Northern Michigan

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This article is about the region. For the northernmost peninsula of Michigan, see Upper Peninsula of Michigan. For the university, see Northern Michigan University.
Northern Michigan
Northern Lower Michigan
Lower Peninsula of Michigan
Country United States
State Michigan
Population 506,658
Timezone Eastern: UTC −5/−4
Northern Michigan is highlighted in light green.

Northern Michigan, also known as Northern Lower Michigan (known colloquially to residents of more southerly parts of the state and summer residents from cities such as Chicago as "up north"), is a region of the U.S. state of Michigan. A popular tourist destination, it is home to several small- to medium-sized cities, extensive state and national forests, lakes and rivers, and a large portion of Great Lakes shoreline. The region has a significant seasonal population much like other regions that depend on tourism as their main industry. Northern Lower Michigan is distinct from the more northerly Upper Peninsula and Isle Royale, which, obviously, are also located in "northern" Michigan. In the northern-most 21 counties in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, the total population of the region is 506,658 people.[A]


The southern boundary of the region is not precisely defined. Some residents in the southern part of the state consider its southern limit to be just north of Flint, Port Huron, and Grand Rapids, but more northern residents restrict it to the area north of Mount Pleasant: the "fingers" of the mitten-like shape of the Lower Peninsula. The 45th parallel runs across Northern Michigan. Signs in the Lower Peninsula that mark that line are at Mission Point Light.[1] (just north of Traverse City), Suttons Bay, Cairn Highway in Kewadin,[2] Alba, Michigan on U.S. 131 Highway (approximately 2 miles North of county road 42, signs on both sides of the highway), Gaylord,[3] Atlanta and Alpena.[4] These are six of 29 places in the U.S.A. where such signs or monuments are known to exist. One other such sign is in Menominee, Michigan in the Upper Peninsula.[5]

The geographical theme of this region is shaped by rolling hills, Great Lakes shorelines including coastal dunes on the west coast, large inland lakes, numerous rivers and large forests. A tension zone is identified running from Muskegon to Saginaw Bay marked by a change in soil type and common tree species.[6] North of the line the historic presettlement forests were beech and sugar maple, mixed with hemlock, white pine, and yellow birch which only grew on moist soils further south. Southern Michigan forests were primarily deciduous with oaks, red maple, shagbark hickory, basswood and cottonwood which are uncommon further north. Northern Michigan soils tend to be coarser, and the growing season is shorter with a cooler climate. Lake effect weather brings significant snowfalls to snow belt areas of Northern Michigan.

Across the Straits of Mackinac, to the north, west and northeast, lies the Upper Peninsula of Michigan (the "U.P."). Despite its geographic location as the most northerly part of Michigan, the Upper Peninsula is not usually included in the definition of Northern Michigan (although Northern Michigan University is located in the U.P. city of Marquette), and is instead regarded by Michigan residents as a distinct region of the state. Although, residents of the Upper Peninsula often say that "Northern Michigan" is not in the Lower Peninsula. They insist the region must only be referred to as "Northern Lower Michigan" and this can sometimes become a topic of contention between friends who are from different Peninsulas.[citation needed] The two regions are connected by the 5 mile long Mackinac Bridge.[7]

All of the northern Lower Peninsula – north of a line from Manistee County on the west to Iosco County on the east (the second orange tier up on the map) – is considered to be part of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Gaylord.[8]

There were more than 150 past and present lighthouses around Michigan's Great Lakes coasts, including several in Northern Michigan. They serve as functioning warnings to mariners, but are also integral to the region's culture and history. See the list of Michigan lighthouses for more information on individual lighthouses.

Adjacent to the Traverse City Cherry Capital Airport is a United States Coast Guard air station (CGAS), which is responsible for both maritime and land-based search and rescue operations in the northern Great Lakes region.

