. Alibaba Group spun off Alipay in 2010 in a controversial move. According to analyst research report, Alipay has the biggest market share in China with 300 million users and control of just under half of China's online payment market in February 2014. In 2013, Alipay launched a financial product platform called Yu'ebao (余额宝). In 2015, Alibaba announced that they will introduce a system that can be paid by recognizing the owner's face. One of the critical success factors for Alibaba is its quick and reliable payment system. Alibaba offers several types of payment systems, including credit card, debit card, Alipay, Quick-pay, and online banking. These payment systems help to cope with simultaneous cash flow transactions with ease and convenience.
Alibaba's affiliate Ant Financial was ranked sixth in Fortune's Change the World list, recognised for the positive green environmental impact of its Ant Forest, the world's largest platform for tracking individuals' carbon footprints. Ant Financial and its partners have achieved considerable success in the reduction of CO2 emissions.
Alibaba created a new live entertainment business unit under its Digital Media and Entertainment Group which focuses on ticketing, content creation and live experiences, bringing its entertainment ticketing platform Damai and its content creation and technology units MaiLive and Maizuo under one roof. It aims to provide a platform for live events (e.g. concerts, plays, eSports and sports events), as well as supporting content partners and leveraging Alibaba's data capability for offline shows. It also provides an online digital distribution service 9Apps, which hosts the huge amount of content and applications for downloads.
AliMusic was launched in March 2015, and it is the music division of the Alibaba Group. Xiami Music and Tiantian Music are two of music steaming APP owned by AliMusic. AliMusic named Gao Xiaosong as the chairman and Song Ke as Chief Executive Officer in July 2015.
In 2017, Tencent Music has expected $10bn IPO by signing a rights deal with Alibaba, strengthening its position within the important Chinese market. Under the terms of the deal Alibaba will gain the right to stream music from international labels such as Sony Music, Universal Music Group and YG Entertainment, which already have exclusive deals with Tencent, in return for offering to its catalogue from Rock Records, HIM International Music and so on.
In March 2014, Alibaba agreed to acquire a controlling stake in ChinaVision Media Group for $804 million. The two firms announced they would establish a strategic committee for potential future opportunities in online entertainment and other media areas. The company was renamed Alibaba Pictures Group.
In April 2014, Alibaba and Yunfeng Capital, a private equity company controlled by Alibaba's founder, Jack Ma, agreed to acquire a combined 18.5 percent stake in Youku Tudou, which broadcasts a series of popular television programs and other videos over the Internet.
In 2004, the company released its own instant messaging software service Aliwangwang for interactions between customer and online sellers. By 2014 Aliwangwang user has reached 50 million, making it the second largest instant messaging tool in China.
AliHealth was launched in 2014 when Alibaba and Yunfeng Capital, a private equity firm, bought a 54% stake in Citic 21CN. It is listed in the Hong Kong Stock as SEHK: 241. It positions itself as a pharmaceutical e-commerce business and medical services. In April 2015, the group also reached an agreement to transfer its online B2C pharmacy, Tmall Medical (yao.Tmall.com), to AliHealth. The integration provides consumers a wide range of pharmaceutical and health products available in China.
Alibaba's sports division, AliSports, based in Shanghai, was established in 2015 after a consolidation of some of the parent company's existing business units. The new company's operations encompass television and digital sports rights, event operation, venue commercialization, copyright, media, business development, gaming, and ticketing.
Alisports secured exclusive title sponsorship of the FIFA Club World Cup from 2015 to 2022. The company announced a Champion of Champions rugby sevens tournament in 2017, to be played in Shanghai for the highest prize money ever offered in the sport.
Yahoo! China was launched on September 24, 1999. In October 2005, Alibaba Group formed a strategic partnership with Yahoo! and acquired China Yahoo! (www.yahoo.com.cn), a Chinese portal that focuses on Internet services like news, email, and search. In April 2013, Alibaba Group announced that, as part of the agreement to buy back the Yahoo! Mail stake, technological support for China Yahoo! Mail service would be suspended and the China Yahoo! Mail account migration would begin. Several options were offered to users to make the transition as smooth as possible, and China Yahoo! users had four months to migrate their accounts to the Aliyun mail service, the Yahoo! Mail service in the United States, or to another third-party e-mail provider of the user's choice. Yahoo! China closed its mail service on 19 August 2013. E-mails sent to Yahoo! China accounts could be forwarded to an Alimail box until 31 December 2014. Users were also allowed to transfer e-mail accounts to yahoo.com or any other e-mail service. It is estimated there are no more than a million users with Yahoo! Mail for China and chances are they also own other e-mail accounts.
