Jefferson County, Arkansas
|Jefferson County, Arkansas|
Main façade of the Jefferson County Courthouse in Pine Bluff
Location in the state of Arkansas
Arkansas's location in the U.S.
|Founded||November 2, 1829|
|Named for||Thomas Jefferson|
|Largest city||Pine Bluff|
|• Total||914 sq mi (2,367 km2)|
|• Land||871 sq mi (2,256 km2)|
|• Water||43 sq mi (111 km2), 4.7%|
|• Density||89/sq mi (34/km²)|
|Congressional districts||1st, 4th|
|Time zone||Central: UTC-6/-5|
Jefferson County, Arkansas is a county located in the U.S. state of Arkansas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 77,435. Its county seat and largest city is Pine Bluff. Jefferson County' Jefferson County is Arkansas's 21st county, formed on November 2, 1829, from portions of Arkansas and Pulaski counties, and named for Thomas Jefferson, third President of the United States. Jefferson County is included in the Pine Bluff, Arkansas Metropolitan Statistical Area.
|This section requires expansion with: more details on the county's history during the 1830s and beyond. (November 2013)|
The area that would later become Jefferson County was occupied by the Quapaw when French explorers established the Arkansas Post in the 17th century, in what was claimed as Louisiana, part of New France.
In March 1819, Robert Crittenden was appointed secretary of Arkansas Territory. That same year, Joseph Bonne, traveling upstream from Arkansas Post, built a cabin on a “high bluff covered with pine trees” on the river’s south bank. Several years later, James Scull, also from Arkansas Post, established a tavern and small inn on the river's north bank, across from what would become the site of Pine Bluff.
Five years later, Crittenden convinced the remaining Quapaw to sign the November 15, 1824 treaty relinquishing what remained of their tribal lands. Steamboat travel led to expanding settlement, "bringing to the area such men as French-born Napoleonic soldier Antoine Barraque (Pine Bluff’s principal east-west street was named for him) and brothers James T. and John Pullen (main thoroughfares were named for them)."
On November 2, 1829, Territorial Governor John Pope—Crittenden's successor—approved the establishment of Jefferson County. Bonne’s cabin became the county seat; by August 1832, "Pine Bluff Town" became the county seat."
In 1886, Jefferson County produced 55,120 bales of cotton, the most in Arkansas, and the second-most throughout the South. Transportation companies serving the county at the time included the Cotton Belt Route, the St. Louis – San Francisco Railway, Missouri Pacific, the Arkansas River Packet Company, the Wiley Jones Street Car Lines, and the Citizens Street Railway Company.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 914 square miles (2,370 km2), of which 871 square miles (2,260 km2) is land and 43 square miles (110 km2) (4.7%) is water. About 75% of the county including the largest city, Pine Bluff, is located in the Arkansas Delta with the remaining portion in the Arkansas Timberlands. Consequently, it is largely low lying flatland to the east used primarily for agriculture and expanses of trees used for timber to the west.
- Lonoke County (north)
- Arkansas County (east)
- Lincoln County (southeast)
- Cleveland County (southwest)
- Grant County (west)
- Pulaski County (northwest)
As of the 2010 census, there were 77,435 people residing in the county. 55.1% were Black or African American, 42.0% White, 0.8% Asian, 0.3% Native American, 0.7% of some other race and 1.2% of two or more races. 1.6% were Hispanic or Latino (of any race).
As of the census of 2000, there were 84,278 people, 30,555 households, and 21,510 families residing in the county. The population density was 95 people per square mile (37/km²). There were 34,350 housing units at an average density of 39 per square mile (15/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 49.58% Black or African American, 48.46% White, 0.24% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.26% from other races, and 0.76% from two or more races. 0.96% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. By comparison, the county had 15,714 residents in 1870, 20% of whom were White.
In the county there were 30,555 households out of which 33.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.40% were married couples living together, 18.80% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.60% were non-families. 26.20% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.60% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.13. The population was spread out with 26.30% under the age of 18, 10.80% from 18 to 24, 27.80% from 25 to 44, 22.10% from 45 to 64, and 12.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 95.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.40 males.
Jefferson County experienced a decline in population between 2000 and 2010 of 8.1%. The county has continued to decline in population since 2010, showing a 3.5% decrease in population to 74,723 between the 2010 census and the 2012 (-3.5%) census estimates.
