Five Star Movement

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Five Star Movement
MoVimento Cinque Stelle
President Beppe Grillo
Deputy President Enrico Grillo[1]
Secretary Enrico Maria Nadasi
Directorate[2] Alessandro Di Battista
Luigi Di Maio
Roberto Fico
Carla Ruocco
Carlo Sibilia
Slogan "One is worth one"
Founded 4 October 2009
Headquarters Via Roccatagliata Ceccardi 1/14, Genoa
Membership  (2014) 87,656[3]
Ideology Populism[4]
European affiliation none
European Parliament group Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy
Colours Yellow, Red and Black
Chamber of Deputies
91 / 630
36 / 315
European Parliament
17 / 73
Regional Government
0 / 20
Party flag
Five Star Movement flag.png
Politics of Italy
Political parties

The Five Star Movement (Italian: Movimento Cinque Stelle [moviˈmento ˈtʃiŋkwe ˈstelle], M5S) is a political party in Italy started by Beppe Grillo, a popular comedian and blogger, with Gianroberto Casaleggio, a web strategist, on 4 October 2009.[13]

The M5S is considered populist,[14][15][16][17] anti-establishment,[14][18][19][20] environmentalist, anti-globalist[21] and Eurosceptic.[22] Grillo himself provocatively once referred to his movement as "populist" during a meeting held in Rome with M5S senators.[23] Its members stress that the M5S is not a party but a "movement" and it may not be included in the traditional left-right paradigm. The "five stars" are a reference to five key issues: public water, sustainable transport, sustainable development, right to Internet access, and environmentalism. The party also advocates direct democracy,[24] the principle of "zero-cost politics",[25] degrowth,[26] and nonviolence.[27] In foreign policy, the M5S have condemned military interventions of the West in the Greater Middle East (Afghanistan, Iraq,[28] Libya) as well as any notion of American intervention in Syria.[29]

At the 2013 general election the M5S won the second most popular votes for the Chamber of Deputies,[30] but obtained just 109 deputies out of 630 due to an electoral system which favoured parties running in coalition.[31] In the European Parliament the M5S is part of the Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy (EFDD) group, along with the UK Independence Party.



On July 16, 2005 Beppe Grillo offered supporters of the proposals submitted to his blog to adopt social networks, such as Meetup, to communicate and coordinate local meetings. Coordination of activists through meetups had already been adopted in 2003 by Howard Dean during the campaign for the primaries of the Democratic Party of the United States.[32] This is how the first 40 "Friends of Beppe Grillo" meetups started, with the initial aim, according to the same Grillo, to "have fun, get together and share ideas and proposals for a better world, starting from one's own city. And discuss and develop, if you believe, my posts".[33] Within the meetup one creates thematic working groups on topics including "Technology and Innovation", "Press-communication", "Ethical consumerism", "Currency study", "No incinerators".[34][35] It is from these experiences that Grillo was asked to stand for the primaries for the selection of the Prime Ministerial candidate of the centre-left coalition The Union, that were scheduled for October 2005.[36]

On three occasions -17 December in Turin, 26 March in Piacenza and 16 to 18 June in Sorrento- the representatives of the "Friends of Beppe Grillo" meetup held national meetings in the presence of Grillo. In these circumstances, proposals mostly regarding environmental issues were discussed, such as the replacement of polluting incinerators with systems applying mechanical-biological waste treatment.[37]

During the fourth national meeting held in Genoa on February 3, 2007, Beppe Grillo announced his desire to provide local Meetup activists an autonomous space within the shows of his tour.

On July 14, 2007, the representatives of some civic lists participating in local elections the previous spring met in Parma to establish a national coordination between "associations, movements, organizations and civic lists practicing, promoting and experimenting direct and participatory democracy", and share a document of intent that, amongst its main objectives, included the establishment of proposal and repeal referendums, the direct election of the Ombudsman, the institution of participatory budgeting, a "bound" mandate for public administrators and open primaries.


V-Day in Bologna, in 2007.

On 14 June 2007 Beppe Grillo launched the idea of Vaffanculo Day (Fuck-off Day), or simply V-Day, a day of public mobilisation for the collection of signatures required to submit a law of popular initiative that seeks to introduce preferences in the current electoral law and to prevent the nomination as Parliamentary candidates of recipients of criminal convictions or of those who have already completed two terms in office.[38] The meeting was held in Bologna.

The choice of the name of the event, V-Day, had a threefold reference: the first to the landing operation (D-Day) of the Allies in Normandy during World War II, to symbolise how Italian citizens would "invade" bad policy; the second to the motion picture "V for Vendetta" (whose symbol is also referred to in the logo of the movement) which the movement refers to often with its principles of political renewal; the third to the interjection "Fuck you" given to bad policy.

V-Day, which continued the "Clean Parliament" initiative promoted by Beppe Grillo since 2006, took place in many Italian cities the following 8 September, the date chosen to evoke the state of confusion besetting the state, as at the September 8, 1943 Badoglio Proclamation. On that day 336,000 signatures were collected, far exceeding the 50,000 required for the filing of a law of popular initiative. For the occasion, Michele Serra coined the term "grillismo"[39]

In the wake of the success, exceeding the expectations of the organisers,[citation needed] V2-Day was organised for April 25, 2008, a second day of action aimed at collecting signatures for three referendums. On 29 and 30 September 2007 in Lucca, several members of the meetups and local civic lists, in the initial wake of the discussions started on the net and in the wake of the previous meeting of Perugia, define the policies for the establishment of civic lists. On October 10, 2007 Grillo gives guidance on how to create the civic lists.[40]

Five Star civic lists[edit]

On 3 December 2008, Grillo announces the symbol of the Civic Lists at Five Stars for the local elections of 2009. Logo in the "V" of "citizenship" is a reference to V-Day[41] In Bologna, 17 February 2009, a gathering of civic lists discussing the future of the movement and the subsequent elections, in particular, Sonia Alfano consulted with the activist base of the movement about his possible candidacy for the European Parliament as an independent candidate on the Italy of Values list.

