Portrait of Gardner Fox by Gil Kane
|Born||Gardner Francis Cooper Fox
May 20, 1911
Brooklyn, New York, United States
|Died||December 24, 1986(aged 75)|
Don, Ed, Warner and Michael Blake
Tex and Willis Blane
|: Doctor Fate; Flash; Hawkman; Justice Society of America; Sandman; Starman.
: Atom; Batgirl; Hawkman; Justice League of America; Zatanna;
Gardner Francis Cooper Fox (May 20, 1911 – December 24, 1986) was an American writer known best for creating numerous comic book characters for DC Comics. Comic book historians estimate that he wrote more than 4,000 comics stories, including 1,500 for DC Comics.
Fox is known as the co-creator of DC Comics heroes the Flash, Hawkman, Doctor Fate and the original Sandman, and was the writer who first teamed those and other heroes as the Justice Society of America. Fox introduced the concept of the Multiverse to DC Comics in the 1961 story "Flash of Two Worlds!"
- 1 Early life and career
- 2 Novels
- 3 Comics
- 4 Hobbies and achievements
- 5 Legacy
- 6 Bibliography
- 7 References
- 8 External links
Early life and career
Gardner F. Fox was born in Brooklyn, New York. Fox recalled being inspired at an early age by the great fantasy fiction writers. On or about his eleventh birthday, he been given The Gods of Mars and The Warlord of Mars by Edgar Rice Burroughs, books which "opened up a complete new world for me." He "read all of Burroughs, Harold Lamb, Talbot Mundy," maintaining copies "at home in my library" some 50 years later.
Fox received a law degree from St. John's College and was admitted to the New York bar in 1935. He practiced for about two years, but as the Great Depression continued he began writing for DC Comics editor Vin Sullivan. Debuting as a writer in the pages of Detective Comics, Fox "intermittently contributed tales to nearly every book in the DC lineup during the Golden Age." He was a frequent contributor of prose stories to the pulp science fiction magazines of the 1930s and 1940s.
A polymath, Fox included numerous real-world historical, scientific, and mythological references in his comic strips, once saying, "Knowledge is kind of a hobby with me". For instance, during a year's worth of Atom comic strip stories, Fox referred to the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, the space race, 18th-century England, miniature card painting, Norse mythology, and numismatics. He revealed in letters to fan Jerry Bails that he kept large troves of reference material, mentioning during 1971, "I maintain two file cabinets chock full of stuff. And the attic is crammed with books and magazines....Everything about science, nature, or unusual facts, I can go to my files or the at least 2,000 books that I have".
During his career writing for DC Comics, Fox wrote novels and short stories using a variety of male and female pseudonyms for a number of publishers, including Ace, Gold Medal, Tower, Belmont, Dodd Mead, Hillman, Pocket Library, Pyramid Books and Signet Books.
During the mid-to-late 1940s, and into the 1950s, Fox wrote a number of short stories and text pieces for Weird Tales and Planet Stories, and was published in Amazing Stories and Marvel Science Stories. He wrote for a diverse range of pulp magazines, including Baseball Stories, Big Book Football Western, Fighting Western, Football Stories, Lariat Stories, Ace Sports, SuperScience, Northwest Romances, Thrilling Western, and Ranch Romances for a number of publishing companies.
Fox wrote a pair of science fiction novels titled Warriors of Llarn (1964) and Thief of Llarn (1966).
From 1969 to 1970, Belmont Books published a series of sword and sorcery novels by Fox, featuring the barbarian character Kothar. These were Kothar: Barbarian Swordsman, Kothar of the Magic Sword, Kothar and the Demon Queen, Kothar and the Conjurer's Curse and finally Kothar and the Wizard Slayer. These were followed in 1976 by another series the barbarian Kyrik: Kyrik: Warlock Warrior, Kyrik Fights the Demon World , Kyrik and the Wizard's Sword and Kyrik and the Lost Queen.
Kothar and the Conjurer's Curse was adapted by Marvel Comics as a six-part Conan story starting with Conan the Barbarian #46 ("The Curse of the Conjurer", Jan 1975) with scripter Roy Thomas and artists John Buscema, Joe Sinnott, Dan Adkins and Dick Giordano.
Fox's earliest stories for DC Comics featured Speed Saunders with art by Creig Flessel and later Fred Guardineer beginning at least with Detective Comics #4 (June 1937). Speed Saunders was initially credited to "E.C. Stoner," which many believe to be a Fox pseudonym. As the 1930s progressed, Fox added writing credits for Steve Malone and Bruce Nelson for Detective Comics to his workload, as well as Zatara for early issues of Action Comics.