The median income for a household in the county was $31,327, and the median income for a family was $38,252. Males had a median income of $31,848 versus $21,867 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,417. About 16.00% of families and 20.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.60% of those under age 18 and 17.80% of those age 65 or over.
Government and infrastructure
The Arkansas Department of Correction (ADC) operates its headquarters in Pine Bluff. The ADC headquarters moved to the Pine Bluff Complex in 1979. The administrative Annex East is on Harding Avenue in Pine Bluff, south of city hall. The Diagnostic Unit, the Pine Bluff Unit, and the Randall L. Williams Correctional Facility are in the "Pine Bluff Complex" in Pine Bluff. The headquarters of the Arkansas Correctional School system are within the Pine Bluff Complex.
The Arkansas Department of Community Correction Southeast Arkansas Community Corrections Center is in Pine Bluff. The Maximum Security Unit is 25 miles (40 km) north of central Pine Bluff and off of Arkansas Highway 15 in unincorporated Jefferson County. The Tucker Unit is also located north of Pine Bluff.
Townships in Arkansas are the divisions of a county. Each township includes unincorporated areas; some may have incorporated cities or towns within part of their boundaries. Arkansas townships have limited purposes in modern times. However, the United States Census does list Arkansas population based on townships (sometimes referred to as "county subdivisions" or "minor civil divisions"). Townships are also of value for historical purposes in terms of genealogical research. Each town or city is within one or more townships in an Arkansas county based on census maps and publications. The townships of Jefferson County are listed below; listed in parentheses are the cities, towns, and/or census-designated places that are fully or partially inside the township. 
- Jefferson County Immigration Bureau (August 1888), Jefferson County, Arkansas: Full Description, Chicago: C.S. Burch Publishing Co., retrieved 2011-08-21
- "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 22, 2014.
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- Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 168.
- "Jefferson County". Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture. Retrieved 2013-11-13.
- JeffCounty 1888, p. 4
- JeffCounty 1888, pp. 15–16
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
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- "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 22, 2014.
- Based on 2000 census data[dated info]
- 2010 census report for Jefferson County, Arkansas
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-14.
- JeffCounty 1888, p. 3
- "Pine Bluff city, Arkansas." U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on September 7, 2010.
- "Central Office." Arkansas Department of Correction. Retrieved on June 28, 2010.
- "2006 Facts Brochure." Arkansas Department of Correction. July 1, 2005-June 30, 2006. 25 (25/38). Retrieved on August 15, 2010.
- "Facilities." Arkansas Department of Correction. Retrieved on June 28, 2010.
- "Diagnostic Unit." Arkansas Department of Correction. Retrieved on June 28, 2010.
- "Pine Bluff Unit/Randall L. Williams Correctional Facility." Arkansas Department of Correction. Retrieved on June 28, 2010.
- "School Sites." Arkansas Correctional School. Retrieved on July 18, 2010.
- "Contact Us." Arkansas Correctional School. Retrieved on July 18, 2010.
- "Locations." Arkansas Department of Community Corrections. Retrieved on March 5, 2011. "7301 West 13th Street, Pine Bluff, Arkansas 71602"
- "Maximum Security Unit." Arkansas Department of Correction. Retrieved on June 28, 2010.
- "Pine Bluff Unit/Randall L. Williams Correctional Facility/Tucker Unit." Arkansas Department of Correction. Retrieved on June 28, 2010.
- "1936 Jefferson County, Arkansas Highway Map." Arkansas State Highway and Transportation Department. Retrieved on September 28, 2011.
- 2011 Boundary and Annexation Survey (BAS): Jefferson County, AR (PDF) (Map). U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-08-13.
- "Arkansas: 2010 Census Block Maps - County Subdivision". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 29, 2014.
- Biographical and Historical Memoirs of Pulaski, Jefferson, Lonoke, Faulkner, Grant, Saline, Perry, Garland and Hot Spring Counties, Arkansas. Chicago: The Goodspeed Publishing Co. 1889. Retrieved May 25, 2014.
- Jefferson County from the Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture
- Pine Bluff/Jefferson County Library System
||Pulaski County||Lonoke County|
|Grant County||Arkansas County|
|Cleveland County||Lincoln County|