In October 2013, the company's chairman Jack Ma announced that the company would no longer use Tencent's messaging application WeChat, and would henceforth promote its own messaging application and service, Laiwang.
South China Morning Post
In December 2015, Alibaba agreed to a deal to acquire the South China Morning Post and other media assets belonging to the group for a consideration of $266 million. Although Alibaba promised editorial independence, vice-chairman Joseph Tsai said that Alibaba believes that "the world needs a plurality of views when it comes to China coverage. China's rise as an economic power and its importance to world stability is too important for there to be a singular thesis." The acquisition attracted media concerns over what this would mean for the newspaper's coverage.
UCWeb is a Chinese provider of mobile internet software technology and services. Its international product portfolio includes a mobile browsing service (UC Browser), app and game distribution platforms (9Apps and 9Game), a mobile traffic platform (UC Union) and UC News that primarily caters to all types of news in the India market (as an aggregator) among others.
Ali Venture Capital
Hangzhou Ali Venture Capital (Chinese: 杭州阿里创业投资) was a company 80% owned by Jack Ma and another manager of Alibaba. For regulatory purpose, Alibaba Group did not own the company directly, but by pleading. It was considered as a subsidiary and/or consolidated entity of Alibaba Group. Ali Venture Capital was a shareholder of Beijing Enlight Media as well as the A share of China Unicom.
Alibaba Entrepreneurs Fund
Alibaba Entrepreneurs Fund is a non profit making initiative launched by Alibaba Group in 2015.
Jack Ma was Alibaba Group's chief executive officer for its first 10 years, but stepped down as CEO on 10 May 2013, becoming executive chairman. Jonathan Lu became the company's new CEO. On 10 May 2015 Daniel Zhang replaced Lu as CEO.
Gold Supplier membership
Alibaba.com offers a paid Gold Supplier membership to try to ensure that each seller is genuine; sellers' Gold Supplier status and the number of years it has been held are displayed. The supplier verification types and checks are listed on Alibaba.com's website, with more stringent checks for sellers outside China. While the majority of suppliers are reported to be genuine, there have been many cases of sellers, some with Gold Supplier status, seeking to defraud unsuspecting buyers. In February 2011, controversy ensued when Alibaba's corporate office admitted that it had granted the mark of integrity of its "China Gold Supplier" program to more than 2,000 dealers that had subsequently defrauded buyers; the firm's share price dropped "abruptly" after the announcement. A statement from the firm reported that Yan Limin, the general manager of Alibaba.com at the time, had been dismissed in March for "misconduct"; Phil Muncaster of UK's The Register additionally reported that "a further 28 employees had been involved in dodgy dealings".
As the Economist noted, the company's response has conflicting components: Alibaba's promulgated view that its corrective actions indicate its commitment to quality and integrity (where it contrasts itself with other scandal-associated Chinese business sectors), versus a damage control view suggesting that the subscription-driven, third-party verified "China Gold Supplier" program was endangered by diminished trust in its endorsement system, removing the incentive for global buyers to choose Alibaba as their business-to-business service, thus more broadly endangering Alibaba through impact on its brand and capabilities (the latter via the "defenestration of senior people"). The scandal is said to have placed the head of Alibaba Group, Jack Ma—who is described as having been furious over the scandal—in a position to personally fight to win back trust.
In May 2012, a US law enforcement agent posing as an American broker representing persons in Iran posted an advertisement on Alibaba.com seeking to purchase uranium. In August 2013, Patrick Campbell of Sierra Leone was arrested at New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport. Samples of raw uranium ore were allegedly found concealed in the soles of his shoes. Campbell was accused of seeking to arrange the export of 1,000 tonnes of yellowcake from Sierra Leone to the Iranian port of Bandar Abbas, packed in drums and disguised as the mineral chromite. It was later determined that the samples contained an insignificant amount of uranium, and Campbell was acquitted at trial.