The state forests in the U.S. state of Michigan are managed by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Forest, Mineral and Fire Management unit. It is the largest state forest system in the nation at 3,900,000 acres (16,000 km2). See List of Michigan state forests. The Northern lower peninsula includes three forests:

  • Mackinaw State Forest
    • Atlanta FMU (Alpena, northeast Cheboygan, most of Montmorency, and most of Presque Isle counties)
    • Gaylord FMU (Antrim, Charlevoix, most of Cheboygan, Emmet, and most of Otsego counties)
    • Pigeon River Country FMU (southeast Cheboygan, northwest Montmorency, northeast Otsego, and southwest Presque Isle counties)
  • Pere Marquette State Forest
    • Cadillac FMU (Lake, Mason, Mecosta, Missaukee, Newaygo, Oceana, Osceola, and Wexford counties)
    • Traverse City FMU (Benzie, Grand Traverse, Leelanau, Kalkaska, Manistee counties)
  • Au Sable State Forest
    • Gladwin FMU (Arenac, Bay, Clare, Gladwin, southern Iosco, Isabella, and Midland counties)
    • Grayling FMU (Alcona, Crawford, Oscoda, and northern Iosco counties)
    • Roscommon FMU (Ogemaw and Roscommon counties)

In addition, large portions of this area are covered by the Manistee National Forest and the Huron National Forest. In the former, a unique environment is present at the Nordhouse Dunes Wilderness. This relatively small area of 3,450 acres (14.0 km2), on Lake Michigan's east shore, is one of few wilderness areas in the U.S. with an extensive lake shore dunes ecosystem. The dunes are 3500 to 4000 years old, and rise to nearly 140 feet (43 m) higher than the lake. The Nordhouse Dunes are interspersed with woody vegetation such as jack pine, juniper and hemlock. Many small water holes and marshes dot the landscape, and dune grass covers some of the dunes. The wide and sandy beach is ideal for walks and sunset viewing.

Glaciers shaped the area, creating a unique regional ecosystem. A large portion of the area is the so-called Grayling outwash plain, which consists of broad outwash plain including sandy ice-disintegration ridges; jack pine barrens, some white pine-red pine forest, and northern hardwood forest. Large lakes were created by glacial action.[9]

Michigan is a unique travel environment. Consequently, drivers should be forewarned: travel distances should not be underestimated. Michigan's overall length is only 456 miles (734 km) and width 386 miles (621 km) – but because of the lakes those distances cannot be traveled directly. The distance from northwest to the southeast corner is 456 miles (734 km) 'as the crow flies'. Unlike the crows, travelers must go around the Great Lakes. For example, when traveling to the Upper Peninsula, it is well to realize that it is roughly 300 miles (480 km) from Detroit to the Mackinac Bridge, but it is another 300 miles (480 km) from St. Ignace to Ironwood.

Likewise direct routes are few and far between Interstate 75 (I-75) and M-115 do angle from the southeast to the northwest), but most roads are oriented either east-west or north-south (oriented with township lines set up under the Land Ordinance of 1785).

Summer destinations[edit]

Boating, golf, and camping are leading activities. Sailing, kayaking,[10] canoeing, birding, bicycling,[11][12][13] horse back riding, motorcycling, and 'off roading' are important avocations. The forest activities are available everywhere. There are a great many Michigan state parks and other protected areas which make these truly a 'pleasant peninsula.' These would include the Huron National Forest and the Manistee National Forest, plus the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore (a 35-mile stretch of eastern Lake Michigan dunes)[14] and the Nordhouse Dunes Wilderness.

Non-summer destinations[edit]

Some of the downhill and Nordic skiing resorts located in the Northern Lower include Boyne Mountain, Boyne Highlands, Otsego Club & Resort (since 1939), Crystal Mountain Resort, Snow Snake Ski and Golf, Nub's Nob, Caberfae Peaks and Schuss Mountain. Some of these also serve as summer golf resorts. Frederic, Michigan is a particularly noteworthy center for cross country skiing.

Fall activities include harvest festivals, seasonal beer and wine events, and fall color tours. Hunting in Northern Michigan is a popular fall pastime. There are seasons for bow hunting and a muzzle-loader season as well as for using modern rifle season. The opening day of deer season (November 15) is a major day for some residents. Some schools close November 15, due to low attendance as a result of the opening day of deer season.

In winter, a variety of sports are enjoyed by the locals which also draw visitors to Northern Michigan. Snowmobiling, also called sledding, is popular, and with hundreds of miles of interconnected groomed trails cross the region. Ice fishing is also popular. Tip-up Town on Houghton Lake is a major ice-fishing, snowmobiling and winter sports festival, and is unique in that it is a village that assembles out on the frozen lake surface. Higgins Lake also offers good ice fishing and has many snowmobiling, cross country skiing, and snowshoeing trails at the North Higgins Lake State Park. Grayling and Gaylord and their environs are recognized for Nordic skiing. Cadillac is reputed to be even more popular during the winter than it is in the summer.


