Helen Wills in 1932
|Full name||Helen Newington Wills
Helen Wills Moody
Helen Wills Roark
|Country (sports)||United States|
October 6, 1905|
Centerville, CA, USA
|Died||January 1, 1998
Carmel, CA, USA
|Height||5 ft 7 in (1.70 m)|
|Int. Tennis HoF||1959 (member page)|
|Highest ranking||No. 1 (1927)|
|Grand Slam Singles results|
|French Open||W (1928, 1929, 1930, 1932)|
|Wimbledon||W (1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1932, 1933, 1935, 1938)|
|US Open||W (1923, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1931)|
|Highest ranking||No. 1 (1924)|
|Grand Slam Doubles results|
|French Open||W (1930, 1932)|
|Wimbledon||W (1924, 1927, 1930)|
|US Open||W (1922, 1924, 1925, 1928)|
|Grand Slam Mixed Doubles results|
|French Open||F (1928, 1929, 1932)|
|US Open||W (1924, 1928)|
|Wightman Cup||(1923, 1927,1929, 1931, 1932, 1938)|
Helen Newington Wills (October 6, 1905 – January 1, 1998), also known as Helen Wills Moody and Helen Wills Roark, was an American tennis player. She became famous around the world for holding the top position in women's tennis for a total of nine years: 1927–33, 1935 and 1938. She won 31 Grand Slam tournament titles (singles, women's doubles, and mixed doubles) during her career, including 19 singles titles.
Wills was the first American woman athlete to become a global celebrity, making friends with royalty and film stars despite her preference to stay out of the limelight. She was admired for her graceful physique and for her fluid motion. She was part of a new tennis fashion, playing in knee-length pleated skirts rather than the longer ones of her predecessors. Unusually, she practiced against men to hone her craft, and she played a relentless game, wearing down her female opponents with power and accuracy. In 1933 she beat the 8th-ranked male player in an exhibition match.
Her record of eight wins at Wimbledon was not surpassed until 1990 when Martina Navratilova won nine. She was said to be "arguably the most dominant tennis player of the 20th century", and has been called by some (including Jack Kramer, Harry Hopman, Mercer Beasley, Don Budge, and AP News) as the greatest female player in history.
- 1 Biography
- 2 Sporting achievements
- 3 Playing style
- 4 Grand Slam tournaments
- 5 Olympic Games
- 6 Career statistics
- 7 Education
- 8 Personal life
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
She married Frederick Moody in December 1929. She won approximately one-half of her major championships as "Helen Wills" and one-half as "Helen Wills Moody". Wills divorced Moody in 1937 and married Aidan Roark in October 1939. She died on January 1, 1998, aged 92.
Wills won 31 Grand Slam tournament titles (singles, women's doubles, and mixed doubles) during her career, including seven singles titles at the U.S. Championships, eight singles titles at Wimbledon, and four singles titles at the French Championships. Excluding her defaults at the French Championships and Wimbledon in 1926, she reached at least the final of each Grand Slam singles event she played during her career. She never played at the Australian Championships.
Wills also won two Olympic gold medals in Paris in 1924 (singles and doubles), the last year that tennis was an Olympic sport until 1988. Wills was the U.S. girls' singles champion in 1921 and 1922. She won her first women's national title at the age of 17 in 1923, making her the youngest champion at that time. From 1919 through 1938, she amassed a 398–35 (0.919) match record, including a winning streak of at least 158 matches, during which she did not lose a set. She was a member of the U.S. Wightman Cup team in 1923, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1928, 1929, 1930, 1931, 1932, and 1938.
Wills was reported to be an introverted and detached woman. On court, she rarely showed emotion, ignored her opponents, and took no notice of the crowd. Kitty McKane Godfree, who inflicted the only defeat Wills suffered at Wimbledon during her career, said, "Helen was a very private person, and she didn't really make friends very much." Hazel Hotchkiss Wightman said, "Helen was really an unconfident and [socially] awkward girl—you have no idea how awkward.... I thought of Helen as an honestly shy person who was bewildered by how difficult it was to please most people." Because of her unchanging expression, Grantland Rice, the American sportswriter, bestowed on Wills the nickname "Little Miss Poker Face". As her success and, ironically, unpopularity with the public increased, she was called "Queen Helen" and "the Imperial Helen". In her own defense, Wills said in her autobiography, "I had one thought and that was to put the ball across the net. I was simply myself, too deeply concentrated on the game for any extraneous thought."
She typically wore a white sailor suit having a pleated knee-length skirt, white shoes, and a white visor.
On February 16, 1926, the 20-year-old Wills met Suzanne Lenglen, six-time Wimbledon champion, in the final of a tournament at the Carlton Club in Cannes. It was the only time they played each other. Public anticipation of their match was immense, resulting in high scalper ticket prices. Roofs and windows of nearby buildings were crowded with spectators, including the King of Sweden. Both players were nervous, with Lenglen drinking brandy and water at one point to calm her nerves. Lenglen won the match 6–3, 8–6 after being down 2–1 in the first set and 5–4 in the second set. Wills had a set point in the second set and believed she had won the point that would have won her the set, but a linesman disagreed. In one of the few times she showed emotion on court, she spoke angrily to the linesman over the call. After the match, Lenglen's father advised her that she would lose her next match to Wills if they met again soon, and Lenglen avoided Wills for the remainder of the spring. Wills did not get a second chance to meet Lenglen. Wills had an emergency appendectomy during the 1926 French Championships, which caused her to default her second round match and withdraw from Wimbledon, which also was considered a default. Lenglen turned professional after the 1926 season.
After she returned to the United States, Wills attempted a comeback from her appendectomy, lost two matches, and on the advice of her doctor, withdrew from that year's U.S. Championships. Apart from those two losses, beginning with the 1923 U.S. Championships, Wills lost only four matches in three years: once to Lenglen, twice to Kathleen McKane Godfree, and once to Elizabeth Ryan. Wills had winning overall records against the latter two. In 1927, a revived Wills began her streak of not losing a set until the 1933 Wimbledon Championships.
During the 17 year period from 1922 through 1938, Wills entered 24 Grand Slam singles events, winning 19, finishing second three times, and defaulting twice as a result of her appendectomy. Her streak of winning U.S. Championships seven times in seven attempts ended when she defaulted to Helen Hull Jacobs during the 1933 final because of a back injury. At the time, Jacobs was leading in the third set. Because she felt the press and fans treated her harshly at the U.S. Championship, Wills decided never to play there again. After taking a year off to recuperate, Wills came back to win the 1935 Wimbledon title, surviving a match point in the final against Jacobs. In 1938 she again defeated her rival to win her eighth and last Wimbledon title before retiring permanently.
According to A. Wallis Myers of The Daily Telegraph and the Daily Mail, Wills was ranked in the world top ten from 1922 through 1925, 1927 through 1933, and in 1935 and 1938. She was World No. 1 in those rankings nine times, from 1927 through 1933 and in 1935 and 1938. Wills was included in the year-end top ten rankings issued by the United States Lawn Tennis Association from 1922 through 1925, 1927 through 1929, and in 1931 and 1933. She was the top-ranked U.S. player from 1923 through 1925 and 1927 through 1929.
Wills was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1959. In 1981, Wills was inducted into the (San Francisco) Bay Area Athletic Hall of Fame. In 1926 and 1929, Wills appeared on the cover of Time magazine.
When asked in 1941 about whether Wills or Lenglen was the better player, Elizabeth Ryan, who played against both of them in singles and partnered both in doubles, said, "Suzanne, of course. She owned every kind of shot, plus a genius for knowing how and when to use them." However, Wills and Lenglen are seen as having completely different skills and strategies. Wills served and volleyed with unusually powerful forehand and backhand strokes, and she forced her opponents out of position by placing deep shots left and right. Lenglen was more physically nimble, and she was more imaginative—able to quickly change shots in response to conditions. Lenglen was a master of the drop shot and close net work, which was Wills' soft spot. Aware of her weakness at the net, Wills drove her opponents deep into the backcourt as much as possible. Playing Wills was, according to Helen Jacobs, like playing "a machine... with implacable concentration and undeniable skill" yet with little flexibility.
Analogizing Wills's game to poker, George Lott, a 12 time winner of Grand Slam doubles titles and a contemporary of Wills, once said, "Helen’s expression rarely varied and she always tended strictly to business, but her opponents were never in doubt as to what she held: an excellent service, a powerful forehand, a strong backhand, a killer instinct, and no weaknesses. Five of a kind! Who would want to draw against that kind of hand?"