Counterfeit items and scams
Alibaba is frequently associated with fraudulent import of counterfeit items: in 2016, the U.S. Office of the Trade Representative added Taobao back onto a list of notorious counterfeit platforms that includes the likes of torrent site The Pirate Bay.
AliExpress is even more controversial: despite claiming to provide buyer protection, it frequently refuses to reimburse customers when goods are seized by customs or when sellers who establish fake business entities vanish after their scam. Several hundred lawsuits and class actions have been filed in the US.
Alibaba denied wrongdoing and started timid action against counterfeiters with only 2 lawsuits filed as of January 4, 2017[update], but brands suffering from the counterfeit products continue to blame Alibaba for not doing what it takes to fight the issue.
Alibaba's major competitors in China are (in order of significance)
- "Alibaba Group Announces March Quarter 2018 and Full Fiscal Year 2018 Results" (PDF). Retrieved May 4, 2018.
- "Alibaba Named to FORTUNE's World's Most Admired Companies List | Alizila.com". Alizila.com. 19 January 2018.
- McClay, Rebecca (25 July 2017). "10 Companies Owned by Alibaba". Investopedia.
- Baker, Lianna B.; Toonkel, Jessica; Vlastelica, Ryan (September 19, 2014). Orlofsky, Steve; Adler, Leslie, eds. "Alibaba surges 38 percent on massive demand in market debut". Reuters. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
- "Alibaba Group Holding Market Cap (BABA)". ycharts.com.
- "Beijing's battle to control its homegrown tech giants". TODAYonline.
- "Alibaba market value hits the $500 billion valuation mark · TechNode". TechNode. 25 January 2018.
- "China Now Has 2 of the Top 10 Most Valuable Brands in the World For the First Time". Fortune.
- "Alibaba's logistics ambition goes global". EJ Insight. 16 June 2014.
- "Huge Rounds, Heated Competition: How Tencent & Alibaba Are Defining VC In China - Crunchbase News". Crunchbase News.
- McLaughlin, Bay. "This Week In China Tech: Alibaba Brings AI To Pig Farming And Retail Tech On The Rise". Forbes.
- McLaughlin, Bay. "This Week In China Tech: Alibaba Buys Chip Maker, Face Scans To Board Planes, And More". Forbes.
- McLaughlin, Bay. "This Week In China Tech: Alibaba Invests 1 Trillion Yuan And China Battles Against Google's AlphaGo". Forbes.
- "How Alibaba is using AI to power the future of business".
- "Alibaba's Nine Biggest Competitors in Asia". Global From Asia. 23 August 2018.
- "Alexa Top 500 Global Sites". www.alexa.com.
- Cheng, Allen (July 25, 2017). "Alibaba vs. The World". Institutional Investor. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
- "Alibaba generates more revenue than Amazon and eBay combined". RT International.
- "Alibaba Becomes World's Most Valuable Retail Brand | News | Apparel Magazine(AM)". apparelmag.com.
- Pham, Sherisse (November 10, 2018). "Alibaba Singles Day sales top $30 billion". CNN. Retrieved November 16, 2018.
- "Tech in Asia - Connecting Asia's startup ecosystem". www.techinasia.com.
- "Alibaba’s IPO Filing: Everything You Need to Know – Digits – WSJ". blogs.wsj.com. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
- "Alibaba Subsidiary Aboub B2B Marketplace". ABOUB. Retrieved 11 November 2017.
- "Where did Alibaba, the brand name, come from?". Wordlab. 15 October 2007.
- https://web.archive.org/web/20070227023026/– The original forum post referred to in the wordlab article; it does not appear to have been posted by Alibaba staff
- Hsu, Alex (3 July 2013). "Alibaba to Open Brick and Mortar Stores in Wanda Plazas Across China". BrightWire News. Archived from the original on 13 October 2013.
- Mozur, Paul; Esther Fung (31 March 2014). "Alibaba to Pay $692 Million for Stake in Intime Retail". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- Lin, Liza; Nathan Becker (January 10, 2017), "Alibaba Bags Chinese Retailer Intime in $2.6 Billion Deal" (subscription), Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2017-01-10.
