European Train Control System

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ETCS - "Eurobalise" transceiver, installed between rails, provides information to ETCS trains.

The European Train Control System (ETCS) is the signalling and control component of the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS). It is a replacement for legacy train protection systems and designed to replace the many incompatible safety systems currently used by European railways. The standard was also adopted outside Europe and is an option for worldwide application. In technical terms it is a kind of positive train control.

ETCS is implemented with standard trackside equipment and unified controlling equipment within the train cab. In its advanced form, all lineside information is passed to the driver wireless inside the cab, removing the need for lineside signals watched by the driver. This will give the foundation for a later to be defined automatic train operation.

The need for a system like ETCS stems from more and longer running trains resulting from economic integration of the European Union (EU) and the liberalisation of national railway markets. At the beginning of the 1990s were some national high speed train projects supported by EU without interoperability of trains. This catalysed the Directive 1996/48 about the interoperability of high-speed trains, followed by Directive 2001/16 extending the concept of interoperability to the conventional rail system. ETCS specifications have become part of, or are referred to, the Technical Specifications for Interoperability (TSI) for (railway) control-command systems. So it is a piece of European legislation managed by the European Union Agency for Railways (ERA). It is a legal requirement that all new, upgraded or renewed tracks and rolling stock in the European railway system should adopt ETCS, possibly keeping legacy systems for backward compatibility. Many networks outside the EU have also adopted ETCS, generally for high-speed rail projects.

Because ETCS is in many parts implemented in software, some wording from software technology is occupied. Versions are called system requirements specifications (SRS). This is a bundle of documents, which may have different versioning for each document. A main version is called baseline (BL).

History[edit]

The European railway network grew from separate national networks with little more in common than standard gauge. Notable differences include voltages, loading gauge, couplings, signalling and control systems. By the end of the 1980s there were 14 national standard train control systems in use across the EU, and the advent of high-speed trains showed that signalling based on lineside signals is insufficient.[citation needed]

Both factors led to efforts to reduce the time and cost of cross-border traffic. On 4 and 5 December 1989, a working group including Transport Ministers resolved a master plan for a trans-European high-speed rail network, the first time that ETCS was suggested. The Commission communicated the decision to the European Council, which approved the plan in its resolution of 17 December 1990. This led to a resolution on 91/440/EEC as of 29 July 1991, which mandated the creation of a requirements list for interoperability in high-speed rail transport.[1] The rail manufacturing industry and rail network operators had agreed on creation of interoperability standards in June 1991.[2] Until 1993 the organizational framework was created to start technical specifications that would be published as Technical Specifications for Interoperability (TSI). The mandate for TSI was resolved by 93/38/EEC.[1] In 1995 a development plan first mentioned the creation of the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS).[2]

Baseline 1[edit]

The specification was written in 1996 in response to EU Council Directive 96/48/EC99[1] of 23 July 1996 on interoperability of the trans-European high-speed rail system. First the European Railway Research Institute was instructed to formulate the specification and about the same time the ERTMS User Group was formed from six railway operators that took over the lead role in the specification. The standardisation went on for the next two years and it was felt to be slow for some industry partners – 1998 saw the formation of Union of Signalling Industry (UNISIG), including Alstom, Ansaldo, Bombardier, Invensys, Siemens and Thales that were to take over the finalisation of the standard.[2]

In July 1998 SRS 5a documents were published that formed the first baseline for technical specifications. UNISIG provided for corrections and enhancements of the baseline specification leading to the Class P specification in April 1999.[citation needed] This baseline specification has been tested by six railways since 1999 as part of the ERTMS.[3]

Baseline 2[edit]

The railway companies defined some extended requirements that were included to ETCS (e.g. RBC-Handover and track profile information), leading to the Class 1 SRS 2.0.0 specification of ETCS (published in April 2000). Further specification continued through a number of drafts until UNISIG published the SUBSET-026 defining the current implementation of ETCS signalling equipment – this Class 1 SRS 2.2.2 was accepted by the European Commission in decision 2002/731/EEC as mandatory for high-speed rail and in decision 2004/50/EEC as mandatory for conventional rail. The SUBSET-026 is defined from eight chapters where chapter seven defines the ETCS language and chapter eight describes the balise telegram structure of ETCS Level 1.[2] Later UNISIG published the corrections as SUBSET-108 (known as Class 1 SRS 2.2.2 "+"), that was accepted in decision 2006/679/EEC.[4]

The earlier ETCS specification contained a lot of optional elements that limited interoperability. The Class 1 specifications were revised in the following year leading to SRS 2.3.0 document series that was made mandatory by the European Commission in decision 2007/153/EEC on 9 March 2007. Annex A describes the technical specifications on interoperability for high-speed (HS) and conventional rail (CR) transport. Using SRS 2.3.0 a number of railway operators started to deploy ETCS on a large scale, for example the Italian Sistema Controllo Marcia Treno (SCMT) is based on Level 1 balises. Further development concentrated on compatibility specification with the earlier Class B systems leading to specifications like EuroZUB that continued to use the national rail management on top of Eurobalises for a transitional period. Following the experience in railway operation the European Union Agency for Railways (ERA) published a revised specification Class 1 SRS 2.3.0d ("debugged") that was accepted by the European Commission in April 2008.[citation needed]

This compilation SRS 2.3.0d was declared final (later called Baseline 2) in this series. There were a list of unresolved functional requests and a need for stability in practical rollouts. So in parallel started the development of baseline 3 series to incorporate open requests, stripe off unneeded stuff and combine it with solutions found for baseline 2. The structure of functional levels was continued.

Baseline 3[edit]

While some countries switched to ETCS with some benefit, German and French railway operators had already introduced modern types of train protection systems so they would gain no benefit. Instead ideas were introduced on new modes like "Limited Supervision" (known at least since 2004[5]) that would allow for

  • a low-cost variant,
  • a new and superior model for braking curves,
  • a cold movement optimisation and
  • additional track description options.