Grand Slam tournaments
Singles: 22 (19 titles, 3 runners-up)
|Outcome||Year||Championship||Surface||Opponent in final||Score in final|
|Runner-up||1922||U.S. Championships||Grass||Molla Bjurstedt||3–6, 1–6|
|Winner||1923||U.S. Championships||Grass||Molla Bjurstedt||6–2, 6–1|
|Runner-up||1924||Wimbledon||Grass||Kathleen McKane||6–4, 4–6, 4–6|
|Winner||1924||U.S. Championships (2)||Grass||Molla Bjurstedt||6–1, 6–3|
|Winner||1925||U.S. Championships (3)||Grass||Kathleen McKane||3–6, 6–0, 6–2|
|Winner||1927||Wimbledon||Grass||Lili de Alvarez||6–2, 6–4|
|Winner||1927||U.S. Championships (4)||Grass||Betty Nuthall||6–1, 6–4|
|Winner||1928||French Championships||Clay||Eileen Bennett Whittingstall||6–1, 6–2|
|Winner||1928||Wimbledon (2)||Grass||Lili de Alvarez||6–2, 6–3|
|Winner||1928||U.S. Championships (5)||Grass||Helen Hull Jacobs||6–2, 6–1|
|Winner||1929||French Championships (2)||Clay||Simonne Mathieu||6–3, 6–4|
|Winner||1929||Wimbledon (3)||Grass||Helen Hull Jacobs||6–1, 6–2|
|Winner||1929||U.S. Championships (6)||Grass||Phoebe Holcroft Watson||6–4, 6–2|
|Winner||1930||French Championships (3)||Clay||Helen Hull Jacobs||6–2, 6–1|
|Winner||1930||Wimbledon (4)||Grass||Elizabeth Ryan||6–2, 6–2|
|Winner||1931||U.S. Championships (7)||Grass||Eileen Bennett Whittingstall||6–4, 6–1|
|Winner||1932||French Championships (4)||Clay||Simonne Mathieu||7–5, 6–1|
|Winner||1932||Wimbledon (5)||Grass||Helen Hull Jacobs||6–3, 6–1|
|Winner||1933||Wimbledon (6)||Grass||Dorothy Round||6–4, 6–8, 6–3|
|Runner-up||1933||U.S. Championships (2)||Grass||Helen Hull Jacobs||6–8, 6–3, 0–3, retired|
|Winner||1935||Wimbledon (7)||Grass||Helen Hull Jacobs||6–3, 3–6, 7–5|
|Winner||1938||Wimbledon (8)||Grass||Helen Hull Jacobs||6–4, 6–0|
Singles: 1 (1 gold medal)
|Gold||1924||Paris||Grass||Julie Vlasto||6–2, 6–2|
Doubles: 1 (1 gold medal)
|Gold||1924||Paris||Grass||Hazel Wightman|| Phyllis Covell
Grand Slam singles tournament timeline
Won tournament; or reached Final; Semifinal; Quarter-final; Round 4, 3, 2, 1; competed at a Round Robin stage; lost in Qualification Round; absent from tournament event; played in a Davis Cup - / Fed Cup Zonal Group (with its number indication) or Play-off; won a bronze, silver (F or S) or gold medal at the Olympics; a downgraded Masters Series/1000 tournament (Not a Masters Series); or a tournament that was Not Held in a given year.
To avoid confusion and double counting, these charts are updated either at the conclusion of a tournament, or when the player's participation in the tournament has ended.
|Australian Championships||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||A||0 / 0||0–0|
|French Championships1||A||A||NH||A||2R2||A||W||W||W||A||W||A||A||A||A||A||A||4 / 5||20–1|
|Wimbledon||A||A||F||A||1R2||W||W||W||W||A||W||W||A||W||A||A||W||8 / 10||63–2|
|U.S. Championships||F||W||W||W||A||W||W||W||A||W||A||F||A||A||A||A||A||7 / 9||50–2|
|SR||0 / 1||1 / 1||1 / 2||1 / 1||0 / 2||2 / 2||3 / 3||3 / 3||2 / 2||1 / 1||2 / 2||1 / 2||0 / 0||1 / 1||0 / 0||0 / 0||1 / 1||19 / 24||123 / 5|
NH = tournament not held.
A = did not participate in the tournament.
SR = the ratio of the number of Grand Slam singles tournaments won to the number of those tournaments played.