- "Alibaba's IPO Priced at $68 a Share". The Wall Street Journal. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- "Alibaba prices at $68, becomes top U.S. IPO". USA Today. 18 September 2014. Retrieved 18 September 2014.
- Picker, Leslie; Chen, Lulu Yilun (22 September 2014). "Alibaba's Banks Boost IPO Size to Record of $25 Billion". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- "Alibaba Sells Extra Shares; IPO Raises $25B, Breaks Global Record". IBTimes.com. 22 September 2014. Archived from the original on 26 September 2014. Retrieved 26 September 2014.
- "China will struggle to produce another Jack Ma". The Economist. Retrieved 2018-09-17.
- "China will struggle to produce another Jack Ma". The Economist. Retrieved 2018-09-19.
- "22 Amazing Taobao Statistics". DMR. 19 January 2017.
- "18 Amazing Tmall Statistics". DMR. 19 February 2017.
- Lee, Cyrus. "Alibaba achieves 3 trillion yuan transaction volume milestone | ZDNet". ZDNet.
- Wu, Kane; Cadell, Cate (September 26, 2017). Muralikumar Anantharaman, ed. "Alibaba takes control of logistics business, pledges $15 billion to expand network". Reuters. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
- "Alibaba to Take Majority Stake in Cainiao Network". Alibaba Group. 2017-09-26. Archived from the original on 2017-10-03. Retrieved 2017-10-03.
- "Alibaba Flexes Muscles Before IPO". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 26 November 2014.
- "Alibaba Group Company Overview". Alibaba Group Group. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
- "Alibaba Group Said to Plan Privatizing Alibaba.com Close to IPO Price". Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 10 October 2014.
- Hsu, Alex (17 July 2013). "Alibaba's 1688.com Launches New Direct Channel, Responsible for 30 Million USD Per Day in Transactions Value". BrightWire News. Archived from the original on 13 October 2013.
- Adrien Henni (2014-09-09). "Alibaba tops e-commerce sites in Russia as well as China". Internetretailer.com. Retrieved 2017-05-09.
- Kasperkevic, Jana (2014-09-23). "Why Alibaba is a success in the US: its market for human hair extensions nets American women in its weave". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2017-05-05.
- GOOALI®. "Jack Ma: Su inspiradora historia". GOOALI® (in Spanish). Retrieved 2017-05-05.
- "Alibaba's Jack Ma Is Moving On, With an IPO Looming". Bloomberg. Bruce Einhorn. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
- "Taobao's Alexa Statistics". Alexa.com. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Zhe, Sun (January 2012). "From Stall to Mall". News China. Archived from the original on 25 September 2014.
- Hsu, Alex (17 July 2013). "Alibaba's Taobao Continues to Attract New Stores, Focuses on Personalized Services, Store Branding and Customized Contracts". BrightWire News. Archived from the original on 13 October 2013.
- "Alexa Web Site Statistics for Tmall.com". Alexa.com. Alexa.com. Retrieved 18 October 2013.
- "Microsoft and eTao". The Next Web. Retrieved 10 December 2015.
- "Fliggy, the online travel platform you (probably) haven't heard of". tnooz. Retrieved 2018-03-01.
- "5 reasons why travel brands need to take notice of Alibaba's Fliggy - ChinaTravelNews". www.chinatravelnews.com. Retrieved 2018-03-01.
- "Alibaba Relaunches Travel site as Fliggy to Compete with CTrip". Inbound Reporter. Tom Berrigan. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
- POLING, MONICA (March 15, 2018). "Marriott Targets Chinese Travelers via Alibaba". Archived from the original on 2018-03-16.
- Alibaba Expands in Southeast Asia With $1 Billion Lazada Deal, www.bloomberg.com, 12.4.2016
- Choudhury, Saheli Roy (2018-03-19). "Alibaba invests additional $2 billion in Southeast Asian e-commerce firm Lazada". CNBC. Retrieved 2018-03-20.
- Juro Osawa (11 June 2014). "Alibaba Tackles Amazon, eBay on Home Turf". Wall Street Journal.