On 8 March 2009, the first national meeting of the Five Star Civic Lists was held in Florence. Here Beppe Grillo had the Charter of Florence, bone joint 12-point program of the various local civic lists in the afternoon, about twenty local groups present their ideas and experiences. In April Grillo announced a letter of Nobel Prize winner in economics Joseph Stiglitz in which he declares to look carefully at the experience of local civic lists promoted through the blog[42]

On 29 March 2009, Grillo announced that in the upcoming European elections he would support Luigi de Magistris and Sonia Alfano, figures close to the movement as independent candidates in the lists of Italy of Values, together with the journalist Carlo Vulpio, also close to the movement[43] On 11 June and De Magistris is Alfano, candidates in all five constituencies are elected to the European Parliament, resulting in the first and second preferences 419 000 143 000. In the same election, as stated by Beppe Grillo, 23 councilors are elected Civic Lists of Five Star, especially in the municipalities of Emilia-Romagna in central Italy[44]

On 9 September 2009, it was announced the launch of the "National Movement Five Star" inspired by the ideologies of the Charter of Florence[45]

Along with Gianroberto Casaleggio to the Emerald Theatre in Milan, 4 October 2009 Beppe Grillo declared the birth of Five Star Movement and ran a programme.[46]

2010–2012 regional and local elections[edit]

During the 2010 regional elections the M5S obtained notable results in the five regions where it ran a candidate for President: Giovanni Favia gained 7.0% of the vote in Emilia-Romagna (6.0% for the list, 2 regional councillors elected), Davide Bono 4.1% in Piedmont (3.7%, 2 councillors), David Borrelli 3.2% in Veneto (2.6%, no councillors), Vito Crimi 3.0% in Lombardy (2.3%, no councillors) and Roberto Fico 1.3% in Campania (1.3%, no councillors).[47]

At the local elections on 15 and 16 May 2011, the Movement occurs in 75 of the 1,177 municipalities in the vote,[48] including 18 of the 23 provincial capitals called to vote. In the first round the Movement enters its representatives in 28 municipalities (for a total of 34 elected councilors) and often resulting in some important decisive ballots[49] The best results are in the cities and towns of the center-north, especially in Emilia-Romagna (where the list gets between 9 and 12% in Bologna, Rimini and Ravenna) and Piedmont, while in the south rarely exceeds 2% of the vote.

Regional elections in Molise on 16 and 17 October 2011 had its own candidate for the presidency and its own list, the list received 2.27% of the votes and the presidential candidate the 5.60% of the vote, but no seats[50]

At the 2012 local elections the M5S did well in several cities of the North, notably in Genoa (14.1%),[51] Verona (9.5%),[52] Parma (19.9%),[53] Monza (10.2%),[54] and Piacenza (10.0%).[55] In the small Venetian town of Sarego, the M5S's candidate was elected mayor with 35.2% of the vote (there is no run-off in towns with less than 15,000 inhabitants).[56] In the run-offs the party won the mayorships of Parma (60.2%),[53] Mira (52.5%),[57] and Comacchio (69.2%).[58]

After the election, the party consistently scored around 15-20% nationally in opinion polls, frequently ahead of The People of Freedom and second just to the Democratic Party (see 2013 general election).

At the Sicilian regional elections of 2012 the M5S filed as candidate Giancarlo Cancelleri. The campaign kicked off with Grillo's arrival in Messina on 10 October swimming from the mainland.[59][60] In the election Cancelleri came third with 18.2% of the vote, while the M5S was the most voted party with 14.9%, obtaining 15 seats out of 90 in the Regional Assembly, in a very fragmented political landscape.[61] The election was however characterized by a low participation as only 47.4% of eligible voters effectively turned out to vote.[62]

2013 general election[edit]

Further information: Italian general election, 2013

On 29 October 2012, Grillo announced the guidelines for standing as party candidates in the 2013 general election.[63][64] For the first time in Italy, the candidates were chosen by party members through an online primary between 3 and 6 December.[65]

On 12 December 2012, Grillo expelled two leading members from the party: Giovanni Favia, regional councillor of Emilia-Romagna, and Federica Salsi, municipal councillor in Bologna, due to infringing the rules of the political party. The former had talked about the lack of democracy within the party, while the latter had taken part in a political talk show on Italian television, something that was discouraged and later forbidden by Grillo.[66]

Deputies Roberto Fico, Alessandro Di Battista and Luigi Di Maio.

On 22 February 2013, a large crowd of 800,000 people attended the final rally of Beppe Grillo before the 2013 general election, in Piazza San Giovanni in Rome.[67] On 24 and 25 February 2013, M5S contested all Italian constituencies: Beppe Grillo was listed as head of the coalition, although he was not an electoral candidate.