These ideas were compiled into a "baseline 3" series by the ERA and published as a Class 1 SRS 3.0.0 proposal on 23 December 2008. The first consolidation SRS 3.1.0 of the proposal was published by ERA on 26 February 2010[6] and the second consolidation SRS 3.2.0 on 11 January 2011.[7] The specification GSM-R Baseline 0 was published as Annex A to the baseline 3 proposal on 17 April 2012.[8] At the same time a change to Annex A of SRS 2.3.0d was proposed to the European Commission that includes GSM-R baseline 0 allowing ETCS SRS 3.3.0 trains to run on SRS 2.3.0d tracks.[9][10] The baseline 3 proposal was accepted by the European Commission with decision 2012/88/EU on 25. January 2012.[11] The update for SRS 3.3.0 and the extension for SRS 2.3.0d were accepted by the European Commission with decision 2012/696/EU on 6. November 2012.[12]

The ERA work programme concentrated on the refinement of the test specification SRS 3.3.0 that was to be published in July 2013.[13] In parallel the GSM-R specification was to be extended into a GSM-R baseline 1 until the end of 2013.[13] The German Deutsche Bahn has since announced equipping at least the TEN Corridors running on older tracks to be using either Level 1 Limited Supervision or Level 2 on high-speed sections. Current work continues on Level 3 definition with low-cost specifications (compare ERTMS Regional) and the integration of GPRS into the radio protocol to increase the signalling bandwidth as required in shunting stations. The specifications for ETCS baseline 3 and GSM-R baseline 0 (Baseline 3 Maintenance Release 1) were published as recommendations SRS 3.4.0 by the ERA in May 2014 for submission to the Railway Interoperability and Safety Committee (RISC) in a meeting in June 2014.[14][15] The SRS 3.4.0 was accepted by the European Commission with the amending decision 2015/14/EU on 5. January 2015.[16]

Stakeholders such as Deutsche Bahn have opted for a streamlined development model for ETCS – DB will assemble a database of change requests (CRs) to be assembled by priority and effect in a CR-list for the next milestone report (MRs) that shall be published on fixed dates through ERA. The SRS 3.4.0 from Q2 2014 matches with the MR1 from this process. The further steps were planned for the MR2 to be published in Q4 2015 (that became the SRS 3.5.0) and the MR3 to be published in Q3 2017 (whereas SRS 3.6.0 was settled earlier in June 2016). Each specification will be commented on and handed over to the RISC for subsequent legalization in the European Union.[17] Deutsche Bahn has expressed a commitment to keep the Baseline 3 specification backward compatible starting at least with SRS 3.5.0 that is due in 2015 according to the streamlined MR2 process, with the MR1 adding requirements from its tests in preparation for the switch to ETCS (for example better frequency filters for the GSM-R radio equipment).[17] The intention is based on plans to start replacing its PZB train protection system at the time.

In December 2015 the ERA published the Baseline 3 Release 2 (B3R2) series including GSM-R Baseline 1. The B3R2 is publicly named to be not an update to the previous Baseline 3 Maintenance Release 1 (B3MR1).[18] The notable change is the inclusion of EGPRS (GPRS with mandatory EDGE support) in the GSM-R specification, corresponding to the new Eirene FRS 8 / SRS 16 specifications. Additionally B3R2 includes the ETCS Driver Machine Interface and the SRS 3.5.0.[19] This Baseline 3 series was accepted by European Commission with decisions 2016/919/EC in late May 2016.[20] The decision references ETCS SRS 3.6.0 that was subsequently published by the ERA in a Set 3 in June 2016.[21][22] The publications of the European Commission and ERA for SRS 3.6.0 were synchronized to the same day, June 15.[20] The Set 3 of B3R2 is marked as the stable basis for subsequent ERTMS deployments in the EU.[23]

The name of Set 3 follows the style of publications of the decisions of the European Commission where updates to the Baseline 2 and Baseline 3 specifications were accepted at the same time – for example decision 2015/14/EU of January 2015 has two tables "Set of specifications # 1 (ETCS baseline 2 and GSM-R baseline 0)" and "Set of specifications # 2 (ETCS baseline 3 and GSM-R baseline 0)".[24] In the decision of May 2016 there are three tables: "Set of specifications # 1 (ETCS Baseline 2 and GSM-R Baseline 1)", "Set of specifications # 2 (ETCS Baseline 3 Maintenance Release 1 and GSM-R Baseline 1)", and "Set of specifications # 3 (ETCS Baseline 3 Release 2 and GSM-R Baseline 1)".[20] In that decision the SRS (System Requirement Specification) and DMI (ETCS Driver Machine Interface) are kept at 3.4.0 for Set 2 while updating Set 3 to SRS and DMI 3.6.0. All three of the tables (Set 1, Set 2 and Set 3) are updated to include the latest EIRENE FRS 8.0.0 including the same GSM-R SRS 16.0.0 to ensure interoperability.[20] In that decision the SRS is kept at 2.3.0 for Set 1 – and the decision of 2012/88/EU was repealed that was first introducing the interoperability of Set 1 and Set 2 (with SRS 3.3.0 at the time) based on GSM-R Baseline 0.[20]

Deployment planning[edit]

The development of ETCS has matured to a point that cross-border traffic is possible and some countries have announced a date for the end of older systems. The first contract to run the full length of a cross-border railway was signed by Germany and France in 2004 on the high-speed line from Paris to Frankfurt, including LGV Est. The connection opened in 2007 using ICE3MF, to be operational with ETCS trains by 2016.[25] The Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland and Italy have a commitment to open Corridor A from Rotterdam to Genoa for freight by the start of 2015. Non-European countries also are starting to deploy ERTMS/ETCS, including Algeria, China, India, Israel, Kazakhstan, Korea, Mexico, New Zealand, and Saudi Arabia.[26] Australia will switch to ETCS on some dedicated lines starting in 2013.[27]