Native Americans[edit]

Map showing the approximate location of major tribes and settlements around 1648.[20]
Map showing the approximate location of major tribes and settlements around 1648.[20]
Map of Iroquois expansion during Beaver Wars 1638-1711. The fur trade allowed the Iroquois to purchase dominant European weapons and take over lands of many tribes in the Great Lakes.
Map of Iroquois expansion during Beaver Wars 1638-1711. The fur trade allowed the Iroquois to purchase dominant European weapons and take over lands of many tribes in the Great Lakes.

For years before French and English governments arrived, Northern Michigan was seasonally inhabited by itinerant Native American tribes. Northern Michigan was the southern extent of the area thought to belong to prehistoric inhabitants known as the Laurel Complex. This area was used by the Hopewell Indian exchange system which is named after a tribe that existed in the Great Lakes region.[21] Menominee tradition indicates its original homeland was farther north near Sault Ste. Marie and Michilimackinac. At some period before European contact (probably around 1400), they were forced southwest to the Menominee River by arrival of the Ojibwe and Potawatomi from the east.[22] Most recently, Anishinaabe/Algonquian(Ojibwa, Potawatomi and Odawa), calling themselves the Council of Three Fires, inhabited areas surrounding the straits in the upper and lower peninulas of Michigan as well as in Canada along Lake Huron.

Colonial Influence: Fur Trade and French and English Presence Based at the Straits[edit]

Map of French and British North American possessions in the early 18th century. After ceding Hudson's Bay to the British in the Treaty of Utrecht, France built forts like Fort Michilimackinac to protect New France fur trade from the British Hudson's Bay Company.
Map of French and British North American possessions in the early 18th century. After ceding Hudson's Bay to the British in the Treaty of Utrecht, France built forts like Fort Michilimackinac to protect New France fur trade from the British Hudson's Bay Company.
Northern Michigan as shown on a 1755 Map of New France showing various islands, land features, rivers, and settlements. (In French, "I. du Castor" means Beaver Island, "L'ours qui dort" means The Bear That Sleeps, and "ance au tonnerre" means Thunder Bay). The map also shows several rivers that exist today with similar names: Rue Aux Buscies, and Rue d'Oulamanittie, Rue du Pierre Marquet.
Northern Michigan as shown on a 1755 Map of New France showing various islands, land features, rivers, and settlements. (In French, "I. du Castor" means Beaver Island, "L'ours qui dort" means The Bear That Sleeps, and "ance au tonnerre" means Thunder Bay). The map also shows several rivers that exist today with similar names: Rue Aux Buscies, and Rue d'Oulamanittie, Rue du Pierre Marquet.

French Exploration and Beaver Wars[edit]

In 1608, Samuel de Champlain established Quebec as part of New France, and sent coureur des bois such as Étienne Brûlé into the woods to establish relations with the Indians. The French then established the North American fur trade with Indian tribes. In the decades that followed, French explorers and missionaries began to explore the "Upper Country" of New France that included the Upper Great Lakes. While France colonized the interior lands along the St. Lawrence River, Dutch and English began colonizing the East Coast, setting up fur trade and thereby arming the Iroquois to the east. This led to the brutal Beaver Wars, as the Iroquois pushed west into the Great Lakes and displaced the tribes who had settled there before. As a result of an Iroquois attack and dispersal of the Hurons in 1649 the Hurons settled in Michilimackinac.[23] in 1651. In 1668 the French established a mission at Sault Ste. Marie.

Jesuit Mission at St. Ignace (1671 - 1696)[edit]

Jesuit Father Marquette set up a mission in St. Ignace in 1671. While the Beaver Wars raged on, Marquette evangelized the Indians, planted a large cross in Cross Village and established a mission in L'Arbre Croche ("Crooked Tree," now known as Harbor Springs). From May 17, 1673 until Marquette's death near Ludington May 18, 1675, Father Marquette and Louis Jolliet explored and mapped Lake Michigan and the northern portion of the Mississippi River. In 1679, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle and Father Louis Hennepin set out on Le Griffon to find the Northwest Passage, making Le Griffon the first known sailing ship to sail in Northern Michigan, They sailed across Lake Erie, Lake Huron and Lake Michigan through uncharted waters that only canoes had previously explored.

