List of water deities

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Water god in an ancient Roman mosaic. Zeugma Mosaic Museum, Gaziantep, Turkey

A water deity is a deity in mythology associated with water or various bodies of water. Water deities are common in mythology and were usually more important among civilizations in which the sea or ocean, or a great river was more important. Another important focus of worship of water deities has been springs or holy wells.

As a form of animal worship, whales and snakes (hence dragons) have been regarded as godly deities throughout the world (other animals are such as turtles, fish, crabs, and sharks). In Asian lore, whales and dragons sometimes have connections.[1] Serpents are also common as a symbol or as serpentine deities, sharing many similarities with dragons.

Africa and the Middle East[edit]

Sub-Sahara Africa[edit]

Western Niger-Congo[edit]

Benin

  • Ezili, goddess of sweet water, beauty, and love.

Dogon

  • Nommos, amphibious spirits that are worshiped as ancestors.

Serer

  • Mindiss (or Mindis) is not a deity in Serer religion, but a pangool with goddess–like attributes. She is a female protector of the Fatick Region. Offerings are made in her name at the River Sine. She appears to humans in the form of a manatee,[2] She is one of the best known fangool (singular of pangool). She possess the attributes of a typical water fangool, yet at the same time, she is a blood fangool.[3] The Senegalese Ministry of Culture added the Mbind Ngo Mindiss site to its list of monuments and historic sites in Fatick. It is the site where offerings are made, situated on the arms of the sea which bears her name, in the Sine.[4]

Yoruba

  • Oshun, a river orisha.
  • Olokun, an ocean orisha.
  • Yemoja, a river orisha and ocean orisha as well in new world Yoruba religions.

Lugandan

Batonga

  • Nyami Nyami, a river spirit of the Batonga of Zambia and Zimbabwe.

Kongo

  • Bunzi, goddess of rain, rainbow and waters.
  • Chicamassichinuinji, king of oceans.
  • Funza, goddess of waters, twin phenomenon and malformations in children. Wife of Mbumba.
  • Kalunga, god of death and border between world of Alives and world of dead.
  • Kimbazi, goddess of sea storms.
  • Kuitikuiti, serpent god of Congo river.
  • Lusunzi, god of spring and waters.
  • Mamba Muntu, goddesses of waters and sexuality.
  • Makanga.
  • Mbantilanda.
  • Mbumba, rainbow serpent of terrestrial waters and warriors.
  • Mboze.
  • Mpulu Bunzi, god of rain and waters.
  • Mundele, albino gods of the sea.
  • Simbi dia Maza, nymphs or goddesses of waters, lakes and rivers.

Afroasiatic Middle East[edit]

Hamito-Semitic regions of North Africa, Arabia, and the Levant.

Canaanite[edit]

Egyptian[edit]

  • Anuket, goddess of the Nile and nourisher of the fields.
  • Bairthy, goddess of water and was depicted with a small pitcher balanced on her head, holding a long spear-like sceptre.
  • Hapi, god of the annual flooding of the Nile.
  • Khnum, god of the Nile.
  • Nephthys, goddess of rivers, death, mourning, the dead, and night.
  • Nu, uncreated god, personification of the primordial waters.
  • Osiris, god of the dead and afterlife; originally a god of water and vegetation.
  • Satet, goddess of the Nile River's floods.
  • Sobek, god of the Nile river, depicted as a crocodile or a man with the head of a crocodile.
  • Tefnut, goddess of water, moisture, and fertility.

Hebrew[edit]

Mesopotamian[edit]

  • Abzu, god of fresh water, father of all other gods.
  • Enbilulu, god of rivers and canals.
  • Enki, god of water and of the river Tigris.
  • Marduk, god associated with water, vegetation, judgment, and magic.
  • Nammu, goddess of the primeval sea.
  • Nanshe, goddess of the Persian Gulf, social justice, prophecy, fertility and fishing.
  • Tiamat, goddess of salt water and chaos, also mother of all gods.
  • Sirsir, god of mariners.