The European Commission has mandated that European railways to publish their deployment planning up to the 5 July 2017. This will be used to create a geographical and technical database (TENtec) that can show the ETCS deployment status on the Trans-European Network. From the comparative overview the commission wants to identify the needs for additional coordination measures to support the implementation.[28] Synchronous with the publication of ETCS SRS 3.6.0 on 15 June 2017 the Regulation 2016/796/EC was published. It mandates the replacement of the European Railways Agency by the European Union Agency for Railways. The agency was tasked with the creation of a regulatory framework for a Single European Railway Area (SERA) in the 4th Railway Package to be resolved in late June 2016.[29][30] A week later the new EU Agency for Railways emphasized the stability of B3R2 and the usage as the foundation for oncoming ETCS implementations in the EU.[23] Based on projections in the Rhine-Alps-Corridor a break-even of the cross-border ETCS implementation is expected in the early 2030s.[31] A new memorandum of understanding was signed on InnoTrans in September 2016 for a completion of the first ETCS Deployment Plan targets by 2022.[31][32] The new planning was accepted by the European Commission in January 2017 with a goal to have 50% of the Core Network Corridors equipped by 2023 and the remainder in a second phase up to 2030.[33]

The costs for the switch to ETCS are well documented in the Swiss reports from their railway operator SBB to the railway authority BAV. In December 2016 it was shown that they could start switching parts of the system to ETCS Level 2 whenever a section needs improvement. This would not only result in a network where sections of ETCS and the older ZUB would switch back and forth along lines, but the full transition to ETCS would last until 2060 and its cost were estimated at 9.5 billion Swiss Franc. The expected advantages of ETCS for more security and up to 30% more throughput would also be at stake. Thus legislation favours the second option where the internal equipment of interlocking stations would be replaced by new electronic ETCS desks before switching the network to ETCS Level 2. However the current railway equipment manufacturers did not provide enough technology options at the time of the report to start it off. So the plan would be to run feasibility studies until 2019 with a projected start of changeover set to 2025. A rough estimate indicates that the switch to ETCS Level 2 could be completed within 13 years from that point and it would cost about 6.1 billion Swiss Franc. For comparison, SBB indicated that the maintenance of lineside signals would also cost about 6.5 billion Swiss Franc which however can be razed once Level 2 is effective.[34]

Alternative implementations[edit]

The ETCS standard has listed a number of older Automatic Train Controls (ATC) as Class B systems. While they are set to obsolescence, the older line side signal information can be read by using Specific Transmission Modules (STM) hardware and fed the Class B signal information to a new ETCS onboard safety control system for partial supervision. In practice an alternative transition scheme is used where an older ATC is rebased to use Eurobalises. This leverages the fact that a Eurobalise can transmit multiple information packets and the reserved national datagram (packet number 44) can encode the signal values from the old system in parallel with ETCS datagram packets. The older train-born ATC system is equipped with an additional Eurobalise reader that converts the datagram signals. This allows for a longer transitional period where the old ATC and Eurobalises are attached on the sleepers until all trains have a Eurobalise reader. The newer ETCS-compliant trains can be switched to an ETCS operation scheme by a software update of the onboard train computer.[35]

In Switzerland a replacement of the older Integra-Signum magnets and ZUB 121 magnets to Eurobalises in the Euro-Signum plus EuroZUB operation scheme is under way. All trains had been equipped with Eurobalise readers and signal converters until 2005 (generally called "Rucksack" "backpack"). The general operation scheme will be switched to ETCS by 2017 with an allowance for older trains to run on specific lines with EuroZUB until 2025.[36]

Croco + TBL + ETCS balises at the same signal

In Belgium the TBL 1 crocodiles were complemented with Eurobalises in the TBL 1+ operation scheme. The TBL 1+ definition allowed for an additional speed restriction to be transmitted to the train computer already. Likewise in Luxembourg the Memor II (using crocodiles) was extended into a Memor II+ operation scheme.

In Berlin the old mechanical train stops on the local S-Bahn rapid transit system are replaced by Eurobalises in the newer ZBS train control system. Unlike the other systems it is not meant to be transitional for a later ETCS operation scheme. The signalling centres and the train computer use ETCS components with a specific software version, manufacturers like Siemens point out that their ETCS systems can be switched for operating on ETCS, TBL, or ZBS lines.[35]

Levels of ETCS[edit]

ETCS is specified at four numbered levels:

  • Level 0: ETCS-compliant locomotives or rolling stock do not interact with lineside equipment, i.e. because missing ETCS compliance.
  • Level NTC (former STM): ETCS-compliant driving cars are equipped with additional Specific Transmission Modules (STM) for interaction with legacy signalling systems. Inside the cabs are standardised ETCS driver interfaces. With Baseline 3 definitions it is called National Train Control.
  • Level 1: ETCS is installed on lineside (possibly superimposed with legacy systems) and on board; spot transmission of data from track to train (and versa) via Eurobalises or Euroloops.
  • Level 2: As level 1, but eurobalises are only used for the exact train position detection. The continuous data transmission via GSM-R with the Radio Block Center (RBC) give the required signalling Information to the drivers display. There is further lineside equipment needed, i.e. for train integrity detection.
  • Level 3: As level 2, but train location and train integrity supervision no longer rely on trackside equipment such as track circuits or axle counters.

Level 0[edit]

Level 0 applies when an ETCS-fitted vehicle is used on a non-ETCS route. The trainborne equipment monitors the maximum speed of that type of train. The train driver observes the trackside signals. Since signals can have different meanings on different railways, this level restricts drivers to one railway. If the train has left a higher-level ETCS, it might be limited in speed globally by the last balises encountered.

Level 1[edit]

ETCS Level 1 schematic

Level 1 is a cab signalling system that can be superimposed on the existing signalling system, leaving the fixed signalling system (national signalling and track-release system) in place. Eurobalise radio beacons pick up signal aspects from the trackside signals via signal adapters and telegram coders (Lineside Electronics Unit – LEU) and transmit them to the vehicle as a movement authority together with route data at fixed points. The on-board computer continuously monitors and calculates the maximum speed and the braking curve from these data. Because of the spot transmission of data, the train must travel over the Eurobalise beacon to obtain the next movement authority. In order for a stopped train to be able to move (when the train is not stopped exactly over a balise), there are optical signals that show permission to proceed. With the installation of additional Eurobalises ("infill balises") or a EuroLoop between the distant signal and main signal, the new proceed aspect is transmitted continuously. The EuroLoop is an extension of the Eurobalise over a particular distance that basically allows data to be transmitted continuously to the vehicle over cables emitting electromagnetic waves. A radio version of the EuroLoop is also possible.