During World War II, Fox assumed responsibility for a variety of characters and books of several of his colleagues who had been drafted. He worked for numerous companies including Marvel Comics' 1940s predecessor, Timely Comics; Vin Sullivan's Magazine Enterprises, where he created Skyman; and at EC, where he served a brief stint as chief writer. With the waning popularity of superheroes, Fox contributed western, science fiction, humor, romance, and funny animal stories.
During July 1939, just two issues after debut of the character Batman by artist Bob Kane and writer Bill Finger, Fox wrote the first of his several tales for that character, introducing an early villain in the story "The Batman Meets Doctor Death". Alongside Kane and Finger, Fox contributed to the evolution of the character, including the character's first use of his utility belt, which "contain[ed] choking gas capsules," as well as writing the first usages of both the Batarang and the Batgyro, an autogyro precursor to the Batcopter, two issues later.
Fox returned to the Batman in 1964. (See below)
During 1939, Fox and artist Bert Christman co-created the character of the Sandman, a gasmask-wearing costumed crime-fighter whose first appearance in Adventure Comics #40 (July 1939) was pre-empted by an appearance in New York World's Fair Comics.
Fox is credited with writing the first three of six stories in the inaugural issue of Flash Comics (Jan. 1940), including the debut of the titular character, The Flash. With a hero described as a "modern-day Mercury", the title feature saw college student Jay Garrick imbued with superhuman speed after inhaling hard water vapors. The character went on to appear in a host of forties comics, including All Star, Comic Cavalcade, The Big All-American Comic Book, and his own titles, Flash Comics and All-Flash.
Describing the origins of Hawkman, Fox recalled, "I was faced with the problem of filling a new book that publisher Max Gaines was starting... As I sat by the window I noticed a bird collecting twigs for a nest. The bird would swoop down, pick up the twig, and fly away. I thought, 'Wouldn't it be great if the bird was a lawman and the twig a crook!'"
Debuting as the third story in Flash Comics #1 (Jan. 1940) — "Fox's imagination [transformed] that bird [into] the soaring, mysterious Hawkman." With art by Dennis Neville, the origin of the 'Winged Wonder' featured archaeologist and collector Carter Hall reliving his past life as Prince Khufu of ancient Egypt, creating a costume (powered by Nth metal), confronting the reincarnation of Hath-Set, his former nemesis, and meeting his reincarnated love interest, Shiera Saunders.
The Justice Society of America
Regularly writing more than six stories in five titles per month, every month throughout the early 1940s, Fox continued to create new features.
At the time, DC Comics consisted of two discrete sub-companies, Max Gaines' All-American Publications and Harry Donenfeld & Jack Liebowitz's National Periodical Publications. Though he continued to script for National/Detective Comics, Inc., Fox became the chief writer for All-American. While Fox's Dr. Fate (and other titles) was published by National; Sandman, Hawkman and the Flash were released by All-American. For Winter 1940, the third issue of All-American's All Star Comics debuted the Justice Society of America, the first superhero team in comics. Fox had worked on the Hawkman, Flash and Sandman features in All-Star for its first two issues (Summer and Autumn 1940), but from issue #3 (Winter), he assumed full writing duties for the issue, with all features by different artists working within the framing device wherein the characters were described as part of a "Justice Society".
In the pages of All-Star Comics #3, under the direction of editor Sheldon Mayer and with artists including E. E. Hibbard, Fox created the first superhero team, the Justice Society of America. Each character – Dr. Fate, the Sandman, the Flash, and Hawkman were joined by Hour-Man, the Spectre, the Atom and Green Lantern – was introduced individually (by Johnny Thunder), and related a solo adventure, before being charged at the title's end with remaining a loose team by the Director of the FBI. During April 1941, Fox created the character of Starman with artist Jack Burnley in the pages of Adventure Comics #61 (April 1941), and the character would later join the JSA. Fox wrote the Justice Society's adventures from All Star Comics #3 until leaving the feature as of issue #34 (April–May 1947) with a story that introduced a new super-villain, the Wizard.
Between 1940 and 1941, Fox wrote for the Columbia Comic Corporation, penning stories featuring characters including "Face," "Marvelo," "Rocky Ryan," "Skyman," and "Spymaster." For approximately three years (1947–50), Fox wrote for EC Comics, including scripts and text pieces which appeared in the titles The Crypt of Terror, The Vault of Horror and Weird Fantasy, as well as in the lesser-known Gunfighter, Happy Houlihans, Moon Girl, Saddle Justice and the new trend title Valor, among others.
Towards the end of the decade, and the start of the 1950s, he worked for Magazine Enterprises on features including "The Durango Kid," the first Ghost Rider, "Red Hawk," "Straight Arrow" and "Tim Holt," in whose comic the Ghost Rider appeared. Fox wrote some of the required text pieces for Magazine Enterprises, which were required by the Post Office to qualify magazines and comics for cheaper postal rates.