The vote for M5S in the Chamber of Deputies reached 25.55% of the vote in Italy and 9.67% for overseas voters, for a total of 8,784,499 votes, making it the second most voted list after the Democratic Party (which acquired 25.42% of the votes in Italy and 29.9% abroad, or 8,932,615 votes), obtaining 108 deputies. The M5S vote for the Senate was 23.79% in Italy and 10% abroad, for a total of 7,375,412 votes, second only to the PD (which garnered 8,674,893 votes), obtaining 54 Senators. This was a successful election for M5S as the party gained a higher share of the vote than was expected by any of the opinion polls. The M5S won 25.6% of the vote for the Chamber of Deputies, more than any other single party. However, both the Italy Common Good centre-left coalition, centred on the Democratic Party, and the centre-right alliance, centred on The People of Freedom, obtained more votes as coalitions.[68][69] The M5S was the largest party in the Abruzzo, Marche, Liguria, Sicily and Sardinia.[50] The party obtained good results also in the regional elections in Lombardy, Lazio and Molise, where candidates obtained the third-largest share of votes, and the party won 9, 7 and 2 councillors, respectively.[citation needed]

On 21 March 2013 Luigi Di Maio was elected Vice President of the Chamber of Deputies with 173 votes. Aged 26, he was the youngest Vice President of the house to date.[70][71][72]

2014 European election[edit]

Contesting its first European election, M5S came in second place nationally in the 2014 European Parliament elections, receiving 21.15% of the vote and returning 17 MEPs.[73]

Beppe Grillo addressed the crowd in Rome, 2014.

In the run-up to the 8th parliamentary term, M5S was lacking a European affiliation and sought a European parliament group. Initial negotiations were held with Europe of Freedom and Democracy (EFD) co-president Nigel Farage and The Greens–European Free Alliance (Greens/EFA).[74][75] However, on 4 June 2014, The Greens/EFA rejected Grillo's attempts to obtain group membership.[76] On 11 June 2014, the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) group rejected M5S as a potential affiliate in a statement citing M5S's perceived Euroscepticism and populism.[77] In an online referendum offered to M5S members on 12 June 2014, the choice of European parliament affiliation offered were Europe of Freedom and Democracy (EFD), the European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR), or to become Non-Inscrits.[78] Party activists voted by 78.1% to join the EFD group.[79] On 18 June 2014, it was announced that the EFD group had enough MEPs to continue into the 8th European Parliament term.[80] On 24 June 2014, M5S MEP David Borrelli was chosen as the group's new co-president and the EFD group name was amended to Europe of Freedom and Direct Democracy (EFDD) for the upcoming parliament.[81][82] The EFDD group lost its official group status on 16 October 2014 after the defection of Latvian MEP Iveta Grigule, until Polish MEP Robert Iwaszkiewicz joined the group four days later.[83]

First logo of the movement

On November 17, 2015, after an online poll in which 40,995 people took part, the movement has changed his logo removing the name of Beppe Grillo and adding the officlal movement URL.[84] The other option was to remove all the written down. The grounds of the removal of Grillo's name was "the 5 Star Movement is adult and is preparing to govern Italy, so I believe it's correct to not associate it to a name anymore".[85]


In the Five Star Movement converge themes derived from ecological and anti-particracy promoting the direct participation of citizens in the management of public affairs through forms of digital democracy. The movement wants to be a "democratic encounter outside of party and associative ties and without the mediation of directive or representational organisms, recognising to all users of the Internet the role of government and direction that is normally attributed to a few".[86] From the economic point of view, embraces the theories of degrowth supporting the creation of "green jobs" and the rejection of polluting and expensive "great works", including incinerators and high-speed rail, aiming to an overall better quality of life and greater social justice.[87] The Five Star Movement proposes the adoption of large-scale energy projects, elimination of waste, sustainable mobility, protection of territory from overbuilding, teleworking.[88] The movement's political discourse often refers to the Internet as a solution to many social, economic, and environmental problems. This approach bears similarities with North-American cyber-utopianism and the Californian Ideology.[89]

Direct democracy[edit]

The movement bases its principles on direct democracy as an evolution of representative democracy. The idea is that citizens will no longer delegate their power to parties, considered old and corrupted intermediates between the State and themselves, that serve the interests of lobby groups and financial powers. They will succeed only by creating a collective intelligence made possible by the internet.[86]

The Five Star Movement, in order to go in this direction, chose its Italian and European parliamentary candidates through online voting by registered members of Beppe Grillo's Blog.[90][91] Through an application called "Operating System" reachable on the web,[92] the registered users of M5S discuss, approve or reject legislative proposals (submitted then in the Parliament by the M5S group). For example, the M5S electoral law was shaped through a series of online voting,[93] like the name of the M5S candidate for President of Republic.[94] The choice to support the abolition of a law against immigrants was taken online by members of the M5S even if the final decision was against the opinion of Grillo and Casaleggio.[95]

Politics is not a career[edit]

One of the most important rules of M5S is that politics is a temporary service: no one who has already been elected for more than two times at any level (local or national) can be a candidate again and has to go back to his or her original job.[86] Another feature of the movement is the so-called "zero-cost politics",[25] according to which politics must not become a career and way to make money. Belonging to the Movement requires the autoreduction of salaries of the citizens elected.[96][97] The movement also rejects campaign contributions. In the regional elections in Sicily in 2012, the Sicilian wing of the M5S has also decided to allocate the money saved by the reduction of the salaries of their elected in a fund for micro-credit to help small and medium enterprises.[98] In the general elections of 2013 the Five Star Movement claims to have rejected over €42 million of public electoral refunds,[99] supporting its expenses for the campaign with crowdfunding through the blog.[100][101]