For example, in Denmark and Sweden the meanings of single green and double green are contradictory. Drivers have to know the difference (already with traditional systems) to drive beyond the national borders safely. In Sweden, the ETCS Level 1 list of signal aspects are not fully included in the traditional list, so there is a special marking saying that such signals have slightly different meanings.[37]

Limited Supervision[edit]

The ETCS Corridor A will mostly be using Level 1 Limited Supervision.

ETCS Level 1 Limited Supervision mode allows the ETCS cab computer to disregard some information in comparison to the traditional Full Supervision mode. Formally, this is possible for all ETCS levels, but it is most commonly used with Level 1 – specifically the ETCS equipment is only used to control the safety restrictions while the communication of a movement authority is left to other systems. This allows older tracks to be rebuilt by adding ETCS L1 LS equipment where movement authority is derived from the existing lineside equipment or radioed by GSM-R. Studies have shown that ETCS L1 LS has the same capacity as plain Level 1 FS for half the cost. That has led to railway operators pushing for the inclusion of Limited Supervision into the ETCS Baseline 3.

Limited Supervision mode was proposed by RFF/SNCF (France) based on a proposal by SBB (Switzerland). Several years later a steering group was announced in spring 2004. After the UIC workshop on 30 June 2004 it was agreed that UIC should produce a FRS document as the first step. The resulting proposal was distributed to the eight administrations that were identified: ÖBB (Austria), SNCB/NMBS (Belgium), BDK (Denmark), DB Netze (Germany), RFI (Italy), CFR (Romania), Network Rail (UK) and SBB (Switzerland). After 2004 German Deutsche Bahn took over the responsibility for the change request.[38]

In Switzerland the Federal Office of Transport (BAV) announced in August 2011 that beginning with 2018 the Eurobalise-based EuroZUB/EuroSignum signalling will be switched to Level 1 Limited Supervision.[39] High-speed lines are already using ETCS Level 2. The north-south corridor should be switched to ETCS by 2015 according to international contracts regarding the TEN-T Corridor-A from Rotterdam to Genoa (European backbone).[40] But it is delayed and will be usable with December 2017 timetable change.

Level 2[edit]

ETCS Level 2 schematic
Radio Block Centre (RBC)

Level 2 is a digital radio-based system. Movement authority and other signal aspects are displayed in the cab for the driver. Apart from a few indicator panels, it is therefore possible to dispense with trackside signalling. However, the train detection and the train integrity supervision still remain in place at the trackside. Train movements are monitored continually by the radio block centre using this trackside-derived information. The movement authority is transmitted to the vehicle continuously via GSM-R or GPRS together with speed information and route data. The Eurobalises are used at this level as passive positioning beacons or "electronic milestones". Between two positioning beacons, the train determines its position via sensors (axle transducers, accelerometer and radar). The positioning beacons are used in this case as reference points for correcting distance measurement errors. The on-board computer continuously monitors the transferred data and the maximum permissible speed.

Level 3[edit]

ETCS Level 3 schematic

With Level 3, ETCS goes beyond pure train protection functionality with the implementation of full radio-based train spacing. Fixed train detection devices (GFM) are no longer required. As with Level 2, trains find their position themselves by means of positioning beacons and via sensors (axle transducers, accelerometer and radar) and must also be capable of determining train integrity on board to the very highest degree of reliability. By transmitting the positioning signal to the radio block centre, it is always possible to determine that point on the route the train has safely cleared. The following train can already be granted another movement authority up to this point. The route is thus no longer cleared in fixed track sections. In this respect, Level 3 departs from classic operation with fixed intervals: given sufficiently short positioning intervals, continuous line-clear authorisation is achieved and train headways come close to the principle of operation with absolute braking distance spacing ("moving block"). Level 3 is currently under development. Solutions for reliable train integrity supervision are highly complex and are hardly suitable for transfer to older models of freight rolling stock. Some kind of end-of-train device is needed or special lines for rolling stock with included integrity checks like commuter multiple units or high speed passenger trains.

ERTMS Regional[edit]

A variant of Level 3 is ERTMS Regional, which has the option to be used with virtual fixed blocks or with true moving block signalling. It was early defined and implemented in a cost sensitive environment in Sweden. In 2016 with SRS 3.5+ it was adopted by core standards and is now officially part of Baseline 3 Level 3.

It is possible to use train integrity supervision, or by accepting limited speed and traffic volume to lessen the effect and probability of colliding with detached rail vehicles. ERTMS Regional has lower commissioning and maintenance costs, since trackside train detection devices are not routinely used, and is suitable for lines with low traffic volume.[41][42] These low-density lines usually have no automatic train protection system today, and thus will benefit from the added safety.

GNSS[edit]

Instead of using fixed balises to detect train location there may be "virtual balises" based on satellite navigation and GNSS augmentation. Several studies about the usage of GNSS in railway signalling solutions have been researched by the UIC (GADEROS/GEORAIL) and ESA (RUNE/INTEGRAIL).[43] Experiences in the LOCOPROL project show that real balises are still required in railway stations, junctions, and other areas where greater positional accuracy is required. The successful usage of satellite navigation in the GLONASS-based Russian ABTC-M block control has triggered the creation of the ITARUS-ATC system that integrates Level 2 RBC elements – the manufacturers Ansaldo STS and VNIIAS[44] aim for certification of the ETCS compatibility of this system.[45]

The first real implementation of the virtual balise concept has been done during the ESA project 3InSat on 50 km of track of the Cagliari–Golfo Aranci Marittima railway on Sardinia[46] in which a SIL-4 train localisation at signalling system level has been developed using differential GPS.