Europe[edit]

Balto-Slavic[edit]

Lithuanian[edit]

  • Bangpūtys, god of sea and storm.
  • Laumė, goddess of wild spaces, including waters.

Slavic[edit]

  • Kostroma, goddess of fertility. After discovering that her husband, Kupala, is her brother, she jumped into the forest lake (in other legends into the river Ra). After her death, she became a mavka (or rusalka).
  • Mati-syra-zemla, moist mother, also the earth goddess.
  • Mokosh, moistness, lady of waters, goddess of moisture.
  • Dodola, goddess of rain.
  • Morskoi, the god and king of the sea.
  • Rusalki, female ghosts, water nymphs, succubi or mermaid-like demons that dwell in waterways.
  • Veles, god of earth, waters, and the underworld.
  • Vodyanoi, water demon who lived in lakes and rivers.

Celtic[edit]

  • Belisama, goddess of lakes and rivers, fire, crafts, and light.
  • Grannus, a god associated with spas, the sun, fires and healing thermal and mineral springs.
  • Nantosuelta, river goddess of fire, the earth, healing, and fertility.[5]
  • Nodens, god associated with healing, the sea, hunting and dogs.
  • Damona, water goddess associated with healing and rivers
  • Selkie

English Folklore[edit]

Late 18th-century statue of Father Thames by John Bacon the elder at Ham House, near Richmond, London
  • Father Thames, human manifestation and/or guardian of the River Thames that flows through Southern England, while his ancient worship is obscure, he has become a popular symbol of the river in modern times, it being the subject of the song "Old Father Thames" and the model of several statues and reliefs scattered around London.[6]

Gaulish[edit]

Irish[edit]

Welsh[edit]

Lusitanian[edit]

Norse-Germanic[edit]

  • Ægir, personification of the sea.
  • Freyr, god of rain, sunlight, fertility, life, and summer.
  • Nehalennia, goddess of the North Sea.
  • Nerthus, mostly an earth goddess, but is also associated with lakes, springs, and holy waters.
  • Nine Daughters of Ægir, who personify the characteristics of waves.
  • Nix, water spirits who usually appear in human form.
  • Njord, god of the sea, particularly of seafaring.
  • Rán, sea goddess of death who collects the drowned in a net, wife of Ægir.
  • Rhenus Pater, god of the Rhine river
  • Rura, goddess of the Rur river
  • Sága, wisdom goddess who lives near water and pours Odin a drink when he visits.
  • Tiddy Mun, a bog deity once worshiped in Lincolnshire, England who had the ability to control floods.

Graeco-Roman[edit]

Greek / Hellenic[edit]