During the early 1950s, Fox wrote Vigilante in Action Comics, as well as Western stories in the pages of Western Comics and science-fiction stories for DC's Mystery in Space and Strange Adventures. During 1953, he entered into correspondence with fan Jerry Bails, which initially emphasized Bails' fondness for the Justice Society and All-Star Comics, but ultimately became a friendship that not only influenced the beginning of comics' so-called "Silver Age", but also comics fandom, in which Bails had a major role.
During the mid-1950s, after Fredric Wertham's publication of Seduction of the Innocent and the United States Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency hearings on the dangers of comic books, the content of comics was changed and became subject to censoring by the private Comics Code Authority. In partial response to this shift, DC editor Julius Schwartz began a widespread reinvention/revival of many earlier characters, and "Fox was one of the first writers... Schwartz called in to help". The Silver Age of Comic Books began in the pages of Showcase #4 (Oct. 1956) with a radically changed Flash character by writers Robert Kanigher and John Broome with penciler Carmine Infantino.
Fox scripted most of the Silver Age adventures of science-fiction hero Adam Strange, who debuted in the comic book Showcase #17 (Nov. 1958) with art by Mike Sekowsky. The Adam Strange stories were co-plotted by Fox and the character's creator, Julius Schwartz. With the "creative guidance" of Fox and Schwartz, "Hawkman and the Atom were given new costumes, new identities," and drew an audience of fans old and new. Fox penned the reinvention of the new Hawkman in The Brave and the Bold #34 (March 1961) and the Atom, who debuted in Showcase #34 (Sep–Oct. 1961) with art by Gil Kane.
The Justice League of America
Another of Fox's major achievements was his revival of the concept of the Justice Society as the Justice League of America, debuting in the comic book The Brave and the Bold #28 (Feb.-Mar. 1960). Soon given their own title during Oct.-Nov. 1960, the Justice League would become the basis of the DC Universe. The supervillain Doctor Light first battled the team in issue #12 (June 1962). Justice League of America #21 and #22 (August–September 1963) featured the first team-up of the Justice League and the Justice Society of America as well as the first use of the term "Crisis" in reference to a crossover between characters. The next year's team-up with the Justice Society introduced the threat of the Crime Syndicate of America of Earth-Three. The character Zatanna, introduced by Fox and artist Murphy Anderson in Hawkman #4 (Nov. 1964), was the center of a plotline which ran through several DC titles and was resolved in Justice League of America #51 (Feb. 1967). Fox and Sekowsky were the creative team for the title's first eight years. Sekowsky's last issue was #63 (June 1968) and Fox departed with #65 (September 1968).
Fox's script for "Flash of Two Worlds!", from The Flash #123 (Sept. 1961), introduced the concept that the Golden Age heroes existed on a parallel Earth named Earth-Two, as the current Flash, Barry Allen, travels to the Earth of Jay Garrick, the 1940s Flash. This event heralded more generally the concept of the DC Comics Multiverse, a decades-long recurring theme of the DC Comics universe, allowing old and new heroes to co-exist and crossover.
In a mischievous twist, Gardner Fox is actually referenced in the story -- in Barry Allen's world, the adventures of Jay Garrick's Flash appeared in comic books written by Fox. As Barry explains, "A writer named Gardner Fox wrote about your adventures -- which he claimed came to him in dreams! Obviously when Fox was asleep, his mind was 'tuned in' on your vibratory Earth! That explains how he 'dreamed up' the Flash!" At the end of the story, Barry says, "I'm going to look up Gardner Fox, who wrote the original Flash stories, and tell it to him! He can write the whole thing up... in a comic book!"
Silver Age Batman
During 1964, Schwartz was made responsible for reviving the Batman titles and Fox returned to writing Batman stories. Obeying the Silver Age trends, he reintroduced characters including the Riddler and the Scarecrow. Fox's "Remarkable Ruse of the Riddler" with art by Sheldon Moldoff in Batman #171 (May 1965). Eighteen issues later, Fox and Moldoff similarly resuscitated and relocated Professor Jonathan Crane, launching the Earth-1 Scarecrow in "Fright of the Scarecrow", Batman #189 (Feb 1967). He and artist Carmine Infantino created the Blockbuster in Detective Comics #345 (Nov. 1965) and the Cluemaster in issue #351 (May 1966). Fox and Infantino introduced Barbara Gordon as a new version of Batgirl in a story titled "The Million Dollar Debut of Batgirl!" in Detective Comics #359 (January 1967). Fox's final Batman story, "Whatever Will Happen to Heiress Heloise?", was published in Detective Comics #384 (Feb. 1969).