There is a pilot project "ERSAT EAV" running since 2015 with the objective to verify the suitability of EGNSS as the enabler of cost-efficient and economically sustainable ERTMS signalling solutions for safety railway applications.[47]

Ansaldo STS has come to lead the UNISIG working group on GNSS integration into ERTMS within Next Generation Train Control (NGTC) WP7,[48] whose main scope is to specify ETCS virtual balise functionality, taking into account the interoperability requirement. Following the NGTC specifications the future interoperable GNSS positioning systems, supplied by different manufacturers, will reach the defined positioning performance in the locations of the virtual balises.[49]

Train-borne equipment[edit]

All the trains compliant with ETCS will be fitted with on-board systems certified by Notified Bodies. This equipment consists of wireless communication, rail path sensing, central logic unit, cab displays and control devices for driver action.

ETCS – Man-Machine-Interface as part of driver cab

Man Machine Interface[edit]

The Man Machine Interface (MMI) is the standardised interface for the driver, also called "Driver Machine Interface" (DMI). It consists of a set of colour displays with touch input for ETCS and separate for GSM-R communication. This is added with control devices specific for the train type.

ETCS – Driver display in STM mode for Class B system PZB

Specific Transmission Module[edit]

The Specific Transmission Module (STM) is a special interface for the EVC for communicating with legacy Class B ATP systems like PZB, Memor and ATB. It consists of specific sensing elements to lineside installations and an interface for hardware and logic adapting interface to EVC. The EVC must get special software for translation of legacy signals to unified internal ETCS communication. The driver is using standard ETCS cab equipment also on non ETCS lines. The STM enables therefore the usage of the ETCS equipped driving vehicle on the non-equipped network and is today essential for interoperability.

ETCS – Eurobalise Transmission Module

Balise Transmission Module[edit]

The Balise Transmission Module (BTM) is an set with antennas and the wireless interface for reading data telegrams from and writing to eurobalises.

ETCS – Doppler radar for non friction dependent movement detection

Odometric sensors[edit]

The odometric sensors are significant for exact position determination. In ETCS Level 2 installations are rare installation of eurobalises as definite milestones. Between such milestones the position is estimated and measured relative to the last passed milestone. Initially it was tested, that in difficult adhesive conditions axle revolution transmitters would not give required precision.

ETCS – European Vital Computer (EVC)

European Vital Computer[edit]

The European Vital Computer (EVC) also called Eurocab is the heart of local computing capabilities in the driving vehicle. It is connected with external data communication, internal controls to speed regulation of the loko, location sensors and all cab devices of the driver.

Euroradio[edit]

The Euroradio communication unit is compulsory and is used for voice and data communication. Because in ETCS Level 2 all signalling information is exchanged via GSM-R, the equipment is fully doubled with two simultaneous connections to the RBC.

ETCS – Juridical Recording Unit (JRU)

Juridical Recording Unit[edit]

The Juridical Recording Unit (JRU) is part of the EVC for recording the last actions of the driver, last parameters of signalling and machine conditions. It is functionally equivalent to the Flight Recorder of aircraft.

Train Interface Unit[edit]

The Train Interface Unit (TIU) is the interface of the EVC to the train and/or the locomotive for submitting commands or receiving information.

Lineside equipment[edit]

Lineside equipment is the fixed installed part of ETCS installation. According to ETCS Levels the rail related part of installation is decreasing. While in Level 1 sequences with two ore more of eurobalises are needed for signal exchange, in Level 2 balises are used for milestone application only. It is replaced in Level 2 by mobile communication and more sophisticated software. In Level 3 even less fixed installation is used. In 2017 first positive tests for satellite positioning were done.

Eurobalise[edit]

The Eurobalise is a passive or active antenna device mounted on rail sleepers. Mostly it transmits information to the driving vehicle. It can be arranged in groups to transfer information. There are Fixed and Transparent Data Balises. Transparent Data Balises are sending changing information from LEU to the trains, e.g. signal indications. Fixed Balises are programmed for a special information like gradients and speed restrictions.

Euroloop[edit]

The Euroloop is an extension for Eurobalises in ETCS Level 1. It is a special Leaky feeder for transmitting information telegrams to the car.

Lineside Electronic Unit[edit]

The Lineside Electronic Unit (LEU) is the connecting unit between the Transparent Data Balises with signals or Signalling control in ETCS Level 1.

Radio Block Centre[edit]

A Radio Block Centre is a specialised computing device with specification Safety integrity level 4 (SIL) for generating Movement Authorities (MA) and transmitting it to trains. It gets information from Signalling control and from the trains in its section. It hosts the specific geografic data of the railway section and receives cryptographic keys from trains passing in. According to conditions the RBC will attend the trains with MA until leaving the section. RBC have defined interfaces to trains, but have no regulated interfaces to Signalling Control and only have national regulation.

A Modern type axle counter

Operation modes in ETCS[edit]

Modes during a cab change under ETCS Level 2
abbreviation and DMI symbol full name used
in level
description
FS
ERTMSmodeFS 01.svg
Full Supervision 1, 2, 3 the locomotive pulls the train, ETCS has all required information
LS
ERTMSmodeLS.svg
Limited Supervision 1, 2, 3 This mode is new to SRS 3.0.0
OS
ERTMSmodeOS.svg
On Sight 1, 2, 3 on-sight ride
SR
ERTMSmodeSR.svg
Staff Responsible 1, 2, 3 the driver was granted permission to pass faulty signals
SH
ERTMSmodeSH.svg
Shunting 0, 1, 2, 3
PS
(no symbol)
Passive Shunting 0, NTC, 1, 2, 3 This mode is new to SRS 3.0.0
UN
ERTMSmode UN.svg
Unfitted 0 the line is not fitted with ETCS: the system will only observe master speed limit and train protection is left to older systems
SL
(no symbol)
Sleeping 0, NTC, 1, 2, 3 second locomotive controlled from the leading one
SB
ERTMSmodeSB.svg
Stand By 0, STM, 1, 2, 3
TR
ERTMSmodeTR.svg
Trip NTC, 1, 2, 3
PT
ERTMSmodePT.svg
Post Trip 1, 2, 3 the train overpassed the order to stop, full braking will be executed
SF
ERTMSmodeSF.svg
System Failure 0, NTC, 1, 2, 3 trainborne ETCS equipment detected its failure
IS
(no symbol)
Isolation 0, STM, 1, 2, 3 driver disconnected ETCS
NP
(no symbol)
No Power 0, NTC, 1, 2, 3
NL
ERTMSmodeNL.svg
Non Leading 0, NTC, 1, 2, 3 second locomotive with its own driver
SE
(no symbol)
STM European STM This mode has not been implemented by any vendor and was removed by SRS 3.1.0
SN
ERTMSmodeSN.svg
National System NTC
RV
ERTMSmodeRV.svg
Reversing 1, 2, 3

ETCS test laboratories[edit]

Three ETCS test laboratories work together to bring support to the industry:

To be a reference laboratory ERA is requesting the laboratories to be accredited ISO17025.