  • Achelous, Greek river god.
  • Aegaeon, god of violent sea storms and ally of the Titans.
  • Alpheus, river god in Arcadia.
  • Amphitrite, sea goddess and consort of Poseidon and thus queen of the sea.
  • Anapos, water god of eastern Sicily.
  • Asterion, river-god of Argos
  • Brito-Martis, the goddess Brito-Martis is always depicted in arms.
  • Brizo, goddess of sailors.
  • Carcinus, a giant crab who allied itself with the Hydra against Heracles. When it died, Hera placed it in the sky as the constellation Cancer.
  • Ceto, goddess of the dangers of the ocean and of sea monsters.
  • Charybdis, a sea monster and spirit of whirlpools and the tide.
  • Cymopoleia, a daughter of Poseidon and goddess of giant storm waves.
  • Doris, goddess of the sea's bounty and wife of Nereus.
  • Eidothea, prophetic sea nymph and daughter of Proteus.
  • Electra, an Oceanid, consort of Thaumas.
  • Enipeus, a river god
  • Eurybia, goddess of the mastery of the seas.
  • Galene (Γαλήνη), goddess of calm seas.
  • Glaucus, the fisherman's sea god.
  • Gorgons, three monstrous sea spirits.
  • The Graeae, three ancient sea spirits who personified the white foam of the sea; they shared one eye and one tooth between them.
  • Hippocampi, the horses of the sea.
  • The Ichthyocentaurs, a pair of centaurine sea-gods with the upper bodies of men, the lower fore-parts of horses, ending in the serpentine tails of fish.
  • Kymopoleia, daughter of Poseidon and goddess of violent sea storms.
  • Leucothea, a sea goddess who aided sailors in distress.
  • Nerites, watery consort of Ayodite and/or beloved of Poseidon.
  • Nereus, the old man of the sea, and the god of the sea's rich bounty of fish.
  • Nymphs
  • Oceanus, Titan god of the Earth-encircling river Okeanos, the font of all the Earth's fresh water.
  • Palaemon, a young sea god who aided sailors in distress.
  • Phorcys, god of the hidden dangers of the deep.
  • Pontus, primeval god of the sea, father of the fish and other sea creatures.
  • Poseidon, Olympian god of the sea and king of the sea gods; also god of flood, drought, earthquakes, and horses. His Roman equivalent is Neptune.
  • Potamoi, deities of rivers, fathers of Naiads, brothers of the Oceanids, and as such, the sons of Oceanus and Tethys.
  • Proteus, a shape-shifting, prophetic old sea god, and the herdsman of Poseidon's seals.
  • Psamathe, goddess of sand beaches.
  • Scylla, a sea monster, later authors made up a backstory of her being a Nereid transformed into a monster due to Circe's jealousy.
  • The Telchines, sea spirits native to the island of Rhodes; the gods killed them when they turned to evil magic.
  • Tethys, Titan goddess of the sources fresh-water, and the mother of the rivers (Potamoi), springs, streams, fountains and clouds.
  • Thalassa, primordial goddess of the sea.
  • Thaumas, god of the wonders of the sea and father of the Harpies and the rainbow goddess Iris.
  • Thetis, leader of the Nereids who presided over the spawning of marine life in the sea, mother of Achilles.
  • Triteia, daughter of Triton and companion of Ares.
  • Triton, fish-tailed son and herald of Poseidon.
  • Tritones, fish-tailed spirits in Poseidon's retinue.

Roman[edit]

Greater European Folklore[edit]

Western Asia[edit]

Anatolian - Hittite[edit]

Armenian[edit]

Hindu-Vedic[edit]

Varuna, the Lord of the All the Water Bodies

Persian Zorostarian[edit]

  • Ahurani, Ahurani is a water goddess from ancient Persian mythology who watches over rainfall as well as standing water.
  • Anahita, the divinity of "the Waters" (Aban) and associated with fertility, healing, and wisdom.
  • Apam Napat, the divinity of rain and the maintainer of order.
  • Haurvatat, the Amesha Spenta associated with water, prosperity, and health in post-Gathic Zoroastrianism.
  • Tishtrya, Zoroastrian benevolent divinity associated with life-bringing rainfall and fertility.

Ossetia

Phoenician[edit]

  • Barati, The ancient Phoenician goddess Barati; recognised in the Indian Vedas as Goddess of the Waters.

Uralic[edit]

Finnish

  • Ahti, god of the depths and fish.
  • Iku-Turso, a malevolent sea monster.
  • Vedenemo, a goddess of water.
  • Vellamo, the wife of Ahti, goddess of the sea, lakes, and storms.

