List of political parties in Italy

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Political parties in Italy are numerous. Historically there have been even more political parties than are active in politics of Italy today. Since World War II, no one party has ever gained enough support to govern alone. Parties thus form party coalitions and coalition governments.

In the last Italian general election in 2013, there four major groupings of political parties: the centre-left led by the Democratic Party, the traditional centre-right alliance between The People of Freedom and Northern League, Beppe Grillo's Five Star Movement and a new centrist coalition around Mario Monti's Civic Choice. In November 2013 The People of Freedom was dissolved and merged into the new Forza Italia, provoking the formation of the split-away New Centre-Right.

History[edit]

Between 1945 and 1994, Italian politics was dominated by two major parties: Christian Democracy, the party of government who was always in a coalition, and the Italian Communist Party, the main opposition party. The other opposition party was the post-fascist Italian Social Movement. During its almost fifty years in government, Christian Democracy chose its coalition partners among four parties: the Italian Socialist Party, the Italian Democratic Socialist Party, the Italian Republican Party and the Italian Liberal Party.

For 46 consecutive years, the Christian Democrats led the government except for five years. Between 1983 and 1991, they led a coalition government with the Socialists, the Republicans, the Democratic Socialists and the Liberals. These were the years when several northern Italian regional parties demanding autonomy organised themselves at the regional level. In 1991 they federated themselves into the Lega Nord, which became the country's fourth largest party in the 1992 general election.

In 1992–94, the political system was shaken by a series of corruption scandals known collectively as Tangentopoli. These events led to the disappearance of the five parties of government. Consequently, the Communists, who had evolved to become Democratic Party of the Left in 1991, and the post-fascists, who launched National Alliance in 1994, gained strength. Following the 1994 general election media tycoon Silvio Berlusconi became Prime Minister of Italy at the head of a coalition composed mainly of three parties: its brand new party called Forza Italia (joined by several members of the former mainstream parties), National Alliance and Lega Nord.

Between 1996 and 2008, Italian political parties were organised into two big coalitions, the centre-right Pole for Freedoms (which was renamed House of Freedoms after the re-entry of Lega Nord in 2000) and The Olive Tree (part of the new, broader coalition The Union in 2005) on the centre-left. The centre-left governed from 1996 to 2001 and again between 2006 and 2008, while the House of Freedoms was in government between 2001 and 2006. In 2008 The Union ceased to exist as the newly founded Democratic Party decided to break the alliance with its left-wing partners, notably including the Communist Refoundation Party. On the centre-right, Forza Italia and National Alliance merged to form The People of Freedom, which continued the alliance with Lega Nord and won the 2008 general election.

In the 2013 general election, the latest to date, the political scenario was much more fragmented with four big groupings: the centre-left led by the Democratic Party, the traditional centre-right alliance between The People of Freedom and Lega Nord, Beppe Grillo's Five Star Movement and a new centrist coalition around Mario Monti's Civic Choice. In November 2013 The People of Freedom was dissolved and merged into the new Forza Italia, provoking the formation of the split-away New Centre-Right.

Active parties[edit]

Major parties[edit]

Active parties that have garnered at least 4% in the latest general election, have their own group in at least one of the chambers of the Parliament of Italy, or have 5 members of the European Parliament:

Minor parties[edit]

Active parties that have garnered at least 0.5% in a general election or a European election; or have had at least 5 members of the Italian parliament, 2 members of the European Parliament, or 3 elects in 3 different Regional Councils:

Unregistered parties[edit]

Regional parties[edit]

Active parties having garnered at least 1% in a regional election (or in a general/European election at the regional level) or having had at least 2 regional councillors:

Aosta Valley
Piedmont
Lombardy
South Tyrol
Trentino
Veneto
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Emilia-Romagna
Liguria
Tuscany
Marche
Umbria
Molise
Campania
Apulia
Basilicata
Calabria
Sicily
Sardinia

Parties of the Italians abroad[edit]

Active parties having garnered at least 15% in one constituency in a general election or having had at least 1 MP:

Parliamentary groups[edit]

Parliamentary groups not directly connected to a political party or coalition of political parties:

* The group, active in the Senate since 2001, has been known as "UDC, SVP and Autonomies" in 2008–2013 and "For the Autonomies – PSI – MAIE" since 2013.

Former parties[edit]

Coalitions[edit]

Former coalitions having garnered at least 15% in a general/European election:

Parties[edit]

Former parties having garnered at least 1% in a general/European election or having had at least 5 MPs or 2 MEPs:

Regional parties[edit]

Former parties having garnered at least 1% in a regional election (or in a general/European election at the regional level) or having had at least 2 regional councillors:

Aosta Valley
Piedmont
Lombardy
Liguria
South Tyrol
Trentino
Veneto
Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Molise
Campania
Basilicata
Calabria
Sicily
Sardinia

Parties of the Italians abroad[edit]

Former parties having garnered at least 15% in one constituency in a general election or having had at least 1 MP:

Parliamentary groups[edit]

Parliamentary groups not directly connected to a political party or coalition of political parties: