Lenawee County, Michigan

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Lenawee County
Lenawee County Courthouse in Adrian
Map of Michigan highlighting Lenawee County
Location within the U.S. state of Michigan
Map of the United States highlighting Michigan
Michigan's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 41°53′N 84°04′W / 41.89°N 84.07°W / 41.89; -84.07
Country United States
State Michigan
Founded1822 (created)
September 10, 1826 (organized)[1]
SeatAdrian
Largest cityAdrian
Area
 • Total761 sq mi (1,970 km2)
 • Land750 sq mi (1,900 km2)
 • Water12 sq mi (30 km2)  1.6%%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total99,423
 • Density130/sq mi (51/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional district7th
Websitewww.lenawee.mi.us

Lenawee County (/ˈlɛnʌw/ LEN-uh-way) is a county located in the U.S. state of Michigan. As of the 2020 United States Census, the population was 99,423.[2] The county seat is Adrian.[3] The county was created in 1822, from territory partitioned from Monroe County. Its governing structure was organized in 1826.[1]

Lenawee County comprises the Adrian, MI Micropolitan Statistical Area and is included in the Detroit-Warren-Ann Arbor, MI Combined Statistical Area. It is served by the Toledo Media market.

Lenawee County is home to the Potawatomi, Ottawa, Chippewa, Iroquois, Miami, Sauk, Fox, Mascoutens and Huron tribes.[4]

History[edit]

The county owes its formation to the 1807 Treaty of Detroit, by which the Ottawa, Ojibwe (called Chippewa by the Americans); Wyandot and Potawatomi nations ceded their claims to the United States of their traditional territories in today's southeast Michigan.[5] However, many leaders of these tribes believed that the treaty was coercive and opposed it. They began to collaborate and organize a confederacy of resistance, led by Chief Tecumseh (Shawnee). They wanted through warfare and alliance with Great Britain to force the US from their territory. This was the period of the US War of 1812 with Great Britain. During this time, the US fought the Battle of Tippecanoe, the Battle of Lake Erie, and the Battle of Thames in this area, against both British and indigenous forces.[6]

The United States won the Battle of the Thames in 1813, defeating the British and their allies. Tecumseh died in the battle and his confederacy dissolved. (He became the namesake for the city of the same name in Lenawee County.) As a result of this defeat, the confederacy leaders agreed to a peace treaty, the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the war with the indigenous peoples. It affirmed US control of the land demarcated in the Treaty of Detroit, comprising much of the future state of Michigan, including what became organized as Lenawee County in the United States.[6]

The US continued efforts to force the tribes from these western territories. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act to authorize the government to relocate Indigenous peoples from territories east of the Mississippi River and move them west, to what became known as Indian Territory (and later Oklahoma). While Indian Removal was directed specifically at Southeast Indian tribes, it was also applied to those further north in the Midwest.[7][8]

Lenawee County was organized in 1826, after being authorized and described by the Michigan legislature in 1822. It was taken from Monroe County, Michigan.[1]

Etymology[edit]

The county's name was a neologism created by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, a US Indian agent in the region who later became a prominent ethnologist. Married to Jane Johnston, a mixed-race woman of high-rank Ojibwe and Scots ancestry, Schoolcraft gained entry to Ojibwe language and culture through her. He later became a proponent of forced Indigenous assimilation. While working in Michigan, he named several of the newly organized counties in the area, all neologisms.[9] 'Lenawee' is thought to be derived from a misappropriation of an Indigenous word. Scholars debate whether its origins lie in the Lenape language leno or lenno, meaning "male," or the Shawnee lenawai.[1][10]

Geography[edit]

According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 761 square miles (1,970 km2), of which 750 square miles (1,900 km2) is land and 12 square miles (31 km2) (1.6%) is water.[11] Lenawee County is considered to be part of Southeastern Michigan.

Adjacent counties[edit]

Major highways[edit]

Within Lenawee County's townships, north–south roads are referred to as "highways", while east–west roads are referred to as "roads".

Demographics[edit]

Historical population
Census Pop.
18301,491
184017,8891,099.8%
185026,37247.4%
186038,11244.5%
187045,59519.6%
188048,3436.0%
189048,4480.2%
190048,406−0.1%
191047,907−1.0%
192047,767−0.3%
193049,8494.4%
194053,1106.5%
195064,62921.7%
196077,78920.4%
197081,6094.9%
198089,94810.2%
199091,4761.7%
200098,8908.1%
201099,8921.0%
202099,423−0.5%
US Decennial Census[12]
1790-1960[13] 1900-1990[14]
1990-2000[15] 2010-2018[2]

As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 98,890 people, 35,930 households, and 26,049 families in the county. The population density was 132 people per square mile (51/km2). There were 39,769 housing units at an average density of 53 per square mile (20/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 92.51% White, 2.12% Black or African American, 0.41% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 3.01% from other races, and 1.49% from two or more races. 6.96% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. Residents identified as being 30.4% of German, 11.6% English, 10.2% American and 9.9% Irish ancestry. Some 94.7% spoke English and 4.2% Spanish as their first language.

There were 35,930 households, out of which 34.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.70% were married couples living together, 10.00% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.50% were non-families. 22.90% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.70% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.07.

The county population contained 25.90% under the age of 18, 9.10% from 18 to 24, 28.60% from 25 to 44, 23.70% from 45 to 64, and 12.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 100.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.00 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $45,739, and the median income for a family was $53,661. Males had a median income of $38,458 versus $25,510 for females. The per capita income for the county was $20,186. About 4.40% of families and 6.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.10% of those under age 18 and 9.20% of those age 65 or over.

Government and politics[edit]

Lenawee County has been reliably Republican in national elections. Since 1884, its voters have selected the Republican Party nominee in 30 of 35 presidential elections.

United States presidential election results for Lenawee County, Michigan[16]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 31,541 59.01% 20,918 39.13% 993 1.86%
2016 26,430 57.09% 16,750 36.18% 3,118 6.73%
2012 22,351 49.75% 21,776 48.47% 801 1.78%
2008 22,225 46.43% 24,640 51.48% 1,000 2.09%
2004 25,675 54.61% 20,787 44.22% 550 1.17%
2000 20,681 51.58% 18,365 45.81% 1,047 2.61%
1996 14,168 39.78% 16,924 47.51% 4,527 12.71%
1992 14,297 36.32% 15,399 39.12% 9,669 24.56%
1988 19,115 57.84% 13,690 41.42% 243 0.74%
1984 22,409 66.70% 11,012 32.78% 176 0.52%
1980 20,366 56.44% 12,935 35.85% 2,784 7.72%
1976 18,397 55.02% 14,610 43.70% 428 1.28%
1972 19,125 62.39% 11,018 35.94% 511 1.67%
1968 16,280 55.85% 10,552 36.20% 2,315 7.94%
1964 11,385 40.29% 16,815 59.50% 60 0.21%
1960 19,859 64.65% 10,785 35.11% 75 0.24%
1956 21,100 72.68% 7,857 27.06% 74 0.25%
1952 20,035 72.72% 7,397 26.85% 117 0.42%
1948 14,369 67.49% 6,529 30.67% 393 1.85%
1944 16,382 70.48% 6,750 29.04% 111 0.48%
1940 16,963 70.19% 7,132 29.51% 71 0.29%
1936 12,154 56.70% 8,299 38.72% 982 4.58%
1932 10,912 50.50% 10,420 48.23% 275 1.27%
1928 14,794 76.94% 4,321 22.47% 112 0.58%
1924 13,358 72.65% 3,950 21.48% 1,080 5.87%
1920 11,973 68.89% 5,095 29.32% 311 1.79%
1916 6,247 52.01% 5,519 45.95% 246 2.05%
1912 2,996 27.02% 4,239 38.23% 3,854 34.76%
1908 6,607 56.22% 4,704 40.03% 441 3.75%
1904 7,891 67.40% 3,334 28.48% 482 4.12%
1900 6,847 51.75% 5,966 45.09% 419 3.17%
1896 6,863 50.89% 6,300 46.72% 323 2.40%
1892 5,833 46.86% 5,592 44.92% 1,024 8.23%
1888 6,475 49.49% 5,671 43.35% 937 7.16%
1884 5,827 46.63% 5,572 44.59% 1,098 8.79%

The county government operates the jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, records deeds, mortgages, and vital records, administers public health regulations, and participates with the state in the provision of social services. The county board of commissioners controls the budget and has limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions—police and fire, building and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance, etc.—are the responsibility of individual cities and townships.

Adrian College and Siena Heights University are located within the county.

Voters in Lenawee County have supported candidates from both political parties in statewide elections, making it a swing county. Tecumseh and Adrian have tended to lean Democrat, while Dover, Madison, and Riga townships have tended to lean Republican. The rural areas of the county are bastions of populism and libertarianism, and the Tea Party Movement gained considerable support there. During the 2010 midterm elections, the county favored Republican Gubernatorial candidate Rick Snyder, Congressional candidate Tim Walberg, State Senate candidate Bruce Caswell, and State Representative candidates Nancy Jenkins and Mike Shirkey.

Lenawee County is located in Michigan's 7th congressional district, which is represented by Tim Walberg, a resident of the county. Walberg previously served as Lenawee's state representative. Backed by the Tea Party, Walberg won the district, which includes all of Lenawee, Jackson, Hillsdale, Branch, and Eaton counties, as well as parts of Calhoun and Washtenaw counties. He defeated incumbent Democrat Mark Schauer. Schauer had defeated Walberg in the 2008 congressional election, after Walberg's first stint in Congress.

Most of Lenawee County is represented in the Michigan House of Representatives by Republican Bronna Kahle. She represents the 57th District, previously represented by Republican Nancy Jenkins. She was preceded successively by brothers Doug and Dudley Spade, both Democrats.

Cambridge Township, which includes Onsted, is part of the 65th District, which covers much of the Irish Hills and is represented by Republican Sarah Lightner. Adrian is part of the 17th Senate District, represented by Dale Zorn of Ida, Michigan.

Until the 2014 state senate election, Lenawee County was part of the 16th State Senate District, represented by Republican Bruce Caswell. The district contained all of Lenawee, Hillsdale, and Branch counties.

Elected county officials[edit]

Lenawee County Courthouse, Adrian

Current as of February 26, 2022 [17]

County Commission[edit]

  • District 1: David Stimpson (R), commission chair
  • District 2: Dustin Krasny (R)
  • District 3: Nancy Jenkins-Arno (R)
  • District 4: Dawn Bales (R)
  • District 5: Karol "Kz" Bolton (D)
  • District 6: Terry Collins (R), commission vice-chair
  • District 7: James Goetz (R)
  • District 8: Ralph Tillotson (R)
  • District 9: Chris Wittenbach (R)

Current as of February 26, 2022[17][18]

Law enforcement agencies[edit]

County[edit]

  • Lenawee County Sheriff's Office

City/Village[edit]

  • Adrian City Police
  • Blissfield Police
  • Clinton Police
  • Hudson Police
  • Morenci Police
  • Tecumseh Police

Township[edit]

  • Adrian Township Police
  • Cambridge Township Police
  • Columbia Township Police
  • Madison Township Police
  • Raisin Township Police

Special[edit]

  • Adrian & Blissfield Railroad Police

Communities[edit]

U.S. Census data map showing local municipal boundaries within Lenawee County. Shaded areas represent incorporated cities.

Cities[edit]

Villages[edit]

Charter townships[edit]

Civil townships[edit]

Census-designated places[edit]

Other unincorporated communities[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "Bibliography on Lenawee County". Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University. Retrieved January 20, 2013.
  2. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". US Census Bureau. Retrieved September 15, 2021.
  3. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  4. ^ Wessel, Bob. "'Mound Builders' called Lenawee County home centuries before the familiar native tribes". The Daily Telegram. Adrian, Michigan. Retrieved April 11, 2022.
  5. ^ Clark, Daniel J. (2018). "The Era of 'The Treaty of Detroit,' 1949–1950". Disruption in Detroit. University of Illinois Press. pp. 35–53. doi:10.5622/illinois/9780252042010.003.0003. ISBN 9780252042010.
  6. ^ a b "Chronology of Adrian". Adrian Architecture. Retrieved April 11, 2022.
  7. ^ Boursaw, Jane Louise (January 28, 2021). "Eric Hemenway Talks Indian Removal Act, Treaties & Odawa Leadership". Old Mission Gazette. Retrieved April 11, 2022.
  8. ^ MSU American Indian and Indigenous Studies. "Land Acknowledgement". Reciprocal Research Guide. Michigan State University. Retrieved April 11, 2022.
  9. ^ "Signers - Schoolcraft, Henry R." portal.treatysigners.org. Retrieved April 11, 2022.
  10. ^ Michigan History, Arts and Libraries on sources of County names. Archived July 28, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". US Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved September 26, 2014.
  12. ^ "US Decennial Census". US Census Bureau. Retrieved September 26, 2014.
  13. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved September 26, 2014.
  14. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". US Census Bureau. Retrieved September 26, 2014.
  15. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). US Census Bureau. Retrieved September 26, 2014.
  16. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org.
  17. ^ a b "2022 government directory". www.lenawee.mi.us. April 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  18. ^ "Lenawee county staff directory".

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 41°53′N 84°04′W / 41.89°N 84.07°W / 41.89; -84.07