1680s: Fortification (Fort de Buade) at St. Ignace[edit]

In 1683, Governor Joseph-Antoine de La Barre ordered Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut and Olivier Morel de La Durantaye to establish a strategic presence on the north shore of the Straits of Mackinac, connecting Lake Michigan and Lake Huron of the Great Lakes. They fortified the Jesuit mission at St. Ignace and La Durantaye settled in as overall commander of the French forts in the northwest: Fort Saint Louis des Illinois (Utica, Illinois); Fort Kaministigoya (Thunder Bay, Ontario); and Fort la Tourette (Lake Nipigon, Ontario). He was also responsible for the region around Green Bay in present-day Wisconsin. In the spring of 1684, La Durantaye led a relief expedition from Saint Ignace to Fort Saint Louis des Illinois, which had been besieged by the Seneca as part of the Beaver Wars as they sought to gain more hunting ground to control the lucrative fur trade. That summer and again in 1687, La Durantaye led coureurs de bois and Indians from the Straits against the Seneca homeland in upper state New York. During these years, English traders from New York penetrated the Great Lakes and traded at Michilimackinac. This, and the outbreak of war between England and France in 1689, led to the construction of Fort de Buade in 1690 by the new commandant Louis de La Porte de Louvigny.

1690s: Cadillac at Fort de Buade; St. Ignace Later Abandoned[edit]

In the 1690s, Fort de Buade commander Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac used Fort de Buade as a base of operations to explore and map the Great Lakes. Cadillac left St. Ignace in 1697 and the Jesuits vacated their residence and church by 1705 [24]

The Beaver Wars ended when the Great Peace of Montreal was signed in 1701 in Montreal by the French and 39 Indian chiefs including Kondiaronk (the chief of the Mackinaw-area Hurons).

1700s: Fort Michilemackinac Established As a New France Outpost[edit]

Around 1715 (during the First Fox War), the French established Fort Michilimackinac as a military outpost, a location for fur and other trade, and mission work with the natives. From 1720 to 1722, Pierre François Xavier de Charlevoix stopped at Michilimackinac and other points in Northern Michigan while seeking a Pacific Ocean passage.

1760s Beginning of the British era[edit]

In the 1760s after the French and Indian War, the British took control of the Straits of Mackinac, but not without some resistance from the Natives. A majority of white residents at Fort Michilimackinac were killed by Ojibwe and Sauks on June 2, 1763 as a part of the Pontiac's War (1763–1766). Alexander Henry the elder, one of the survivors, was kidnapped to Beaver Island but recused by the Odawa Wawatam. A more substantial fort was built (Fort Mackinac) in 1780.[25][26]

1780s to 1830s -- United States Territorial Acquisition, Continued Fur Trade, and Territorial Disputes[edit]

In the 1836 Treaty of Washington, Michigan tribes ceded claims to lands in the yellow (Royce No. 205) area above -- covering eastern Upper Peninsula and the northwestern Lower Peninsula of Michigan to the United States-- and opened it to settlement.
In the 1836 Treaty of Washington, Michigan tribes ceded claims to lands in the yellow (Royce No. 205) area above -- covering eastern Upper Peninsula and the northwestern Lower Peninsula of Michigan to the United States-- and opened it to settlement.