No criminal records[edit]

In order to be Five Star Movement candidates, citizens must be without any criminal records.[86] The party also supports initiatives to ban politicians with criminal records from being elected. Among the greater political battles of M5S is the ethical commitment to a greater simplicity and transparency to counter the practice of holding two or more positions,[102][103] which show the intricate conflicts of interest between any organization, subsequently strengthened by public register[104] to avoid centralizations that are nepotistic and clientelistic.[105]

Same-sex marriage[edit]

The leader of the movement, Grillo, on 15 July 2012, claims to be approving of same-sex marriage.[106] The declaration by Grillo was inspired by the discussion of the National Assembly on the subject.[107] In offering his support to gay marriage, Grillo broke a silence on the subject, which was interpreted by some as opposition, clarifying the full support of the movement to recognize such marriages.[108]


With the 2010 Italian elections, some parties highlighted a contradiction between the voluntary collective action in the struggles of civil society and openness in political representation[109][110][111] Also in 2010, there were tensions between the movement and Italy of Values.[112]

Beppe Grillo (on the right) with Giovanni Favia (on the left), who was expelled from the movement in 2011.

In March 2012 the city councillor in Rimini Valentino Tavolazzi advocated a national meeting on behalf of the movement,[113][114] gathered about 150 participants, which voiced praise and harsh criticism even by those few politicians who were present at the convention,[115] with a harsh stance in the content of the meeting about the "conditions of Regulation M5S" because it was discovered to be in conflict with the statutes of its Civic Party of origin "Project for Ferrara". In response they officially lost the use of the logo[116][117] and were banned from taking any position on behalf of M5S, which was portrayed as a controversial move regarding internal democracy.[118][119][120]

Since 2007 Grillo has criticized the cost of the policy by supporting the reduction of payment for deputies and senators.[121] Based on this policy, the benefits received by the member of parliament must not exceed €5,000 gross per month, while any extra will be returned to the State with solidarity allowance (also called end-term). According to the regional director of the Five Star Movement Giovanni Favia, the deduction of €5,000 gross salary of parliamentarians is, however, contrary to the principles of the movement, as it would result in a reduction of only 2,500 euro net. In an interview which was published in several newspapers in November 2012, Favia estimated at €11,000 ero per month the fees prescribed for a member of M5S, even though it does not explain how it got to deduct that amount because it necessarily includes reimbursements and per diem is not flat, as costs and expenses which vary from member to member.[122]

Following the expulsion of Giovanni Favia and Federica Salsi for expressing views about the lack of internal democracy, the party has expelled several members for criticisms.[123][124] The expulsions were made unilaterally by Beppe Grillo and, as per regulation, took place without prior consultation with members of the movement.[125][126][127]

Another criticism frequently made by the same movement activists and former activists, such as Federico Pistono, social entrepreneur and the former member,[128] is about the absence of any form of effective participation on the web.[129] There is currently a tool for collective writing of the program and the proposed laws. The forum is considered inadequate for the purpose.[130][131] Through his blog, in September 2012, Grillo said that a portal to participate via the web was already under construction.[132] The triggering was scheduled for the end of the year 2012, but at the time of the elections of February 2013 it was not yet realized.

On 28 January 2014 Giorgio Sorial, a deputy of the M5S, accused President Giorgio Napolitano of being a hangman who repressed opponents.[133] [134] Prime Minister Enrico Letta immediately defended President Napolitano, charging the M5S with being extremists.[135] The following day Angelo Tofalo, another deputy of the movement, ended his speech at the Chamber of Deputies by shouting boia chi molla! (coward who gives up!) a famous motto used during the Fascist era.[136][137] Often the movement's members, especially its leader Beppe Grillo, have been accused of being too vulgar and (verbally) violent.[138] [139]

After a Five Star Movement demonstration inside the Chamber of Deputies against a law approved by the government,[140][141] caused a brawl between the M5S, the centrist Civic Choice, the far-right Brothers of Italy and the centre-left Democratic Party,[142] and following insults to the President of the Chamber of Deputies Laura Boldrini,[143] on 31 January 2014 Corrado Augias, a famous Italian journalist, stated that the violence used by the M5S reminded him of fascism.[144] The following day a militant activist of the Five Star Movement burned some books of Augias and uploaded the photos to his Facebook profile, because according to him "Augias offended the movement".[145] This episode was readily taken up by major national newspapers and heavily criticized by public opinion, due to some similarities with Nazi book burnings.[146] Beppe Grillo criticized the action, saying that the person who uploaded the photos didn't represent the Movement.[147]

Electoral results[edit]

Italian Parliament[edit]

Chamber of Deputies
Election year # of
overall votes
 % of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Leader
2013 8,689,168 (#1) 25.6
109 / 630
Beppe Grillo
Senate of the Republic
Election year # of
overall votes
 % of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Leader
2013 7,285,648 (#2) 23.8
54 / 315
Beppe Grillo

European Parliament[edit]

Election year # of
overall votes
 % of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
+/– Leader
2014 5,807,362 (#2) 21.2
17 / 73
Beppe Grillo

Regional Councils[edit]