Asia-Pacific / Oceania[edit]

Far East Asia[edit]

Chinese[edit]

Chinese sea goddess Mazu
  • Ehuang & Nuying, goddesses of the Xiang River.
  • Gonggong, red-haired dragon with the head of a man and water god who, together with his associate Xiang Yao, is responsible for the great floods.
  • Hebo, god of the Yellow River.
  • Longmu, goddess of the Xijiang River in the Lingnan area.
  • Mazu, goddess of the sea and protector of seafarers.
  • Tam Kung, sea deity worshiped in Hong Kong and Macau with the ability to forecast weather.
  • Honorable Kings of the Water Immortals (Shuixian Zunwang).
  • Dragon Kings of the Four Seas.
    • Ao Kuang, Dragon King of the Eastern Sea.
    • Ao Qin, Dragon King of the Southern Sea.
    • Ao Run, Dragon King of the Western Sea.
    • Ao Shun, Dragon King of the Northern Sea.

Japanese[edit]

Ainu

Korean[edit]

  • Imoogi or Imugi, giant serpents of Korean folklore which later become true dragons.
  • King Munmu, a king who wished to become a dragon before his death to protect Korea from the Sea of Japan (East Sea).
  • Dragon King, an undersea deity believed to determine the fortunes of fishermen and sailors.

South Asia[edit]

Hindu[edit]

In Hindu culture, each water body is worshipped as a form of God. Hence, the rivers are worshipped as goddesses and the ocean is worshipped as a god.

  • Varuna, the God of the ocean.
  • Indra, king of the Gods and bringer of rain, thunderstorms and clouds.
  • Saptasindhu, the seven holy rivers of India, namely:
  • Ganga, the Goddess of the Ganges River.
  • Yamuna, the Goddess of the Yamuna River.
  • Saraswati, the divine Goddess of knowledge and wisdom who was personified as a river that dried up in ancient times.
  • Indus, also called Sindhu. The river is considered the eldest daughter of the Himalaya mountains.
  • Narmada, the river Goddess often worshipped as a deity and daughter of Lord Shiva.
  • Godavari, the longest river of South India. The river is also considered as Dakshina Ganga.
  • Kaveri, a river of South India, worshipped by people as a goddess who was previously incarnated as Lopamudra, the wife of Sage Agastya.
  • Rivers such as Tapi, also known as Tapati, is worshipped as a daughter of the sun god, Surya.
  • The river Krishna, worshipped as Krishnaveni Devi/Krishna Mai, is considered to be Lord Vishnu born as a river.
  • Tungabhadra, a tributary of Krishna, is worshipped as a goddess. The river is also known as Pampa.
  • Pamba River and Suvarnamukhi River flowing past the holy temple towns of Sabarimala in Kerala and Tirupati and Srikalahasti in Andhra Pradesh, respectively.
  • The river Brahmaputra is the only river to have a male personification, whose name means "son of Brahma", the creator.

Manipuri[edit]

Southeast Asia[edit]

Vietnamese[edit]

  • Lạc Long Quân, legendary ancestor of Vietnamese people.
  • Cá Ông (Vietnamese name for blue whales, also dolphins and whale sharks in some cases), king of the sea and patron of fishermen.

Filipino[edit]

