Foreign relations of Mozambique

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While alliances dating back to the Mozambican War of Independence remain relevant, Mozambique's foreign policy has become increasingly pragmatic. The twin pillars of the policy are maintenance of good relations with its neighbors and maintenance and expansion of ties to development partners.

During the 1970s and early 1980s, Mozambique's foreign policy was inextricably linked to the struggles for majority rule in Rhodesia and South Africa as well as superpower competition and the Cold War. Mozambique's decision to enforce United Nations sanctions against Rhodesia and support Rhodesian guerrillas led Ian Smith's regime to undertake overt and covert actions to destabilize the country. Although the change of government in Zimbabwe in 1980 removed this threat, the apartheid regime in South Africa continued to finance the destabilization of Mozambique.

The 1984 Nkomati Accord, while failing in its goal of ending South African support to RENAMO, opened initial diplomatic contacts between the Mozambican and South African governments. This process gained momentum with South Africa's elimination of apartheid, which culminated in the establishment of full diplomatic relations in October 1993. While relations with neighboring Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, and Tanzania show occasional strains, Mozambique's ties to these countries remain strong.

Embassy of Mozambique in Washington, D.C.

In the years immediately following its independence, Mozambique benefited from considerable assistance from some western countries, notably the Scandinavians. The Soviet Union and its allies, however, became Mozambique's primary economic, military, and political supporters and its foreign policy reflected this linkage. This began to change in 1983; in 1984 Mozambique joined the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. Western aid quickly replaced Soviet support, with the Scandinavians, Finland, the United States, the Netherlands, and the European Union becoming increasingly important sources of development assistance. Italy also maintains a profile in Mozambique as a result of its key role during the peace process. Relations with Portugal, the former colonial power, are complex and of some importance as Portuguese investors play a visible role in Mozambique's economy.

Mozambique is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement and ranks among the moderate members of the African Bloc in the United Nations and other international organizations. Mozambique also belongs to the Organisation of African Unity/African Union and the Southern African Development Community. In 1994, the Government became a full member of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation), in part to broaden its base of international support but also to please the country's sizeable Muslim population. Similarly, in early 1996 Mozambique joined its Anglophone neighbors in the Commonwealth. In the same year, Mozambique became a founding member and the first President of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), and maintains close ties with other Lusophone states. The country is also a member of the Port Management Association of Eastern and Southern Africa (PMAESA).

Illicit drugs: Southern African transit point for South Asian hashish, South Asian heroin, and South American cocaine probably destined for the European and South African markets; producer of cannabis (for local consumption) and methaqualone (for export to South Africa); corruption and poor regulatory capability makes the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center.

Bilateral relations[edit]

Country Formal relations began Notes

Both nations were formerly part of the Portuguese Empire.

  • Angola has an embassy in Maputo.
  • Mozambique has an embassy in Luanda.
 Armenia 13 September 1995

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 13 September 1995.

 Brazil 15 November 1975 See Brazil–Mozambique relations
 Canada 1975 See Canada–Mozambique relations
 China 25 June 1975 See China–Mozambique relations

China-Mozambique relations date back to the 1960s, when China began to support the struggle of Mozambique's Marxist-oriented FRELIMO party against Portuguese colonialism.[5] Diplomatic relations were formally established on 25 June 1975, soon after Mozambique gained its independence from Portugal.[6] In November 2006, Mozambique became the thirteenth African country to be added to China's official list of tourism destinations.[7] Hu Jintao, president of the People's Republic of China, made an official visit to Mozambique in February 2007, during which he and Armando Guebuza, the president of Mozambique, pledged further cooperation in the areas of economy, technology, agriculture, education and sports.[8]