- "BBC News – China's Alibaba plans US online shop". bbc.com. Retrieved 11 July 2014.
- Juro Osawa; Eva Dou (23 June 2015). "Alibaba Stumbles in U.S. Online Market". Wall Street Journal.
- Wanxia, Lin (22 November 2016). "Alibaba Cloud's global expansion program rolls into Dubai". www.atimes.com. Retrieved 2 December 2016.
- "Aliyun & Inspur Partner to Beat Cloud competition".
- Mutton, Paul (May 27, 2015). "Aliyun cloud growth makes Alibaba largest hosting company in China". Netcraft. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
- Guilford, Gwynn (June 2014). "Alibaba has a new way of explaining its controversial Alipay spinoff". Quartz.
- John Watling (14 February 2014). "China's Internet Giants Lead in Online Finance". The Financialist. Credit Suisse. Archived from the original on 19 February 2014. Retrieved 15 February 2014.
- Chohan, Usman W. "Financial Innovation in China: Alibaba's Leftover Treasure – 余额宝". McGill University. Retrieved 14 May 2014.
- "알리바바, 알리페이에 '얼굴 인식' 결제 도입" [Alibaba introduces 'Face Recognition' payment to AliPay]. Newsis (in Korean). Seoul, South Korea. March 17, 2015. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
- Wu, Jen-Her; Li, Qi; Wei, Kwok Kee (2016-07-02). "Alibaba's IT platform and electronic commerce synergy in driving "Singles' Day"". Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce. 26 (3): 193–202. doi:10.1080/10919392.2016.1194050. ISSN 1091-9392.
- Wang, Yanfei (2017-09-09). "Ant Financial ranked 6th in Fortune environmental list". China Daily. Archived from the original on 2017-09-12. Retrieved 2017-10-03.
- "Ant Financial named in Fortune's "Change the World" list--China Economic Net". en.ce.cn.
- "Alibaba announces live entertainment business group - TechNode". TechNode. 20 September 2017.
- Fuscaldo, Donna (20 September 2017). "Alibaba Launches Unit Dedicated to Live Events". Investopedia.
- "Alibaba Owned UCWeb Faces Risk Of Ban For Data Theft Allegations". inc42.com.
- "Alibaba Names Renowned Musician Gao Xiaosong to Run Music Unit | Alizila.com". Alizila.com. 2015-07-20. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
- "Alibaba and Tencent collaborate on music copyright · TechNode". TechNode. 2017-09-12. Retrieved 2018-03-02.
- Kwok, Donny; Thomas, Denny; Carsten, Paul (March 12, 2014). Edwina Gibbs, ed. "Alibaba buys ChinaVision stake for $804 million; gains TV, movie content". Reuters. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
- Yuan, Li (November 16, 2017). "Spoiler Alert: Jack Ma Beats Jet Li, but No Hollywood Ending for Alibaba". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
- Neil Gough (April 28, 2014). "Alibaba Buys Stake in Chinese Web TV Company for $1.2 Billion". New York Times.
- "阿里旺旺". Retrieved 25 October 2014.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 February 2016. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
- "Company Overview of Alisports.com". Bloomberg. 17 July 2017. Archived from the original on 17 July 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
- "Infantino suggests 32-team FIFA Club World Cup". Special Broadcasting Service. Sydney. 19 November 2016. Archived from the original on 19 November 2016. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
- "China to host richest ever rugby sevens tournament as US$100 million injection bears first fruit". South China Morning Post. 17 July 2017. Archived from the original on 17 July 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2017.
- "Alibaba Agrees to Buy AutoNavi in $1.5 Billion Map Deal". Bloomberg. 2014-04-11. Retrieved 2017-05-09.
- "Yahoo! Inc. - Company Timeline". Wayback Machine. 13 July 2008. Archived from the original on 13 July 2008. Retrieved 2016-07-19.
- Steadman, Ian. (22 April 2013) Yahoo! decides to close its Chinese mail service (Wired UK) Archived 31 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. Wired.co.uk. Retrieved on 21 September 2013.