Region Latest election # of
overall votes
 % of
overall vote
# of
overall seats won
Abruzzo 2014 143,779 (#2) 21.4
6 / 31
Apulia 2015 275,114 (#2) 16.3
7 / 51
Aosta Valley 2013 4,773 (#6) 6.6
2 / 35
Basilicata 2013 21,219 (#3) 9.0
2 / 21
Calabria 2014 38,345 (#8) 4.9
0 / 30
Campania 2015 387,327 (#3) 17.0
7 / 49
Emilia-Romagna 2014 159,456 (#3) 13.3
5 / 50
Friuli-Venezia Giulia 2013 54,952 (#3) 13.8
5 / 49
Lazio 2013 467,249 (#3) 16.6
7 / 50
Liguria 2015 120,147 (#2) 22.9
6 / 30
Lombardy 2013 775,211 (#3) 14.3
9 / 80
Molise 2013 20,437 (#2) 12.2
2 / 21
Piedmont 2014 396,295 (#2) 20.3
8 / 50
Sicily 2012 285,202 (#1) 14.9
15 / 90
South Tyrol 2013 13,877 (#6) 5.8
1 / 35
Trentino 2013 13,877 (#7) 2.5
2 / 35
Tuscany 2015 200,771 (#3) 15.1
5 / 41
Umbria 2015 51,203 (#2) 14.5
2 / 20
Veneto 2015 192,630 (#4) 10.4
5 / 51


Further reading[edit]

  • De Rosa, Rosanna (2013). Voice of the People or Cybercratic Centralism? The Italian case of Beppe Grillo and Movimento Cinque Stelle. Edition Donau-Universität Krems. pp. 89–102. 
  • Lanzone, Maria Elisabetta (2014). The "Post-Modern" Populism in Italy: The Case of the Five Star Movement. Emerald Group. pp. 53–78. 
  • Musiani, Francesca (2014). Avant-garde: Digital Movement or "Digital Sublime" Rhetoric? The Movimento 5 Stelle and the 2013 Italian Parliamentary Elections. Springer. pp. 127–140. 
  • Sæbø, Øystein; Braccini, Alession Maria; Federici, Tommaso (2015). From the Blogosphere into Real Politics: The Use of ICT by the Five Star Movement. Springer. pp. 241–250. 
  • Tronconi, Filippo (2015). Beppe Grillo's Five Star Movement. Organisation, Communication and Ideology. Ashgate. ISBN 978-1-4724-3663-4. 