 Denmark See Denmark-Mozambique relations
 Finland 4 July 1975 See Finland–Mozambique relations
  • The two countries established diplomatic relations on
  • Mozambique is represented in Finland through its embassy in Stockholm, Sweden.
  • Finland has an embassy in Maputo.[9]
 India See India–Mozambique relations
 Malawi See Malawi-Mozambique relations
 Mexico 26 February 1988
  • Mexico is accredited to Mozambique from its embassy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.[14]
  • Mozambique has not accredited an embassy to Mexico.[15]
 Portugal See Mozambique–Portugal relations
  • They are both members of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.
  • Mozambique gained independence from Portugal in 1975.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Maputo and a Consulate-General in Beira.
  • Mozambique has an embassy in Lisbon.
  • Portuguese companies are the second largest private investor in Mozambique.[16]
  • In July 2008, Mozambique and Portugal have signed an agreement to set up a fund to support investments worth USD124 million in the Mozambican energy sector.[17]
  • In July 2008, Portugal cancelled Mozambique’s remaining debts to Portugal, estimated at US$393.4 million, accumulated from independence until 2005.[18]
 Russia 25 June 1975 See Mozambique–Russia relations

Mozambique-Russia relations date back to the 1960s, when Russia began to support the struggle of Mozambique's Marxist-oriented FRELIMO party against Portuguese colonialism. Most leaders of the FRELIMO were trained in Moscow. Diplomatic relations were formally established on 25 June 1975, soon after Mozambique gained its independence from Portugal. In June 2007, both Russia and Mozambique signed an agreement on economic cooperation.[19] Russia has an embassy in Maputo while Mozambique has an embassy in Moscow.

 South Korea 11 August 1993

Establishment of Diplomatic Relations between the Republic of Korea and Mozambique in August 11, 1993. There were 78 South Koreans living in Mozambique in 2012.[20]

 United States See Mozambique–United States relations

Relations between the United States and Mozambique are good and steadily improving. By 1993, U.S. aid to Mozambique was prominent, due in part to significant emergency food assistance in the wake of the 1991-93 southern African drought, but more importantly in support of the peace and reconciliation process. During the process leading up to elections in October 1994, the United States served as a significant financier and member of the most important commissions established to monitor implementation of the Rome General Peace Accords. The United States is the largest bilateral donor to the country and plays a leading role in donor efforts to assist Mozambique.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Embassy of Brazil in Maputo (in Portuguese)". Retrieved 26 August 2017. 
  2. ^ "Embaixada da Republica de Mozambique em Brasilia". Retrieved 26 August 2017. 
  3. ^ "Consulado da República do Moçambique no Brasil". Retrieved 26 August 2017. 
  4. ^ Government of Canada, Foreign Affairs Trade and Development Canada. "High Commission of Canada to Mozambique". GAC. Retrieved 26 August 2017. 
  5. ^ Horta, Loro (2007-08-13). "China, Mozambique: old friends, new business". ISN Security Update. Retrieved 2007-11-03. 
  6. ^ "Mozambique". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. 2003-08-26. Retrieved 2007-11-03. 
  7. ^ "China grants Mozambique tourism destination status". China Daily. 2006-11-04. Retrieved 2007-11-03. 
  8. ^ "Chinese, Mozambican presidents pledge to uplift bilateral ties". Xinhua News Agency. 2007-02-09. Archived from the original on 2012-10-12. Retrieved 2007-11-03. 
  9. ^ "Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland: Entering Finland and travelling abroad: Mozambique". Retrieved 26 August 2017. 
  10. ^ "High Commission of India, Maputo". Retrieved 26 August 2017. 
  11. ^ "MEA - Indian Missions Abroad - Indian Mission". Retrieved 26 August 2017. 
  12. ^ "High Commission of Mozambique in New Delhi, India". Retrieved 26 August 2017. 
  13. ^ "Mozambique High Commission in New Delhi". Retrieved 26 August 2017. 
  14. ^ "Embajada de México en Etiopía". Retrieved 26 August 2017. 
  15. ^ "Relaciones diplomaticas entre México y África: Mozambique (in Spanish)" (PDF). Retrieved 26 August 2017. 
  16. ^ [1][dead link]
  17. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-10-24. Retrieved 2009-06-18. 
  18. ^ "Mozambique gets debt relief from Portugal - : Africa news, Maghreb news - The african daily newspaper". Retrieved 26 August 2017. 
  19. ^ "Russia to Develop Economic Cooperation with Mozambique". Archived from the original on August 3, 2007. 
  20. ^ Korea, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of. "Countries and Regions > Middle East and Africa > List of the Countries". Retrieved 26 August 2017. 
  21. ^ "U.S. Embassy in Mozambique". U.S. Embassy in Mozambique. Retrieved 26 August 2017.