  • Sirinan: the Isnag spirit of the river[9]
  • Limat: the Gaddang god of the sea[10]
  • Oden: the Bugkalot deity of the rain, worshiped for its life-giving waters[11]
  • Ocean Deity: the Ilocano goddess of the ocean whose waters slammed the ediface of salt being built by Ang-ngalo and Asin, causing the sea's water to become salty[12]
  • Gods of the Pistay Dayat: Pangasinense gods who are pacified through the Pistay Dayat ritual, where offerings are given to the spirits of the waters who pacify the gods[13]
  • Anitun Tauo: the Sambal goddess of win and rain who was reduced in rank by Malayari for her conceit[14]
  • Sedsed: the Aeta god of the sea[15]
  • Apûng Malyari: the Kapampangan moon god who lives in Mt. Pinatubo and ruler of the eight rivers[16]
  • Lakandanum: variant of the Kapampangan Naga, known to rule the waters[17]
  • Bathala: the Tagalog supreme god and creator deity, also known as Bathala Maykapal, Lumilikha, and Abba; an enormous being with control over thunder, lightning, flood, fire, thunder, and earthquakes; presides over lesser deities and uses spirits to intercede between divinities and mortals[18]
  • Anitun Tabu: the Tagalog goddess of wind and rain and daughter of Idianale and Dumangan[19]
  • Lakapati: the Tagalog hermaphrodite deity and protector of sown fields, sufficient field waters, and abundant fish catch[20]
  • Amanikable: the Tagalog god of the sea who was spurned by the first mortal woman; also a god of hunters[21]
  • Amansinaya: the Tagalog goddess of fishermen[22]
  • Haik: the Tagalog god of the sea who protects travelers from tempests and storms[23]
  • Bulan-hari: one of the Tagalog deities sent by Bathala to aid the people of Pinak; can command rain to fall; married to Bitu-in[24]
  • Makapulaw: the Tagalog god of sailors[25]
  • Great Serpent of Pasig: a giant Tagalog serpent who created the Pasig river after merchants wished to the deity; in exchange for the Pasig's creation, the souls of the merchants would be owned by the serpent[26]
  • Quadruple Deities: the four childless naked Tau-buid Mangyan deities, composed of two gods who come from the sun and two goddesses who come from the upper part of the river; summoned using the paragayan or diolang plates[27]
  • Afo Sapa: the Buhid Mangyan owner of rivers[28]
  • Apu Dandum: the Hanunoo Mangyan spirit living in the water[29]
  • Tubigan: the Bicolano god of the water[30]
  • Dagat: the Bicolano goddess of the sea[31]
  • Bulan: the Bicolano moon god whose arm became the earth, and whose tears became the rivers and seas[32]
  • Magindang: the Bicolano god of fishing who leads fishermen in getting a good fish catch through sounds and signs[33]
  • Onos: the Bicolano deity who freed the great flood that changed the land's features[34]
  • Hamorawan Lady: the Waray deity of the Hamorawan spring in Borongan, who blesses the waters with healing properties[35]
  • Maka-andog: an epic Waray giant-hero who was friends with the sea spirits and controlled wildlife and fish; first inhabitant and ruler of Samar who lived for five centuries; later immortalized as a deity of fishing[36]
  • Maguayan: the Bisaya god who rules over the waters as his kingdom; father of Lidagat; brother of Kaptan[37]
  • Maguyaen: the Bisaya goddess of the winds of the sea[38]
  • Magauayan: the Bisaya sea deity who fought against Kaptan for eons until Manaul intervened[39]
  • Lidagat: the Bisaya sea deity married to the wind; daughter of Maguayan[40]
  • Bakunawa: the Bisaya serpent deity who can coil around the world; sought to swallow the seven "Queen" moons, successfully eating the six, where the last is guarded by bamboos[41]
  • Makilum-sa-tubig: the Bisaya god of the sea[42]
  • Kasaray-sarayan-sa-silgan: the Bisaya god of streams[43]