1Through 1923, the French Championships were open only to French nationals (or members of French tennis clubs). The World Hard Court Championships (WHCC), actually played on clay in Paris or Brussels, began in 1912 and were open to all nationalities. The results from that tournament are shown here for 1922 and 1923. The Olympics replaced the WHCC in 1924, as the Olympics were held in Paris. Beginning in 1925, the French Championships were open to all nationalities, with the results shown here beginning with that year.
2 During the 1926 French Championships Helen Wills had an appendectomy that hadn't healed by the time Wimbledon started. Though one week prior the tournament was informed she wouldn't play, she was defaulted from her opening round match at Wimbledon.
Wills was tutored by her mother at home until she was 8 years old and graduated from Anna Head School in Berkeley in the top of her class.
In 1998, Wills bequeathed US $10 million to the University of California, Berkeley to fund the establishment of a Neuroscience institute. The resulting institute, the Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute, began in 1999 and is now home to more than 40 faculty researchers and 36 graduate students.
Wills wrote a coaching manual, Tennis (1928), her autobiography, Fifteen-Thirty: The Story of a Tennis Player (1937), and a mystery, Death Serves an Ace (1939, with Robert Murphy). She also wrote articles for the Saturday Evening Post and other magazines.
Senator James D. Phelan befriended Wills and invited her as a frequent guest to his estate, Villa Montalvo. Wills wrote poetry as a hobby, and presented two of her works, "The Awakening" and "The Narrow Street", to a literary competition hosted by Phelan in 1926. Wills settled laurel wreaths over the heads of the winners. Phelan himself wrote a poem dedicated to Wills. In 1928, Phelan commissioned Haig Patigian, sculptor and fellow member of the Bohemian Club, to create a likeness of Wills. Patigian completed a marble bust of Wills in October 1928, and Phelan donated it to the M. H. de Young Memorial Museum. At his death in 1930, Phelan left Wills $20,000 ($282,351 today) in his will, "in appreciation of her winning the tennis championship for California."
Wills met painter Diego Rivera and his wife Frida Kahlo at the San Francisco studio of her friend sculptor Ralph Stackpole in 1930. Rivera sketched Wills and asked her to model as the main figure of "California" for the 30-foot-high mural Allegory of California he was painting for the City Club of the San Francisco Stock Exchange. The committee of the Stock Exchange found out that Wills was being portrayed and insisted that no living person be represented in the mural. Subsequently, Rivera darkened the hair, broadened the eyes, changed the corners of the mouth and angled the jawline to remove any specific resemblance to Wills. A portrait of Stackpole's son Peter Stackpole holding a model airplane remained unnoticed in the mural.
Wills painted all her life, giving exhibitions of her paintings and etchings in New York galleries. She personally drew all of the illustrations in her book Tennis. Wills remained an avid tennis player into her 80s.
She died in Carmel, California of natural causes, aged 92. She had no children.
In 1994 in an interview with William Simon, Inside Tennis reporter, in Carmel California, she gave this rendition of what ended her career:
Helen Wills Moody-Roark: Well, it was during the war and my husband was at Fort Reilly, Kansas...It was the middle of winter, and I was walking my big police dog, Sultan. A little dog came barking wildly out of a house and grabbed my dog by the throat. Those little fox terriers have no sense. They’re just wild. So my poor dog was being chewed to pieces and wasn’t able to respond. But I wasn’t going to have a dogfight under my feet so I let go of his collar. And then Sultan took this little dog and shook him, which he deserved. But in the fight, my index finger on my right hand was bitten...
William Simon: By the terrier?
HWMR: I don't know. Fury! Wild, stupid animal! But my poor old finger, the finger next to the thumb. The thumb is very important in tennis. So that was the end of my career. I couldn’t manage. I never mentioned this before to anyone.
- Performance timelines for all female tennis players who reached at least one Grand Slam final
- List of people on the cover of Time Magazine: 1920s – 26 July 1926
- Collins, Bud (2008). The Bud Collins History of Tennis: An Authoritative Encyclopedia and Record Book. New York, N.Y: New Chapter Press. pp. 695, 701–2. ISBN 0-942257-41-3.
- Finn, Robin (1998-01-03). "Helen Wills Moody, Dominant Champion Who Won 8 Wimbledon Titles, Dies at 92". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-07-06.
- Kramer, Jack (1979). The Game: My 40 Years in Tennis. G.P. Putnam's Sons. pp. 89–95.
- Fein, Paul (April 2005). "Who is the greatest female player ever?". Inside Tennis.