Fox stopped receiving work from DC during 1968, when the comics company refused to give health insurance and other benefits to its older creators. Fox, who had written a number of historical adventure, mystery and science fiction novels during the 1940s and the 1950s, began to produce novels full time, using his own name and several pseudonyms. He produced a small number of comics during this period, but predominantly produced novels, writing more than 100 in genres such as science fiction, espionage, crime, fantasy, romance, western, and historical fiction.
Among his output was the modern novelisation of the Irwin Allen production of Jules Verne's Five Weeks in a Balloon, two books of the "Llarn" series; five books about the barbarian swordsman Kothar, starting during 1969 with the anthology Kothar—Barbarian Swordsman, and four books about the adventures of "Kyrik," starting with Warlock Warrior (1975).
For Tower Books, he produced between thirteen and twenty-five "Lady from L.U.S.T." (League of Undercover Spies and Terrorists) novels between 1968 and 1975 using the name Rod Gray. With Rochelle Larkin and Leonard Levinson, Fox used the pen-name "Glen Chase" to write entries in the "Cherry Delight, The Sexecutioner" series.
Later comics work
During the early 1970s, Fox briefly worked for DC's rival publisher, Marvel Comics, writing scripts for The Tomb of Dracula, Red Wolf, and the "Doctor Strange" feature in Marvel Premiere. During 1971, Skywald Publications reprinted some of his earlier work on titles such as Demona, Nightmare, Red Mask and Zanagar, and Fox also found work for Warren Publications on Creepy and Eerie during the same period.
Gardner Fox died on December 24, 1986. He was survived by his wife Lynda, his son Jeffrey, his daughter Lynda, and four grandchildren.
Hobbies and achievements
During the course of his career, Fox can be definitely credited with about 1500 stories for DC Comics, making him the second most prolific DC creator (after Robert Kanigher) by a considerable margin over his nearest rival. In July 1971, Fox estimated he had written "[f]ifty million words" over the course of his career to date.
He was a member of a number of literary and genre organisations, including the Academy of Comic Book Arts, the Authors Guild, the Authors League of America, and the Science Fiction Writers of America. As a lawyer, he was a member of the legal fraternity Phi Delta Phi.
A sports fan, he liked both "the Mets and the Jets," and (during 1971) had "season tickets to the St. John's games." A voracious reader, he stated, "I have two writers that I reread and reread. One that I'm sure nobody's every [sic] heard of is Jeffery Pond [sic]. I have every book he ever wrote. The other is the mystery writer John Dickson Carr, whose style I admire tremendously... and of course the old standbys – Merritt I always particularly liked – and Burroughs."
Fox won two 1962 Alley Awards – for Best Script Writer and for Best Book-Length Story ("The Planet that Came to a Standstill" in Mystery in Space #75), with penciler Carmine Infantino — as well as a 1963 Alley, for Favorite Novel ("Crisis on Earths 1 and 2" in Justice League of America #21–22, with penciler Mike Sekowsky), and the 1965 Alley for Best Novel ("Solomon Grundy Goes on a Rampage" in Showcase #55) with penciler Murphy Anderson.
During 1967, Fox's literary agent, August Lenniger, suggested that Fox donate his notes, correspondence, and samples of his work to the University of Oregon as a tax deduction. Fox donated over fourteen boxes of comics, books, scripts, plot ideas, and fan letters dating back to the 1940s. His records comprise the bulk of the university's Fox Collection.
During 2002, the Cartoon Network broadcast an episode of the Justice League animated TV series titled "Legends", an homage to Fox's Justice Society and his annual Silver Age Justice Society/Justice League crossovers. The episode was dedicated to Fox. Additionally, in the episode titled "Paradise Lost", a TV news reporter refers to Hurricane Gardner.
In the sixth episode of the second season of Young Justice, during a disaster which destroys part of the city, the Flash directs a woman to a homeless shelter that is located between streets named Gardner and Fox.