  • Magdan-durunoon: the Bisaya god of hidden lakes[44]
  • Santonilyo: a Bisaya deity who brings rain when its image is immersed at sea[45]
  • Magyawan: the Hiligaynon god of the sea[46]
  • Manunubo: the Hiligaynon and Aklanon good spirit of the sea[47]
  • Launsina: the Capiznon goddess of the sun, moon, stars, and seas, and the most beloved because people seek forgiveness from her[48]
  • Kapapu-an: the Karay-a pantheon of ancestral spirits from whom the supernatural powers of shamans originated from; their aid enables specific types of shamans to gush water from rocks, leap far distances, create oil shields, become invisible, or pass through solid matter[49]
  • Neguno: the Cuyonon and Agutaynen god of the sea that cursed a selfish man by turning him into the first shark[50]
  • Polo: the benevolent Tagbanwa god of the sea whose help is invoked during times of illness[51]
  • Diwata Kat Sidpan: a deity who lives in the western region called Sidpan;[52] controls the rains[53]
  • Diwata Kat Libatan: a deity who lives in the eastern region called Babatan;[54] controls the rain[55]
  • Tagma-sa-Dagat: the Subanon god of the sea[56]
  • Tagma-sa-uba: the Subanon god of the rivers[57]
  • Diwata na Magbabaya: simply referred as Magbabaya; the good Bukidnon supreme deity and supreme planner who looks like a man; created the earth and the first eight elements, namely bronze, gold, coins, rock, clouds, rain, iron, and water; using the elements, he also created the sea, sky, moon, and stars; also known as the pure god who wills all things; one of three deities living in the realm called Banting[58]
  • Dadanhayan ha Sugay: the evil Bukidnon lord from whom permission is asked; depicted as the evil deity with a human body and ten heads that continuously drools sticky saliva, which is the source of all waters; one of the three deities living in the realm called Banting[59]
  • Bulalakaw: the Bukidnon guardian of the water and all the creatures living in it[60]
  • Python of Pusod Hu Dagat: the gigantic Bukidnon python living at the center of the sea; caused a massive flood when it coiled its body at sea[61]
  • Bulalakaw: the Talaandig deity who safeguards the creatures in the rivers; the lalayon ritual is offered to the deity[62]
  • Tagbanua: the Manobo god of rain[63]
  • Yumud: the god of water[64]
  • Pamulak Manobo: the Bagobo supreme deity and creator of the world, including the land, sea, and the first humans; throws water from the sky, causing rain, while his spit are the showers[65]
  • Eels of Mount Apo: two giant Bagobo eels, where one went east and arrived at sea, begetting all the eels of the world; the other went west, and remained on land until it died and became the western foothills of Mount Apo[66]
  • Fon Eel: the Blaan spirit of water[67]
  • Fu El: the T;boli spirit of water[68]
  • Fu El Melel: the T'boli spirit of the river[69]
  • Segoyong: the Teduray guardians of the classes of natural phenomena; punishes humans to do not show respect and steal their wards; many of them specialize in a class, which can be water, trees, grasses, caves behind waterfalls, land caves, snakes, fire, nunuk trees, deers, and pigs[70]
  • Tunung: the Maguindanao spirits who live in the sky, water, mountain, or trees; listens to prayers and can converse with humans by borrowing the voice of a medium; protects humans from sickness and crops from pests[71]
  • Tonong: divine Maranao spirits who often aid heroes; often lives in nonok trees, seas, lakes, and the sky realm[72]
  • Umboh Tuhan: also called Umboh Dilaut, the Sama-Bajau god of the sea and one of the two supreme deities; married to Dayang Dayang Mangilai[73]
  • Umboh Kamun: the Sama-Bajau totem of mantis shrimp[74]
  • Sumangâ: the Sama-Bajau spirit of sea vessels; the guardian who deflects attacks[75]