  1. ^ Andrea Bassi (March 12, 2013). "M5s, ecco lo statuto del Movimento 5 stelle. L'atto costitutivo firmato a Cogoleto da Beppe Grillo, il nipote Enrico Grillo e il commercialista. Non compare il nome di Casaleggio". L'Huffington Post. 
  2. ^ This party structure has no official name, but was quickly nicknamed Direttorio ("Directorate") by the Italian press. ANSA (28 novembre 2014). M5S supporters give thumbs up to Grillo directorate; ANSA (28 novembre 2014). Grillo è 'stanchino', nomina direttorio. Partito insorge.
  3. ^ "Risultati della votazione sul gruppo politico europeo". June 12, 2014. 
  4. ^ "Greece 'leaves behind the austerity that ruined it,' party leader vows after vote". 25 January 2015. Retrieved 2 January 2015. 
  5. ^ "Breaking news on Five Star Movement". Retrieved 2015-05-14. 
  6. ^ Guy Dinmore. "Italy's Beppe Grillo battles to sustain anti-establishment message". Financial Times. 
  7. ^ John Hooper in Rome. "Parliamentary gridlock in Italy as Five Star Movement refuses to make deal | World news". Retrieved 2015-05-14. 
  8. ^ Published time: December 20, 2014 21:00 (2014-12-20). "Already 50,000 signatures for Italian referendum on Euro, Eurosceptic leader says — RT News". Retrieved 2015-05-14. 
  9. ^ Michael Day (2013-02-22). "Italian election: Surge in popularity for eurosceptic protest party headed by stand-up comedian Beppe Grillo raises fears in EU - Europe - World". Retrieved 2015-05-14. 
  10. ^ "‘Ditch euro, defend Italy’s sovereignty!’ Eurosceptic leader calls for referendum — RT News". 2014-10-12. Retrieved 2015-05-14. 
  11. ^ Massimo Di Renzo (2012-11-09). "Ma la decrescita può davvero essere felice?". Movimento 5 Stelle Pescara. Retrieved 2015-06-08. 
  12. ^ Dafni Ruscetta (2012-10-18). "Nel senso della decrescita". Movimento 5 Stelle Cagliari. Retrieved 2015-06-08. 
  13. ^ "NOTIZIE IN DUE MINUTI". Corriere della Sera. 5 October 2009. p. 64. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  14. ^ a b Donatella M. Viola (2015). "Italy". In Donatella M. Viola. Routledge Handbook of European Elections. Routledge. p. 113. ISBN 978-1-317-50363-7. 
  15. ^ Alec Charles (2013). Media/Democracy: A Comparative Study. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-4438-5008-7. 
  16. ^ John Foot (2014). Modern Italy. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 223–226. ISBN 978-1-137-04192-0. 
  17. ^ Emilie van Haute; Anika Gauja (2015). Party Members and Activists. Routledge. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-317-52432-8. 
  18. ^ Walter Kickert; Tiina Randma-Liiv (2015). Europe Managing the Crisis: The Politics of Fiscal Consolidation. Routledge. p. 263. ISBN 978-1-317-52570-7. 
  19. ^ Mackenzie, James (2014-11-29). "'Tired' Grillo overhauls leadership of Italy's 5-Star Movement". Retrieved 2015-05-14. 
  20. ^ Lord John Eatwell; Mr Pascal Petit; Professor Terry McKinley (2014). Challenges for Europe in the World, 2030. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 313. ISBN 978-1-4724-1925-5. 
  21. ^ Professor Davide Torsello (2013). The New Environmentalism?: Civil Society and Corruption in the Enlarged EU. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 130. ISBN 978-1-4094-9511-6. 
  22. ^ Tom Lansford (2013). Political Handbook of the World 2013. SAGE Publications. p. 716. ISBN 978-1-4522-5825-6. 
  23. ^ "Grillo, confessione a eletti M5S: 'Finzione politica l'impeachment di Napolitano' - Il Fatto Quotidiano". Retrieved 2015-05-14. 
  24. ^ "Beppe Grillo's Blog". Retrieved 2013-06-18. 
  25. ^ a b "Zero-Cost Politics". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  26. ^ Redazione La Fucina (2013-11-20). "La denuncia di Latouche: "Vogliono delegittimare Grillo e il M5S"". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  27. ^ "Grillo, il Movimento 5 stelle, e la Nonviolenza". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  28. ^ "Processo per l'Iraq". 2010-08-18. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  29. ^ "La Siria e "l'ora delle decisioni"". 2013-08-27. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  30. ^ "Risultato elezioni 2013: con i voti degli italiani all'estero il Pd è il primo partito alla Camera". 2013-03-21. Retrieved 2015-06-08. 
  31. ^ Ministero dell'Interno - Scrutini Camera: Italia
  32. ^ Dal Nostro Inviato Federico Rampini (2003-07-07). "{0} - La Repubblica" (in Italian). Retrieved 2013-06-18. 
  33. ^ "micromega - micromega-online » Grillini in movimento - Versione stampabile". Retrieved 2013-06-18. 
  34. ^ 22 maggio 2012. "L'economia secondo i grillini: provocazioni, ma c'è anche buon senso". Il Sole 24 ORE. Retrieved 2013-06-18. 
  35. ^ "I grillini propongono il "ritorno alla terra" | Forlì24ore". Retrieved 2013-06-18. 
  36. ^ (m.o.) (2005-08-04). "E il guru per lanciarsi ha scelto 'Meet Up' - La Repubblica" (in Italian). Retrieved 2013-06-18. 
  37. ^ "Blog di Beppe Grillo - Nulla si crea, nulla si distrugge.Il centro di riciclo di Vedelago". Retrieved 2013-06-18. 
  38. ^ "Blog di Beppe Grillo - Vaffanculo-Day". 2007-06-14. Retrieved 2013-06-18. 
  39. ^ "La piazza di Grillo tra politica e populismo - cronaca". Retrieved 2013-06-18. 
  40. ^ "Blog di Beppe Grillo - Liste civiche/1". 2007-10-14. Retrieved 2013-06-18. 
  41. ^ "Blog di Beppe Grillo - Liste Civiche a Cinque Stelle". 2008-12-03. Retrieved 2013-06-18. 
  42. ^ "Blog di Beppe Grillo - Stiglitz e Le Liste Civiche". 2009-04-15. Retrieved 2013-06-18. 
  43. ^ "De Magistris in politica: dico addio alla toga". Retrieved 2013-06-18. 
  44. ^ "Blog di Beppe Grillo - Comunicato politico numero ventitre". 2009-07-04. Retrieved 2013-06-18. 
  45. ^ "Blog di Beppe Grillo - Comunicato politico numero venticinque". Retrieved 2013-06-18. 
  46. ^ Casaleggio: «Ho scritto io le regole del Movimento 5 Stelle. Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
  47. ^ ::: Ministero dell'Interno ::: Archivio Storico delle Elezioni - Regionali del 28 Marzo 2010. Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
  48. ^ Adnkronos Politica. (2011-05-09). Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
  49. ^ Corsa ai ballottaggi, ecco chi deciderà Dal Terzo Polo agli astenuti. E i 5 Stelle.... Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
  50. ^ a b Elezioni 2013. Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