- Action Comics #8–79 (Zatara); #134, 139–144 (Vigilante); #138 (Congo Bill) (1939–1950)
- Adventure Comics #35–67, 69–77, 81, 83–89 (1939–1944)
- All-American Western #105–106, 113, 115 (1949–1950)
- All-Flash #6–24, 28 (1942–1947)
- All-Flash Quarterly #1–5 (1941–1942)
- All Star Comics #1–34, 46, 50, 53 (1940–1950)
- All Star Western #62, 90–92, 94–95, 97–99. 107–119 (1951–1961)
- Atom #1–37 (1962–1968)
- Atom and Hawkman #40–41 (1968–1969)
- Batman #41, 165, 170–172. 174–175. 179, 181, 183–184, 186, 188–192, 194–197, 199, 201–202 (1947, 1964–1968)
- Big All-American Comic Book #1 (1944)
- Boy Commandos #36 (1949)
- The Brave and the Bold #28–30 (Justice League); #34–36, 42–44 (Hawkman); #45–49 (Strange Sports); #1–62 (Starman and Black Canary) (1960–1965)
- Comic Cavalcade #1–19 (1942–1947)
- Detective Comics #4–26, 37–43 (Speed Saunders); #29–34, 331. 333–340, 344–345, 347, 349, 351, 353, 356, 359, 361, 363, 366–369, 371, 374, 376–377, 384 (Batman); #328–330, 332–339, 341–342, 345–358, 360–365, 367–383 (Elongated Man) (1937–1969)
- The Flash #117, 123, 129, 137–138, 140, 142–146, 150–152, 154, 159, 162, 164, 166–167, 170–171, 177 (1960–1968)
- Flash Comics #1–80 (1940–1947)
- Funny Stuff #22–27 (1947)
- Green Lantern #27 (1947)
- Green Lantern vol. 2 #16–17, 21–23, 25–29, 32–38, 41–44, 46, 48, 50, 57–58, 60, 62, 65, 67 (1962–1969)
- Hawkman #1–21 (1964–1967)
- Hopalong Cassidy #86, 89, 91–92, 112–113, 115, 117–121, 124 (1954–1957)
- Jimmy Wakely #1–3, 7–9, 11, 15 (1949–1952
- Justice League of America #1–38, 40–47, 49–57, 59–65 (1960–1968)
- More Fun Comics #55–95 (Doctor Fate) (1940–1944)
- Mystery in Space #1–5, 7–15, 31–32, 36, 41, 43, 45–48, 50–91 (1951–1964)
- New York World's Fair Comics #1–2 (1939–1940)
- Sensation Comics #1–10, 109 (1942–1952)
- Showcase #15–16 (Space Ranger); #17–19 (Adam Strange); #34–36 (the Atom); #55–56 (Doctor Fate and Hourman); #60–61, 64 (Spectre) (1958–1966)
- Spectre #1–2, 6–7 (1967–1968)
- Strange Adventures #1–21, 23–26, 29—30, 35, 38, 50, 69, 71, 73–74, 78–81, 83–84, 86–97, 99, 101–107, 109–116, 118–159, 161, 163, 226 (1950–1970)
- Superboy #20 (1952)
- Western Comics #4, 19–21, 23–27, 31–37. 39–46, 56–85 (1948–1961)
- World's Best Comics #1 (1941)
- World's Finest Comics #2–8, 51–60, 62, 64 (1941–1953)
- Chamber of Chills #2–4 (1973)
- Creatures on the Loose #26–27 (1973–1974)
- Doc Savage #5–7 (1973)
- Dracula Lives! #4 (1974)
- Gunhawks #7 (1973)
- Journey into Mystery vol. 2 #4 (1973)
- Marvel Premiere #5–8 (Doctor Strange) (1972–1973)
- Marvel Spotlight #1 (Red Wolf) (1971)
- Monsters Unleashed #1 (1973)
- Red Wolf #2–8 (1972–1973)
- The Tomb of Dracula #5–6 (1972–1973)
- Vampire Tales #1–2 (1973)
- 1 Warrior of Llarn (1964)
- 2 Thief of Llarn (1966)
- 1 Kothar - Barbarian Swordsman (1969)
- 2 Kothar of the Magic Sword! (1969)
- 3 Kothar and the Demon Queen (1969)
- 4 Kothar and the Conjurer's Curse (1970)
- 5 Kothar and the Wizard Slayer (1970)
- 1 Kyrik: Warlock Warrior (1975)
- 2 Kyrik Fights the Demon World (1975)
- 3 Kyrik and the Wizard's Sword (1976)
- 4 Kyrik and the Lost Queen (1976)
- Five Weeks in a Balloon (1962)
- Escape Across the Cosmos (1964) only appeared as:
- variant title: Escape Across the Cosmos (1964) [as by Gardner Fox ]
- variant title: Titans of the Universe (1978) [as by Moonchild (inside Title Page) / James Harvey (front cover) under Manor Books imprint ]
- The Arsenal of Miracles (1964)
- The Hunter Out of Time (1965)
- Beyond the Black Enigma (1965) [only as by Bart Somers ]
- Abandon Galaxy! (1967) [only as by Bart Somers ]
- Laid in the Future (1969) [only as by Rod Gray ]
- The Druid Stone (1970) [only as by Simon Majors ]
- Conehead (1973)
- The Arsenal of Miracles / Endless Shadow (1964) [O/2N] with John Brunner
- Fantasy Inverno 1993. Spade per la gloria (1993) [O]
- Thun'da: King of the Congo (2010) with Frank Frazetta and Bob Powell [only as by Frank Frazetta and Gardner Fox and Bob Powell ]