- "Yahoo!China Closing Mail Service Today". TechNode. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "Alibaba's Jack Ma to dump WeChat service in favour of 'own baby' Laiwang". South China Morning Post. 23 October 2013. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
- Custer, C. (December 14, 2015). "Disconnect: Jack Ma made a big mistake buying SCMP". Tech in Asia. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
- Jourdan, Adam; Kwok, Donny; Yu, Jess Macy (December 14, 2015). Roantree, Anne Marie; Woo, Ryan, eds. "Alibaba agrees on $266 million acquisition deal with South China Morning Post". Reuters. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
- Yan, Sophia (2014-06-11). "Alibaba continues quest to own the Chinese Internet - Jun. 11, 2014". Money.cnn.com. Retrieved 2017-05-09.
- "List of Significant Subsidiaries and Consolidated Entities of Alibaba Group Holding Limited" (SEC filing). Alibaba Group.
- "2015 Annual Report" (PDF). Beijing Enlight Media (in Chinese). Shenzhen Stock Exchange. 2016. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
- "非公开发行A股股票预案" (PDF) (in Chinese). China United Network Communications. 21 August 2017. Retrieved 25 August 2017.
- "Our mission is to help Hong Kong and Taiwan-based entrepreneurs and young people realize their dreams and visions for their businesses and communities". www.ent-fund.org. Archived from the original on 2018-07-04.
- Zen, Soo (2017-07-15). "DayDayCook raises fresh funds to enhance step-by-step instructional videos on recipes". South China Morning Post.
- Jon, Russell (2017-09-02). "GoGoVan becomes Hong Kong's first $1 billion startup following merger deal". techcrunch.com.
- Steven, Millward (2017-11-08). "Alibaba funds lending startup WeLab to help it break out of China". techinasia.
- Sam, Ameen (2017-05-17). "Alibaba Makes Its First FinTech Investment In Hong Kong". Forbes.
- Jon, Russell (2017-05-18). "Hong Kong's Qupital raises $2M led by Alibaba to finance invoice loans for SMEs". Techcrunch.
- Wee, Willis (13 May 2013). "Jack Ma's Last Speech as Alibaba CEO". Tech in Asia. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- Hille, Kathrin (15 January 2013). "Jack Ma steps down as Alibaba chief". Financial Times. United Kingdom. Retrieved 23 September 2014. (Subscription required (help)).
- Millward, Steven (11 March 2013). "Alibaba Appoints Jonathan Lu as New CEO, Will Take Ma's Desk on May 10". Tech in Asia. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- Kelley, Michael B.; Yarow, Jay (7 May 2015). "Alibaba's CEO replaced". www.businessinsider.com. BUSINESS INSIDER. Retrieved 7 May 2015.
- "Gold Supplier". Alibaba Web site. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
- "Alibaba.com's Supplier Verification Services". Alibaba Web site. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
- Andrew Minalto (January 2014). "Top 10 Scams on Alibaba.com!". Andrewminalto.com. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
- "Alibaba and the 2,236 thieves". The Economist. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
- Muncaster, Phil (6 July 2012). "Ex-Alibaba GM cuffed as bribery scandal resurfaces". The Register. London. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
- Epstein, Gady (11 April 2011). "Alibaba's Jack Ma Fights To Win Back Trust". Forbes. Retrieved 23 September 2012.
- "BBC News – Iran nuclear: 'Uranium shoe' man arrested in US". BBC News. Retrieved 20 September 2014.
- "The Uranium Sting: Did Homeland Security Catch a Smuggler or Create One?". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- "Why Alibaba Can't Complain About Its Return to the 'Notorious' Counterfeit Market List". 22 December 2016.
- "Is AliExpress.com a scam". 10 February 2017.
- "Buying counterfeit goods on Alibaba's platforms is easy, proving it is harder". CNBC. 18 May 2016.
- "We Expose Major Fraud And Scams On Alibaba And AliExpress". 16 February 2017.
- "Fraud And Scams On Alibaba And AliExpress". 16 February 2017.
- "Alibaba sues sellers of counterfeit good for the first time after it was blacklisted by the US". CNBC. 4 January 2017.
- "Brands accuse Alibaba of not doing enough to stop sale of counterfeit goods". Wall Street Journal. 4 February 2017.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Alibaba Group.|