  51. ^ "Elezioni 2012, Amministrative". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). RCS Mediagroup S.p.a. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  52. ^ "Elezioni 2012 Amministrative,Risultati Comune diVERONA". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). RCS Mediagroup S.p.a. Retrieved 27 May 2012. 
  53. ^ a b "Elezioni Amministrative 2012, risultati comune di Parma". Corriere della Sera. 
  54. ^ "Elezioni Amministrative 2012, risultati comune di Monza". Corriere della Sera. 
  55. ^ "Elezioni Amministrative 2012, risultati comune di Piacenza". Corriere della Sera. 
  56. ^ "Elezioni Amministrative 2012, risultati comune di Sarego". Corriere della Sera. 
  57. ^ "Elezioni Amministrative 2012, risultati comune di Mira". Corriere della Sera. 
  58. ^ "Elezioni Amministrative 2012, risultati comune di Comacchio". Corriere della Sera. 
  59. ^ "Elections in Sicily: Tip of the boot". The Economist. 27 October 2012. Retrieved 4 November 2012. 
  60. ^ Tom Kington (4 November 2012). "Italian comedian turned politician in row over his 'medieval sexism'". London: The Observer. Retrieved 5 November 2012. 
  61. ^ Sicilia - Elezioni Regionali 28 ottobre 2012 - la. Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
  62. ^ Day, Michael (2012-10-31). "Sicily's first gay governor opens a new schism between Italy's old enemies - Europe - World - The Independent". London. Retrieved 2012-11-05. 
  63. ^ "Passaparola - Comunicato Politico 53 - Elezioni politiche online - Beppe Grillo - YouTube". Retrieved 2012-10-30. 
  64. ^ "Politiche, Grillo esclude i big E i "perdenti" si fanno avanti - Corriere di Bologna". Retrieved 2012-10-30. 
  65. ^ Grillo: più donne che uomini dalle nostre Parlamentarie. Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
  66. ^ Grillo: via i ribelli, hanno rotto E la base si spacca sul blog. Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
  67. ^ Italians Vote With Berlusconi Challenging Monti Austerity. Bloomberg. Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
  68. ^ Riepilogo Nazionale - Camera - Elezioni Politiche 24-25 febbraio 2013 - la. (2013-01-25). Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
  69. ^ Dipartimento per gli Affari Interni e Territoriali. Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
  70. ^ "Camera: Ok a vicepresidenti, anche M5S in cabina regia". RaiNews24. 21 March 2013. 
  71. ^ "DI MAIO Luigi - M5S". Retrieved 25 February 2014. 
  72. ^ Pino Neri (22 March 2013). "Luigi Di Maio, il ventiseienne napoletano, nuovo vicepresidente della Camera". Il Mattino. 
  73. ^ "[Scrutini] Europee - Elezioni del 25 maggio 2014 - Ministero dell'Interno". 2014-05-26. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  74. ^ "UKIP's Farage meets Italy's five-Star leader Grillo in Brussels | Reuters". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  75. ^ Post EU Elections. "EUobserver / Five Star movement leader seeks to join EP Green group". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  76. ^ Nielsen, Nikolaj. "EUobserver / Greens reject Beppe Grillo's offer to team up". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  77. ^ "Press Release". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  78. ^ Altri articoli dalla categoria ». "Alleanze in Europa, il M5S sceglie l'Ukip di Farage. Ma la base accusa: votazione pilotata". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  79. ^ europe online publishing house gmbh - (2014-05-17). "1ST LEAD Italy protest party to form EU alliance with British eurosceptics UKIP By Alvise Armellini, dpa | EUROPE ONLINE". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  80. ^ Post EU Elections. "EUobserver / Farage creates eurosceptic group in EP". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  81. ^ "Bruxelles, prima riunione gruppo Ukip-M5S. Farage e Borrelli presidenti – Video Il Fatto Quotidiano TV". 2014-06-25. Retrieved 2015-05-14. 
  82. ^ "Internazionale » M5S » All’Europarlamento nasce gruppo Efd, "coppia aperta" per M5s-Ukip". 2014-06-24. Retrieved 2015-05-14. 
  83. ^ "UKIP's alliance in Europe rescued by Polish MEP". BBC News. 20 October 2014. 
  84. ^ "Il nuovo simbolo del M5S". November 17, 2015. Retrieved November 20, 2015. 
  85. ^ "Comunicato politico numero cinquantasei". November 17, 2015. Retrieved November 20, 2015. 
  86. ^ a b c d The 5 Star MoVement between Utopia and reality. Beppe Grillo's Blog (2011-06). Retrieved on 2014-01-03.
  87. ^ La Fiom strizza l'occhio ai grillini L'idea: fare una lista degli scontenti. (2012-08-20). Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
  88. ^ "Movimento Programma" (PDF) (in Italian). Retrieved 2015-05-14. 
  89. ^ Natale, Simone; Ballatore, Andrea (2014-01-01). "The web will kill them all: new media, digital utopia, and political struggle in the Italian 5-Star Movement" (PDF). Media, Culture & Society 36 (1): 105–121. doi:10.1177/0163443713511902. ISSN 0163-4437. 
  90. ^ Italy's Five Star protest party makes waves. Retrieved on 2014-05-21.
  91. ^ Italy’s 5-Star Movement holds online vote to pick candidates. (2014-05-21). Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
  92. ^ "M5S Operating System". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  93. ^ "Ecco la legge elettorale del M5S preannunciata da Casaleggio". 2014-05-19. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  94. ^ "Quirinarie di M5s, per Rodotà 4.677 voti". 2013-04-20. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  95. ^ "Grillo, gli iscritti del M5S dicono no al reato di immigrazione clandestina". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  96. ^ Movimento 5 Stelle Emilia-Romagna - Trasparenza - Ci siamo autoridotti lo stipendio. (2012-12-31). Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
  97. ^ Grillo, gli eletti del M5S in Sicilia restituisconi i rimborsi ma sbagliano cifra - Il Messaggero. Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
  98. ^ Sicilia, i deputati regionali del Movimento 5 Stelle restituiscono lo stipendio - Il Fatto Quotidiano. Retrieved on 2013-08-24.
  99. ^ "Il M5S rinuncia a 42.782.512,50 euro". 2013-03-11. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  100. ^ M5S, le spese dello Tsunami Tour online. Ma i nomi dei sostenitori non ci sono Retrieved on 28-12-2013.
  101. ^ Donazioni Politiche 2013 - Blog di Beppe Grillo Retrieved on 20-04-2014.