- One Sword for Love (1953)
- Iron Lover (1959)
- The Bastard of Orleans (1960)
- The Lion of Lucca (1966)
- The Bold Ones (1976)
Crom the Barbarian
- 1 Crom the Barbarian (1950) with John Giunta [only as by Gardner Fox and John Giunta ]
- 2 The Spider God of Akka! (1950) with John Giunta [only as by Gardner Fox and John Giunta ]
- The Weirds of the Woodcarver (1944)
- The Last Monster (1945)
- Man nth (1945)
- Engines of the Gods (1946)
- Rain, Rain, Go Away! (1946)
- Heart of Light (1946)
- The Man the Sun-Gods Made (1946)
- Sword of the Seven Suns (1947)
- Vassals of the Lode-Star (1947)
- Werwile of the Crystal Crypt (1948)
- When Kohonnes Screamed (1948)
- The Rainbow Jade (1949)
- Temptress of the Time Flow (1950)
- Tonight the Stars Revolt! (1952)
- The Warlock of Sharrador (1953)
- The Holding of Kolymar (1972)
- Shadow of a Demon (1976)
- Beyond the Wizard Fog (1977)
- The Stolen Sacrifice (1978)
- The Thing From the Tomb (1979)
- The Eyes of Mavis Deval (1980)
- The Cube From Beyond (1980)
- The Cup of Golden Death (1980)
- Out of the Eons (1980)
- The Lure of the Golden Godling (1980)
- The Coming of the Sword (1981)
- Letter (Fantastic Novels, September 1940): A. Merritt Books Scarce (1940)
- P.S.'s Feature Flash (1947)
- Letter (Planet Stories, Spring 1948): Fox Lets Fly (1947)
- Foreword (Kothar of the Magic Sword!) (1969)
- Introduction (Kyrik: Warlock Warrior) (1975)
- Bails, Jerry (2006). "Fox, Gardner". Who's Who of American Comic Books 1928–1999. Archived from the original on February 11, 2012. Retrieved July 31, 2008.
- "Newswatch: Flash Creator, Gardner Fox, Dead at 75". The Comics Journal. Seattle, Washington: Fantagraphics Books (114): 28. February 1987. Archived from the original on January 9, 2012.
- Seuling, Phil (ed.) "Jim Steranko & Gardner Fox at the 1971 Comic Art Convention Luncheon – July 1971" – Interviews by John Benson and Phil Seuling, (transcribed and edited by Benson) in 1972 Comic Art Convention Programme (Seuling, 1972) pp. 70–78
- Marx, Barry, Cavalieri, Joey and Hill, Thomas (w), Petruccio, Steven (a), Marx, Barry (ed). "Gardner Fox DC's Universe Expands" Fifty Who Made DC Great: 16 (1985), DC Comics
- "Alan Morgan series By Gardner Fox". GoodReads. Retrieved 2014-06-12.
- "Kothar series By Gardner Fox". GoodReads. Retrieved 2014-06-11.
- "Kyric series By Gardner Fox". GoodReads. Retrieved 2014-06-11.
- Voiles, Mike (2015). "Detective Comics #4 'The Mystery of San Jose Island'". Mike's Amazing World of Comics. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
- Gardner Fox at the Grand Comics Database
- Smith, Kevin Burton (n.d.). "Speed Saunders". ThrillingDetective.com. Archived from the original on April 26, 2013. Retrieved July 31, 2008.
Who was E.C. Stoner? A pseudonym? Noted comic writer Gardner Fox, a lawyer at the time, has also been credited with creating the character. Certainly, he wrote some of the stories.
- Voiles, Mike (2015). "Action Comics #8 'The Indian Prince'". Mike's Amazing World of Comics. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
- Wallace, Daniel; Dolan, Hannah, ed. (2010). "1930s". DC Comics Year By Year A Visual Chronicle. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-7566-6742-9.
Writer Gardner Fox took over from Finger for a few subsequent installments of the feature and introduced such gadgets as the Batarang and the Batgyro.
- Voiles, Mike (2015). "Detective Comics #29 'The Batman Meets Doctor Death'". Mike's Amazing World of Comics. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
- Voiles, Mike (2015). "Detective Comics #31 'Batman Vs. the Vampire'". Mike's Amazing World of Comics. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
- Wallace "1930s" in Dolan, p. 25: "Writer Gardner Fox and artist Bert Christman established the gas-masked and trench-coated Sandman in Adventure Comics #40 in July ."