Indonesian[edit]

Turkic[edit]

Polynesian[edit]

Fijian[edit]

Hawaiian[edit]

Māori[edit]

Samoan[edit]

other island nations[edit]

Australia[edit]

Native Americas[edit]

North America[edit]

Inuit[edit]

  • Aipaloovik, an evil sea god associated with death and destruction.
  • Alignak, a lunar deity and god of weather, water, tides, eclipses, and earthquakes.
  • Arnapkapfaaluk, a fearsome sea goddess.
  • Idliragijenget, god of the ocean.
  • Nootaikok, god who presided over icebergs and glaciers.
  • Sedna, goddess of the sea and its creatures.

Central America and the Caribbean[edit]

Aztec[edit]

  • Atlaua, god of water, archers, and fishermen.
  • Chalchiuhtlicue, goddess of water, lakes, rivers, seas, streams, horizontal waters, storms, and baptism.
  • Opochtli, god of fishing and birdcatchers.
  • Tlāloc, god of water, fertility, and rain.
  • Tlaloque, a group of rain, water, and mountain gods.

Ewe / Fon[edit]

Mayan[edit]

Taíno[edit]

South America[edit]

Guarani (Brazilian Myth)[edit]

Incan[edit]

  • Pariacaca, god of water and rainstorms.
  • Paricia, god who sent a flood to kill humans who did not respect him adequately.

Panche/Muisca[edit]

  • Mohan, a mischievous entity associated with rivers, lakes and water in general.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 謝婧, 下園知弥, 宮崎克則 (2015). "明清時代の中国における鯨資源の利用" (pdf). 西南学院大 学博物館研究紀要 第3号. Seinan Gakuin University: 9–14. Retrieved 2016-01-16.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  2. ^ Kalis, Simone, Médecine traditionnelle, religion et divination ches les Seereer Siin du Sénégal –La connaissance de la nuit, L’Harmattan (1997), p. 123, ISBN 2-7384-5196-9
  3. ^ Gravrand, Henry, La Civilisation Sereer – Pangool, vol.2, Les Nouvelles Editions Africaines du Senegal, (1990), p. 327, ISBN 2-7236-1055-1
  4. ^ REPUBLIC DU SENEGAL, SECRETARIAT GENERAL DU GOUVERNMENT (JOURNAL OFFICIEL) : MINISTERE DE LA CULTURE ET DU PATRIMOINE HISTORIQUE CLASSE, ARRETE MINISTERIEL n° 2711 mcphc-dpc en date du 3 mai 2006, [1]
  5. ^ "Goddess Nantosuelta". 11 February 2012.
  6. ^ "Who Is Old Father Thames?". Londonist. 31 July 2015.
  7. ^ 村上健司編著 (2005). 日本妖怪大事典. Kwai books. 角川書店. p. 182. ISBN 978-4-04-883926-6.
  8. ^ 大藤時彦他 (1955). 民俗学研究所編 (ed.). 綜合日本民俗語彙. 第2巻. 柳田國男 監修. 平凡社. p. 763.
  9. ^ Vanoverbergh, M. (1941). The Isneg Farmer. Catholic Anthropologist Conference. Vol. III, No. 4.
  10. ^ Lumicao-Lora, M. L. (1984). Gaddang Literature. New Day Publishers.
  11. ^ Wilson, L. L. (1947). Ilongot Life and Legends. Southeast Asia Institute.
  12. ^ Yabes, L. Y. (1958). Folklore Studies Vol. 17: The Adam and Eve of the Ilocanos. Nanzan University.
  13. ^ Andico, F. L. The Lowland Cultural Community of Pangasinan. National Commission for Culture and the Arts.
  14. ^ Jocano, F. L. (1969). Philippine Mythology. Quezon City: Capitol Publishing House Inc.
  15. ^ Noche, D. (2019). A reclamation of one's heritage. Manila Standard.
  16. ^ Nicdao, A. (1917). Pampangan Folklore. Manila.
  17. ^ Nicdao, A. (1917). Pampangan Folklore. Manila.
  18. ^ Jocano, F. L. (1969). Philippine Mythology. Quezon City: Capitol Publishing House Inc.
  19. ^ Jocano, F. L. (1969). Philippine Mythology. Quezon City: Capitol Publishing House Inc.
  20. ^ San Buenaventura, P. (1613). Vocabulario de Lengua Tagala.
  21. ^ Demetrio, F. R., Cordero-Fernando, G., & Zialcita, F. N. (1991). The Soul Book. Quezon City: GCF Books.
  22. ^ Demetrio, F. R., Cordero-Fernando, G., & Zialcita, F. N. (1991). The Soul Book. Quezon City: GCF Books.
  23. ^ Souza, G. B., Turley, J. S. (2016). The Boxer Codex: Transcription and Translation of an Illustrated Late Sixteenth-century Spanish Manuscript Concerning the Geography, Ethnography and History of the Pacific, South-East Asia and East Asia. Brill.
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