  102. ^ "PiacenzaSera". Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  103. ^ "I grillini sfidano i partiti "Via i doppi incarichi" - Cronaca - Messaggero Veneto". 2012-10-23. Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  104. ^ "Regione ER, sě all'anagrafe pubblica degli eletti e dei nominati". Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  105. ^ "Blog di Beppe Grillo - Il MoVimento 5 Stelle contro il nepotismo". Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  106. ^ "Articolo non trovato". Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  107. ^ Redazione (2012-07-14). "ASSEMBLEA PD/ Il partito si spacca sui matrimoni gay, Bindi contro Concia". Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  108. ^ "Beppe Grillo E Diritti Gay: Un Silenzio Assordante". 2007-04-13. Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  109. ^ "Grillo, stop a De Magistris: non tocchi il mio movimento". Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  110. ^ "Eletti, liberi e belli- Blog di Beppe Grillo". 2011-02-28. Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  111. ^ "Comprereste un voto usato da quest'uomo?- Blog di Beppe Grillo". 2011-03-23. Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  112. ^ Di Carmine Saviano. "Una "fedelissima" contro Grillo E continua la tensione con l'Idv". Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  113. ^ "MoVimento 5 Stelle Emilia Romagna: il punto dopo le elezioni- Blog di Beppe Grillo". 2010-04-22. Retrieved 2013-09-27. 
  114. ^ "Beppe Grillo espelle Ballestrazzi - Cronaca - Gazzetta di Modena". 2010-04-22. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  115. ^ "Blog di Beppe Grillo - Rimini per noi". 2012-03-04. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  116. ^ "Blog di Beppe Grillo - Valentino Tavolazzi". 2012-03-05. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  117. ^ "Grillo caccia consigliere comunale "Non ha capito il nostro spirito" - Bologna -". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  118. ^ "Blog di Beppe Grillo - Consiglieri Anonimi". 2012-03-03. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  119. ^ [1][dead link]
  120. ^ Giulia Zaccariello (2011-12-30). ""Grillo non può espellere nessuno". 5 Stelle divisi sul ruolo del leader - Il Fatto Quotidiano". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  121. ^ "MoVimento". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  122. ^ Redazione Il Fatto Quotidiano. "Stipendi 5 Stelle, Favia critica Grillo: "Tagli irrisori, 3000 euro di stipendio bastano" - Il Fatto Quotidiano". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  123. ^ ://
  124. ^ 12 dicembre 2012. "Niente dissenso: E Grillo espelle dal M5S gli "eretici" Salsi e Favia". Il Sole 24 ORE. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  125. ^ "Grillo caccia Favia e Salsi dal Movimento 5 Stelle". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  126. ^ "Grillo "scomunica" Favia e Salsi L'eletta: "Peggio che nei vecchi partiti" - Bologna -". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  127. ^ Emanuele Buzzi. "Bufera sui grillini Avvocati in campo per l'uso del logo". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  128. ^ "Interview with Federico, author of "Robots Will Steal Your Job, but That's OK"". (in English and Chinese). December 21, 2012. Retrieved 22 May 2013. 
  129. ^ Riccardo Guerrera. "Grillo, Casaleggio, dov'è il Portale promesso ??? Abbiamo aspettato 3 anni !!! Almeno dateci una data di rilascio ufficiale !!! - Forum". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  130. ^ Riccardo Guerrera. "Aiutiamo il Movimento 5 Stelle! Vogliamo una piattaforma di collaborazione Wiki - Forum". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  131. ^ "Movimento 5 Stelle, la piattaforma che sostituisce LiquidFeedback -". 2013-02-19. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  132. ^ "Blog di Beppe Grillo - Portale 5 Stelle". 2012-09-19. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  133. ^ "Il grillino Sorial: "Napolitano boia". Il M5 sotto attacco, ma si divide". 2014-01-28. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  134. ^ "La Stampa - Cinque Stelle choc: "Napolitano boia" Ira Letta. Renzi: stupidità senza eguali". 2014-01-28. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  135. ^ "Ultime Notizie Online | Agenzia Giornalistica Italia | AGI". Retrieved 2015-05-14. 
  136. ^ "M5s, nuovo caso dopo Napolitano boia 'Boia chi molla' del deputato alla Camera". 2014-01-29. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  137. ^ "M5S: i nuovi resistenti che urlano 'Boia chi molla' - Il Fatto Quotidiano". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  138. ^ Pubblicato: 09/12/2013 13:56 CET. "Blog Beppe Grillo attacca il Pd con un video violento e volgare. "Due euro per farsi prendere per il c... ancora"". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  139. ^ "Salsi: Grillo è violento è cattivo con le persone - Bologna -". 2012-11-30. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  140. ^ "Bagarre alla Camera: il gesto volgare del deputato M5S - Repubblica Tv - la". 2014-01-29. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  141. ^ "Blitz 5 Stelle, occupazione alla Camera Boldrini: «Sono violenti, presto sanzioni". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  142. ^ "Rissa Camera, Alessandra Moretti: ''Insulti sessisti da deputato M5s'' - Repubblica Tv - la". 2014-01-30. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  143. ^ "Boldrini, minacce ci sono perché clima surriscaldato - Politica". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  144. ^ "Augias su Di Battista e M5S: "Tutto ridotto a slogan. Fascismo partì così" – Video Il Fatto Quotidiano TV". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  145. ^ "Augias, dopo gli attacchi di Grillo al rogo il suo libro". 2014-02-02. Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  146. ^ "Augias, i 5 Stelle e l’eterno spettro del rogo dei libri". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 
  147. ^ "The Movement 5 Stars loves books and repudiates violence". Beppe Grillo's Blog. Retrieved 2014-02-06. 
  148. ^ a b c Pubblicato: 12/03/2013 18:30 CET. "M5s, ecco lo statuto del Movimento 5 stelle. L'atto costitutivo firmato a Cogoleto da Beppe Grillo, il nipote Enrico Grillo e il commercialista. Non compare il nome di Casaleggio (FOTO, DOCUMENTO)". Retrieved 2014-06-25. 

External links[edit]