- Voiles, Mike (2015). "New York World's Fair Comics #1 "Sandman at the World's Fair"". Mike's Amazing World of Comics. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
- Markstein, Don (2011). "The Sandman". Don Markstein's Toonopedia. Archived from the original on December 5, 2011.
Adventure Comics #40 wasn't quite the character's first appearance, though. The 1939 issue of New York World's Fair Comics, an extra-big anthology DC put out to capitalize on the eponymous event, contained a Sandman story, and probably hit the stands a week or two before his first Adventure story (though the one in Adventure is believed to have been written and drawn earlier).
- Wallace "1940s" in Dolan, p. 30: "DC shattered the sound barrier with the debut of the Flash, a blindingly fast mystery man written by Gardner Fox and drawn by Harry Lampert."
- Wallace "1940s" in Dolan, p. 30: "In the same issue [#1] Gardner Fox wrote the first story featuring Hawkman...in a story drawn by Dennis Neville."
- Voiles, Mike (2015). "Gardner F. Fox". Mike's Amazing World of Comics. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
- Wallace "1940s" in Dolan, p. 33: "DC took the 'greatest hits' premise of the comic to its logical conclusion in All Star Comics #3 by teaming the Flash, the Atom, Doctor Fate, Green Lantern, Hawkman, Hourman, Sandman, and the Spectre under the banner of the Justice Society of America for an ongoing series."
- Levitz, Paul (2010). "The Golden Age 1938–1956". 75 Years of DC Comics The Art of Modern Mythmaking. Cologne, Germany: Taschen. p. 56. ISBN 9783836519816.
Mayer and Fox cooked up one of the biggest ideas in superhero history: What if the varied stars of All-Star Comics actually met and worked together?
- Wallace "1940s" in Dolan, p. 36: "Gardner Fox and artist Jack Burnley presented the new costumed hero Starman in this issue."
- Wallace "1940s" in Dolan, p. 55: "Gardner Fox penned his last story about the Justice Society of America in this issue. The writer...introduced an ill-tempered illusionist called the Wizard."
- Thomas, Roy (2000). ""The Men (and One Woman) Behind the JSA: Its Creation and Creative Personnel". All-Star Companion Volume 1. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing. pp. 23–24. ISBN 1-893905-055.
- Irvine, Alex "1950s" in Dolan, p. 64: "DC picked up on renewed public interest in science fiction by launching its first comic in the genre, the anthology series, Strange Adventures. The series kicked off its 244-issue run with an adaptation of the first color science fiction movie, Destination Moon (released that same month), written by Gardner Fox and drawn by Curt Swan."
- Irvine "1950s" in Dolan, p. 91: "Adam Strange debuted in a three-issue trial starting with Showcase #17, which was written by Gardner Fox and featured art by Mike Sekowsky."
- Amash, Jim (2004). "Foreword". The Adam Strange Archives: Volume 1. DC Comics. pp. 5–8. ISBN 978-1401201487.
- McAvennie, Michael "1960s" in Dolan, p. 102: "DC's...renaissance soared to new heights with the return of Hawkman and Hawkgirl. Writer Gardner Fox and artist Joe Kubert...ushered in a pair of Winged Wonders that, costumes aside, were radically different from their Golden Age predecessors."
- McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 103: "The Atom was the next Golden Age hero to receive a Silver Age makeover from writer Gardner Fox and artist Gil Kane."
- Pasko, Martin (2008). The DC Vault: A Museum-in-a-Book with Rare Collectibles from the DC Universe. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Running Press. p. 101. ISBN 0762432578.
Old [All-American] heroes like Hawkman and the Atom were revived – both by writer Gardner Fox – and given the [science fiction] makeover with as many new twists as possible.
- McAvennie, "1960s" in Dolan, p. 99: "Editor Julius Schwartz had repopulated the [superhero] subculture by revitalizing Golden Age icons like Green Lantern and the Flash..He recruited writer Gardner Fox and artist Mike Sekowsky, and together they came up with the Justice League of America, a modern version of the legendary Justice Society of America from the 1940s."
- Daniels, Les (1995). "The Justice League of America A Team of Good Sports". DC Comics: Sixty Years of the World's Favorite Comic Book Heroes. Bulfinch. p. 127. ISBN 0821220764.
Justice League was a hit. It solidified once and for all the importance of super hero groups, and in the process provided a playground where DC's characters could attract new fans while entertaining established admirers.
- McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 105: "In a tale written by Gardner Fox, with art by Mike Sekowsky, Dr. Light's first [adventure] was almost the JLA's last."
- McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 109: "The two-part 'Crisis on Earth-One!' and 'Crisis on Earth-Two!' saga represented the first use of the term 'Crisis' in crossovers, as well as the designations 'Earth-1' and 'Earth-2'. In it editor Julius Schwartz, [writer Gardner] Fox, and artist Mike Sekowsky devised a menace worthy of the World's Greatest Heroes."
- McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 112: "Writer Gardner Fox and artist Mike Sekowsky crafted a tale in which the Crime Syndicate...ambushed the JLA on Earth-1."
- McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 112
- Eury, Michael (2005). "The Writers and Artists of Justice League of America". The Justice League Companion. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing. pp. 96–97. ISBN 978-1893905481.
- McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 103: "This classic Silver Age story resurrected the Golden Age Flash and provided a foundation for the Multiverse from which he and the Silver Age Flash would hail."
- Greenberger, Robert; Manning, Matthew K. (2009). The Batman Vault: A Museum-in-a-Book with Rare Collectibles from the Batcave. Running Press. p. 19. ISBN 0762436638.
DC shifted its editorial staff around, placing legendary editor Julius 'Julie' Schwartz in charge of the denizens of Gotham City...Schwartz brought two of his Flash cohorts, writers Gardner Fox and John Broome, on to his team.
- Voiles, Mike (2015). "Batman #171 'Remarkable Ruse of the Riddler'". Mike's Amazing World of Comics. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
- McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan, p. 114: "Nearly eighteen years had passed since the Riddler last tried to stump Batman and Robin. Therefore, when writer Gardner Fox and artist Sheldon Moldoff released Edward Nigma, the villain insisted that he had reformed."
- Voiles, Mike (2015). "Batman #189 'Fright of the Scarecrow'". Mike's Amazing World of Comics. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
- Forbeck, Matt; Dougall, Alastair, ed. (2014). "1960s". Batman: A Visual History. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 88. ISBN 978-1465424563.
Gardner Fox and penciller Carmine Infantino introduced the villain Blockbuster in this issue.
- Forbeck "1960s" in Dougall, p. 93: "The villainous Cluemaster debuted in this story by Gardner Fox and Carmine Infantino."
- McAvennie "1960s" in Dolan p. 122 "Nine months before making her debut on Batman, a new Batgirl appeared in the pages of Detective Comics...Yet the idea for the debut of Barbara Gordon, according to editor Julius Schwartz, was attributed to the television series executives' desire to have a character that would appeal to a female audience and for this character to originate in the comics. Hence, writer Gardner Fox and artist Carmine Infantino collaborated on 'The Million Dollar Debut of Batgirl!'"
- Fox, Gardner F. (April 1969). Kothar—Barbarian Swordsman. Belmont Books.
- "Gardner F. Fox". FantasticFiction.co.uk. n.d. Archived from the original on February 13, 2013. Retrieved July 1, 2008.
- "Rod Gray". FantasticFiction.co.uk. n.d. Archived from the original on February 13, 2013. Retrieved July 31, 2008.
- "Glen Chase". FantasticFiction.co.uk. n.d. Archived from the original on February 13, 2013. Retrieved July 31, 2008.
- Sanderson, Peter; Gilbert, Laura, ed. (2008). "1970s". Marvel Chronicle A Year by Year History. London, United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. p. 150. ISBN 978-0756641238.
Writer Gardner Fox and artist Syd Shores created the Red Wolf of the nineteenth-century American West in this new series.
- Voiles, Mike (2013). "Top Creators by Category". Mike's Amazing World of Comics. Archived from the original on March 16, 2013. Retrieved October 19, 2013.
- Gilbert, Michael T. (Spring 1998). "The Fox and the Fans: Letters to Gardner F. Fox From Future Pros, 1959–1965". Alter Ego. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing. 2 (1): 5–9.
- Broome, John (w), Kane, Gil (p), Greene, Sid (i). "Earth's Other Green Lantern!" Green Lantern v2, 59 (March 1968)
- Evanier, Mark (June 5, 2007). "This Year's Bill Finger Award". NewsFromMe.com. Archived from the original on June 23, 2015. Retrieved October 19, 2013.
- Kreisberg, Andrew (writer); Riba, Dan (director) (April 21, 2002). "Legends". Justice League. Cartoon Network.
- David, Peter (writer); Zwyer, Mel (director) (June 2, 2012). "Bloodlines". Young Justice. Cartoon Network.
- Gardner Fox at the Comic Book DB
- Gardner F. Fox at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
- Gardner Fox at Mike's Amazing World of Comics
- Gardner Fox at the Unofficial Handbook of Marvel Comics Creators
|All Star Comics writer
|Justice League writer
|The Flash writer
|Green Lantern writer
|Detective Comics writer
|Marvel Premiere writer
|The Tomb of Dracula writer