Future[edit]

GSM is no longer being developed outside of GSM-R, the manufacturers have committed to supplying GSM-R till at least 2030. The ERA is considering what action is needed to smoothly transition to a successor system as GPRS or Edge.[50]

Deployment[edit]

In July 2009 the European Commission announced that ETCS is mandatory for all EU-funded projects that include new or upgraded signalling, and GSM-R is required when radio communications are upgraded.[51] Level 2 installations in Switzerland, Italy, the Netherlands, Germany, France, Sweden, and Belgium are operational.[52]

ETCS corridors[edit]

Based on the proposal for 30 TEN-T Priority Axes and Projects during 2003, a cost/benefit analysis was performed by the UIC, presented in December 2003.[53] This identified ten rail corridors covering about 20% of the TEN network that should be given priority in changing to ETCS, and these were included in decision 884/2004/EC by the European Commission.[54]

In 2005 the UIC combined the axes into the following ETCS Corridors, subject to international development contracts:[55][56]

  • Corridor A: Rotterdam – Duisburg – Basel – Genoa
  • Corridor B: Naples – Bologna – Innsbruck – Munich – Berlin – Stockholm
  • Corridor C: Antwerp – Strasbourg – Basel/Antwerp – Dijon – Lyon
  • Corridor D: Valencia – Barcelona – Lyon – Turin – Milan – Trieste – Ljubljana – Budapest
  • Corridor E: Dresden – Prague – Vienna – Budapest – Constanta
  • Corridor F: Aachen – Duisburg – Hanover – Magdeburg – Berlin – Poznań – Warsaw – Belarus

The Trans-European Transport Network Executive Agency (TEN-T EA) publishes ETCS funding announcements showing the progress of trackside equipment and onboard equipment installation.[57]

  • Corridor A gets trackside equipment January 2007 – December 2012 (2007-DE-60320-P German section Betuweroute – Basel), June 2008 – December 2013 (2007-IT-60360-P Italian section). The Betuweroute in the Netherlands is already using Level 2 and Switzerland will switch to ETCS in 2017.
  • Corridor B, January 2007 – December 2012 (2007-AT-60450-P Austrian part), January 2009 – December 2013 (2009-IT-60149-P Italian section Brenner – Verona).
  • Corridor C, May 2006 – December 2009 (2006-FR-401c-S LGV-Est).
  • Corridor D, January 2009 – December 2013 (2009-EU-60122-P Valencia – Montpellier, Turin – Ljubljana/Murska).
  • Corridor E, June 2008 – December 2012 (2007-CZ-60010-P Czech section), May 2009 – December 2013 (2009-AT-60148-P Austrian section via Vienna).
  • Corridor F, January 2007 – December 2012 (2007-DE-60080-P Aachen – Duisburg/Oberhausen).

Corridor A has two routes in Germany – the double track east of the Rhine (rechte Rheinstrecke) will be ready with ETCS in 2018 (Emmerich, Oberhausen, Duisburg, Düsseldorf, Köln-Kalk, Neuwied, Oberlahnstein, Wiesbaden, Darmstadt, Mannheim, Schwetzingen, Karlsruhe, Offenburg, Basel), while the upgrade of the double track west of the Rhine (linke Rheinstrecke) will be postponed.

Corridor F will be developed in accordance with Poland as far as it offers ETCS transport: Frankfurt – Berlin – Magdeburg will be ready in 2012, Hanover to Magdeburg – Wittenberg – Görlitz in 2015. At the other end Aachen to Oberhausen will be ready in 2012, the missing section from Oberhausen to Hanover in 2020. The other two corridors are postponed and Germany chooses to support the equipment of locomotives with STMs to fulfill the requirement of ETCS transport on the corridors.[58]

Australia[edit]

Belgium[edit]

In Belgium, ETCS Level 2 is installed on the LGV 3 and LGV 4 high-speed lines.

China (People's Republic)[edit]

Croatia[edit]

In Croatia, Croatian Railways deployed Level 1 on the VinkovciTovarnik line in 2012.[60]

Denmark[edit]

  • December 2008: In Denmark, plans were announced in for the conversion of its entire national network to Level 2. This was necessitated by the near obsolete nature of parts of its network. The total cost of the project is estimated at €3.3bn, with conversion beginning in 2009 and projected for completion in 2021.[61] Denmark has decided to drop its older ATC, which will reach its end of life between 2015 and 2020, switching the network of 2100 km to ETCS. The S-Bane network in Copenhagen will use the Siemens TrainGuard system. Two suppliers will equip the rest of the country to Level 2 with an option for Level 3 (ERTMS Regional) in rural parts. Implementation will be between 2014 and 2018.[62] Denmark will be the first to introduce GPRS support on its network by 2017.[63][64] Hence Banedanemark is driving this development with other ETCS users in Europe[64] that has led to the inclusion in B3R2 in late 2015.[19] Due to complexity the completion date was moved by two years to 2023, especially for testing in the S-train network, while the equipment of the first three main lines will be done in 2018.[65]
  • November 2017: Further delays of the complete roll-out from 2023 to 2030 were announced. The following dilemma has appeared: ETCS must be introduced before electrification. Electrification must be introduced before new trains are obtained. New trains must be purchased before ETCS is introduced. Because the old signalling system was not built compatible with electrification, and many components (which often have to be developed anew and be certified) must be replaced to make them compatible, expensive and time-consuming and fairly meaningless if it shall soon be replaced by ETCS. Diesel trains must mainly be custom-made and are expensive (like IC4) because of little demand in Europe, and DSB wants to have electric trains for the future. But most lines are not electrified yet. The plan was to fit the existing old diesel trains such as IC3 with ETCS, but that has proven difficult, since they are not well documented because various ad hoc spare parts have been fitted in various ways and other problems. Furthermore the new Copenhagen–Ringsted high-speed line was planned for opening in 2018 with ETCS only, creating a deadline, but there is a decision to introduce old signalling there, and delay ETCS roll-out for several years (still the dilemma must be solved by fitting ETCS into the trains).[65][66]