- "Bill Tilden, Helen Wills Moody Still Head All-Time Net Parade" (Press release). The Provo Daily Herald. January 28, 1953.
- Patricia Henry Yeomans (June 2003). "Hazel Wightman and Helen Wills – Tennis at the 1924 Paris Olympic Games" (PDF). Journal of Olympic History – Volume 11 – Number 2. International Society of Olympic Historians. pp. 19–23. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
- Collins, Bud; Zak Hollander (1994). Bud Collins' Modern Encyclopedia of Tennis. Detroit, MI: Visible Ink Press. p. 88. ISBN 0-8103-9443-X.
- Billie Jean King with Cynthia Starr (1988). We Have Come a Long Way: The Story of Women's Tennis. New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 31. ISBN 0-07-034625-9.
- Billie Jean King with Cynthia Starr (1988). We Have Come a Long Way: The Story of Women's Tennis. New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 32. ISBN 0-07-034625-9.
- Billie Jean King with Cynthia Starr (1988). We Have Come a Long Way: The Story of Women's Tennis. New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 33. ISBN 0-07-034625-9.
- Fein, Paul (April 2006). "Who is the greatest female player ever?". Inside Tennis. Archived from the original (– Scholar search) on January 2, 2006. Retrieved 2007-04-26.[dead link]
- "Wills v. Lenglen". Time Magazine. 1926-03-01. Retrieved 2008-07-06.
- "Suzanne Retains Her Title". Lawrence Journal-World. Feb 16, 1926. p. 1.
- New York Times, February 18, 1926
- Billie Jean King with Cynthia Starr (1988). We Have Come a Long Way: The Story of Women's Tennis. New York: McGraw-Hill. p. 39. ISBN 0-07-034625-9.
- "This Day in Sports: January 28". USA Today. January 31, 1999. Retrieved 2007-04-26.
- "Mrs. Wills Moody Achieves Her Ambition". Gloucester Citizen (British Newspaper Archive). 6 July 1935. p. 1.
- My Autobiography (1964) – Charlie Chaplin, page 358
- United States Tennis Association (1988). 1988 Official USTA Tennis Yearbook. Lynn, Massachusetts: H.O. Zimman, Inc. p. 260.
- "Helen Wills Moody Roark, Tilden in Net Hall of Fame", Newport Daily News, August 17, 1959, page 12
- Time magazine cover search results
- Robertson, Max (1974). The Encyclopedia of Tennis. Viking Press. p. 173.
Helen Wills and Suzanne Lenglen played entirely different styles of tennis.
- Jacobs, Helen. "My Matches Against Helen Wills Moody". In Caryl Phillips. The Right Set: A Tennis Anthology. pp. 73–74.
- "UC Berkeley Online Tour: Famous Alumni". Retrieved 2010-07-01.
- Jensen, Carole A.; East Contra Costa Historical Society (2008). Brentwood. Images of America. Arcadia Publishing. p. 116. ISBN 0738558257.
- Los Angeles Times. January 3, 1998. Julie Cart. Tennis Legend Helen Wills Moody Dies
- A Day In The Hills, September 18, 1926, Villa Montalvo. Archive at San Jose State University.
- San Francisco Chronicle, item from August 16, 1930. Laura Perkins, August 12, 2005, "San Francisco hotel workers ratify three-year contract." Retrieved on August 4, 2009.
- Poletti, Therese; Tom Paiva (2008). Art Deco San Francisco: The Architecture of Timothy Pflueger. Princeton Architectural Press. ISBN 1568987560.
- Inside Tennis. April 2006. For the Love of the Game: 25 Years in Tennis. Bill Simons
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Helen Wills Moody.|
- Helen Wills at the International Tennis Hall of Fame
- Official Wimbledon website profile
- New York Times obituary
- Helen Wills Neuroscience Institute
- July 26, 1926 Time Magazine cover
- July 1, 1929 Time Magazine cover
- 8/19/1923 article in NYT archive (pay)
- Marble bust of Helen Wills, with sculptor Haig Patigian. October 1928. Photograph in the Bancroft Library Portrait Collection. Bust donated to the M. H. de Young Memorial Museum by James D. Phelan in 1928.
- Helen Wills posing in her painting studio, Berkeley, 1929. Photograph in the Bancroft Library Portrait Collection.
- Helen Wills sitting in her living room. Photographer Peter Stackpole, for Life magazine, 1937.
- Helen Wills: Cal's Golden Tennis Champion