France[edit]

Germany[edit]

Lines equipped with Linienzugbeeinflussung (red) and ETCS (blue) in Germany (as of December 2017)

Germany intends to use Level 1 only as Limited Supervision – neither Full Supervision nor Euroloops will be installed.[67]

The first project for ETCS planning was the Köln–Frankfurt high-speed rail line that had been under construction since 1995. Due to the delays in the ETCS specification a new variant of LZB (CIR ELKE-II) was chosen in the end.

The next planning and real implementation was on the Leipzig-Ludwigsfelde main line to Berlin. There was testet SRS 2.2.2 together with PZB and LZB mixed installation in condition of fast and mixed traffic. The section was co-financed by the EU and DB to get more experiences with the ETCS Level 2 mode. Since April 2002 the ETCS section was in daily usage and in March 2003 it was announced that it had reached the same amount of reliability as before using ETCS. Since 6. December 2005 an ETCS train runs at 200 km/h as a part of the normal operation plan on the line north of Leipzig to get long-term recordings.[68] It was decommissioned for ETCS and is now in use with LZB and PZB. The ETCS equipment seems partly not to be upgradable.

In 2011 was ordered the installation of ETCS L2 (SRS 2.3.0d) for 14 Mio EUR following the reconstruction and enhancement of the railway line Berlin-Rostock.[69] A first part of 35 km was finished at the end of 2013 between Lalendorf and Kavelstorf.[70]

A big project in the final stage is the Nuremberg–Erfurt-Leipzig/Halle high-speed railway being under construction since 1997. This is added with part Erfurt-Eisenach of the Halle–Bebra railway ready for speeds up to 200 km/h. The north-eastern part is in commercial use since December 2015 with ETCS L2 SRS 2.3.0d. The western and southern part is planned to start regular traffic with ETCS in December 2017. The southern part Ebensfeld-Erfurt started test running and driver training in the end of August 2017.[71] It is the missing part through the Thuringian Forest mountain range. Starting in December 2017 there are about 20 high-speed trains per day from Munich to Berlin.[72]

Germany will start replacing all its PZB and LZB systems in 2015, to be finished by 2027.[58] During 2014 it was planned to use a dual equipment for the four main freight corridors to comply with the EC 913/2010 regulation. Further testing showed that a full ETCS system can increase capacity by 5-10% leading into a new concept "Zukunft Bahn" to accelerate the deployment, presented in December 2015.[73] The overall cost reduction of about half a billion euro may be reinvested to complete the switch to ETCS that may take about 15 years.[73] The Deutsche Bahn expects to get further federal funding after the next German federal elections in 2017.[74][75]

With Germany pressing for Baseline 3 neighbouring countries like Austria intend to update their vehicle fleet, especially modernizing the GSM-R radio on the trains.[76] One of the last additions to B3R2 was the usage of EDGE in GSM-R. This is already widely deployed in the German rail network (including better frequency filters for the GSM-R radio equipment).[17]

Hungary[edit]

In Hungary, the BudapestHegyeshalom and ZalacsébHodoš lines are equipped with Level 1.[citation needed]

In Hungary Level 2 is under construction in the Kelenföld-Székesfehérvár line as a part of a full reconstruction, and planned to be ready before 2015.

Italy[edit]

  • December 2005: Rome–Naples high-speed railway opens with ETCS Level 2.
  • February 2006: ETCS Level 2 is extended to the Turin–Milan high-speed line on the section between Turin and Novara.
  • December 2008: Opening of MilanoBologna line.
  • Autumn/Winter 2009: Opening of High Speed lines NovaraMilano and Bologna–Florence, thus completing the whole HS line Turin-Naples.[77]
  • December 2016: Opening of high-speed line Treviglio-Brescia, part of Milan-Verona line.
  • December 2016: Italy has 704 km of high-speed lines which use Level 2. These lines do not overlap with national signaling systems and do not have side light signals. They are connecting Torino to Naples in 5 and a half hours and Milan to Rome in 2 hours 50 minutes.[78]

Israel[edit]

In Israel ETCS Level 2 will begin replacing PZB in 2018. Three separate tenders are being issued in 2016 for this purpose (one contract each will be awarded for track-side infrastructure, rolling-stock integration, and the erection of a GSM-R network).[79]

Libya[edit]

In Libya, Ansaldo STS was awarded a contract in July 2009 to install Level 2.[80] This has stalled because of civil war.

Netherlands[edit]

  • June 2007: The Betuweroute, a new cargo line with ETCS Level 2 between the port of Rotterdam and the German border opens for commercial traffic.
  • September 2009: HSL-Zuid/HSL 4 opened to commercial traffic. It is a new 125-km long high-speed line between the Netherlands and Belgium that uses ETCS Level 2 with a fallback option to ETCS Level 1 (although restricted to 160 km/h in the Netherlands).

New Zealand[edit]

  • April 2009: ETCS will be used in Auckland.[81]
  • 2010: New Zealand begins rolling out ETCS together with new solid-state interlocking for electrification in Auckland.[82]
  • April 2014: The first true ETCS Level 1 system in the Southern Hemisphere was commissioned for KiwiRail by Siemens Rail Automation, in conjunction with the introduction of the ETCS-compliant AM class electric multiple units.[83]

Norway[edit]

In August 2015 the eastern branch of the Østfold Line becomes first line with ETCS functionality in Norway.

Poland[edit]

In Poland, Level 1 was installed in 2011 on the CMK high-speed line between Warsaw and Katowice-Kraków, to allow speeds to be raised from 160 km/h (99 mph) to 200 km/h (124 mph), and eventually to 250 km/h (155 mph).[84] The CMK line, which was built in the 1970s, was designed for a top speed of 250 km/h, but was not operated above 160 km/h due to lack of cab signalling. The ETCS signalling on the CMK was certified on 21 November 2013,[85] allowing trains on the CMK to operate at 200 km/h (124 mph).[86]

In Poland, Level 2 has been installed as part of a major upgrading of the 346 km Warsaw-Gdańsk-Gdynia line that reduced Warsaw – Gdańsk travel times from five to two hours and 39 minutes in December 2015.[87] Level 2 has been installed on line E30 between Legnica – Węgliniec – Bielawa Dolna on the German border [88] and is being installed on the Warsaw-Łódź line.[89]

Slovakia[edit]

In Slovakia, the system has been deployed as part of the BratislavaKošice mainline modernisation program, currently between Bratislava (east of Bratislava-Rača station) and Nové Mesto nad Váhom, with the rest of the line to follow. The current implementation is limited to 160 km/h due to limited braking distances between the control segments.[citation needed]

Spain[edit]

  • December 2004: ZaragozaHuesca High Speed line in Spain opens with ETCS Level 1.[90]
  • October 2011: ETCS Level 2 was commissioned on the Madrid-Barcelona high speed line, allowing the speed to be raised to 310 km/h (193 mph) with Madrid-Barcelona travel times reduced to 2 hours 30 minutes.[91]

Sweden[edit]

  • August 2010: In Sweden, the Bothnia Line was inaugurated using ETCS Level 2.[92]
  • November 2010: On West Dalarna Line in mid Sweden a demonstration run was made using ETCS Level 3 (ERTMS Regional).
  • February 2012: Full commissioning of West Dalarna Line (Repbäcken-Malung) under ETCS Level 3 without lineside signals or track detection devices.[93][94]
  • May 2012, the Transport Administration in Sweden decided to delay the introduction of ERTMS into more Swedish railways a few years, because of the trouble on Botniabanan and Ådalsbanan railways, and unclear financing of rebuilding the rolling stock.[95]

Switzerland[edit]

two high-speed lines have been using Level 2 in Switzerland by 2007 (shown red)
  • December 2004: ETCS Level 2 is to be installed on the Mattstetten-Rothrist new line, a high-speed line opened in 2004 between Bern and Zürich for train speeds of 200 km/h (124 mph). This ETCS Level 2 installation was the pioneering ETCS installation in Switzerland. Technical problems with the new ETCS technology caused ETCS operation to be put off past the planned starting date.
  • February 2006: ETCS Level 2 is finally installed on the Mattstetten–Rothrist line. ETCS Level 2 operation was fully implemented in March 2007.[96]
  • June 2007: The Lötschberg Base Tunnel, part of the Swiss NRLA project, opens with ETCS Level 2 and went in commercial use in December.[97]
  • Switzerland has announced in 2011 that it will switch from its national ZUB/Signum to ETCS Level 1 for conventional rail by enabling L1 LS packets on its transitional Euro-ZUB balises during 2017.[98]
  • A switch to Level 2 is planned for 2025 as a cost reduction of 30% is expected.

Turkey[edit]

In Turkey, Level 2 is installed on the Ankara–Konya high-speed line designed for 250 km/h (155 mph).[99] The new 306 kilometres (190 mi) high-speed line has reduced Ankara-Konya travel times from 10-1/2 hours to 75 minutes.[100]

United Kingdom[edit]

  • October 2006: Network Rail announced that ETCS would be operational on the Cambrian Line in December 2008 and would cost £59million.
  • 2008: On the Cambrian Line Network Rail will install In-Cab ETCS Level 2, specification 2.3.0d. This level does not require conventional fixed signals – existing signals and RETB boards will be removed. Additionally, the lineside speed signs will be redundant – drivers are given the appropriate maximum speed on the cab display. The main supplier was Ansaldo STS. Interfleet Technology Limited of Derby England were commissioned to carry out the design for the passenger rolling stock and subsequently managed the installation on site at LNWR, Crewe under contract to ASTS. Eldin Rail were contracted by Ansaldo STS as their infrastructure partner managing and installing all aspects of lineside infrastructure including the purpose built Control Centre. During the design phase the key project stakeholders; Network Rail, Arriva Trains Wales and Angel Trains were all consulted to ensure the design was robust due to the criticality of the project, as the first installation of its kind in the UK. Twenty-four Class 158s were fitted as well as three Class 97/3 locomotives (formerly Class 37 and prior to that as the English Electric Type 3) to be used for piloting services.[101] The Class 97/3 design and installation was provided by Transys Projects Limited of Birmingham England for Ansaldo STS.
  • 2010: Begin of the national roll-out of ETCS in the United Kingdom.[102]
  • February 2010: The Cambrian ETCS – Pwllheli to Harlech Rehearsal commenced on 13 February 2010 and successfully finished on 18 February 2010. The driver familiarisation and practical handling stage of the Rehearsal has provided an excellent opportunity to monitor the use of GSM-R voice in operation on this route. The first train departed Pwllheli at 0853hrs in ERTMS Level 2 Operation with GSM-R voice being used as the only means of communication between the driver and the signaller.
  • October 2010: The commercial deployment of ETCS Level 2 by passenger trains started on the Cambrian Line between Pwllheli and Harlech in Wales without lineside signals.[103]
  • March 2011: Full commissioning of Cambrian Line (Sutton Bridge Junction-Aberystwyth or Pwllheli) in Wales under ETCS level 2.[104]
  • In 2013, a Network Rail class 97/3 locomotive with Hitachi's Level 2 onboard equipment successfully completed demonstration tests.[105]
  • July 2015: As part of the Thameslink Programme, ETCS is used for the first time in the Core using new British Rail Class 700 rolling stock. This upgrade is in order to raise capacity in the core to up to 24tph.

See also[edit]

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