The entire Straits area was officially acquired by the United States from the British through the Treaty of Paris in 1783 and settlement permitted by the Northwest Ordinance of 1787. However, much of the British forces did not leave the Great Lakes area until after 1794, when Jay's Treaty established U.S. sovereignty over the Northwest Territory with Northern Michigan part of "Knox County".[27] Between 1795 and 1815 a system of Métis (descendants of indigenous women who married French (and later Scottish) fur trappers and traders) settlements and trading posts was established throughout Michigan, Wisconsin, and to a lesser extent in Illinois and Indiana. As late as 1829 the Métis were dominant in the economy of Wisconsin and influential in Northern Michigan[28] in part because they were able to work as intermediaries between natives and white fur traders. US settlement of the Michigan Territory (established in 1805) was punctuated by misunderstandings with Native Americans over land ownership. Meanwhile, in 1804, Mackinac Island was the center of the American fur trade.[29] Gurdon Saltonstall Hubbard was one of many of John Jacob Astor's trappers and voyageurs [30] who plied the waters of the Great Lakes in Mackinaw boats and collected pelts to be sold in Europe.[31] As US Congress passed trade and intercourse acts to regulate trade with the natives, the Office of Indian Trade established a US Trading Post "factory" at Mackinaw that was in place until the War of 1812.[32][33] One of the first engagements of the War of 1812, the Siege of Fort Mackinac was conducted by British and Native American. They captured the island soon after the outbreak of war between Britain and the United States. Encouraged by the easy British victory, more Native Americans subsequently rallied to their support. Native American cooperation was an important factor in several British victories during the remainder of the war. For the rest of 1812 and 1813, the British hold on Mackinac was secure since they also held Detroit, the territorial capital, which the Americans would have to recapture before attacking Mackinac. After the September 1813 Battle of Lake Erie, the British abandoned Detroit leaving an opportunity for the Americans try to retake the waters of Northern Michigan. In July 1814, as Commander of Fort Mackinaw Robert McDouall was struggling to supply war efforts Siege of Prairie du Chien, Americans attacked Mackinaw in July 1814 during the Battle of Mackinac Island. The Americans failed to take over the post, and the British held Mackinac Island until the peace in 1815, after which it was re-occupied by the US.[34][35]

Mackinaw Island continued to be a locus of trade for the American Fur Company and was the site where Henry Schoolcraft located his US Indian Agent headquarters starting in 1833. Following the 1830 Indian Removal Act, Schoolcraft negotiated the 1836 Treaty of Washington which opened up the land north of Grand Rapids for unequivocal legal ownership and settlement of lands in Northern Michigan, with provision that land sales would provide some monetary means to fund skills training for the Natives to assimilate to "civlized" life.

Early Maritime settlements in the 1830s through 1850s[edit]

As settlers arrived between 1840 and 1853, the state broke up the single Michilimackinac County and established platted counties across Northern Michigan.
As settlers arrived between 1840 and 1853, the state broke up the single Michilimackinac County and established platted counties across Northern Michigan.

The Erie Canal opened in 1825, allowing settlers from New England and New York to reach Michigan by water through Albany and Buffalo. This route opening and the incorporation of Chicago in 1837,[36] increased Great Lakes steamboat traffic from Detroit through the straits of Mackinaw to Chicago.[37][38][39] Early government had been centered around Mackinaw Island and St. Ignace, but between 1840 and 1853, the state broke up this single large Michilimackinac County [40][41][42][43] and established names and boundaries of ~21 counties across Northern Michigan. This naming and surveying allowed platted lands to be sold at the Land Office.[44] Early settlers came to Northern Michigan, including fishermen, missionaries to the Native Americans, and participants in early Great Lakes maritime industries such as fishing, lighthouses, and cutting cordwood for passing ships. In 1835, Lieutenant Benjamin Poole of the 3rd U.S. Artillery.[45] surveyed a former Indian path between Saginaw and Mackinac that would become known as the Mackinac Trail. Missions to Native Americans included Rev. Peter Dougherty and Rev. John Fleming's 1839 Presbyterian mission on the Old Mission Peninsula, William Montague Ferry's Presbyterian-affiliated 1825 Mission House / Mission Church on Mackinaw Island, Magdelaine Laframboise and Samuel Charles Mazzuchelli's Catholic Sainte Anne Church on Mackinaw Island in 1830, Frederic Baraga Francis Xavier Pierz and Ignatius Mrak's Catholic mission to the people of the Chippewa and Ottawa at L'Arbre Croche and Peshawbestown (on the Leelanau Peninsula), Peter Greensky's Methodist Greensky Hill church founded near the Little Traverse Bay in 1844, and an 1848 congregationalist mission founded by Chief Peter Waukazoo and Reverend George Smith in Northport (on the Leelanau Peninsula). Key fishing settlements included "Fishtown" in Leland, Michigan and the Beaver Island Archipelago. Early Northern Michigan lighthouses included Thunder Bay Island Light (1831), Old Presque Isle Light (1840), South Manitou Island Lighthouse (1840), DeTour Reef Light (1847), Waugoshance Light (1851), Grand Traverse Light (1852), Tawas Point Light (1853), Beaver Island Harbor Light (1856), Beaver Island Head Light (1858), and Point Betsie Light (1858). The Strangite Mormon community move to Beaver Island in 1848 [46] brought additional conflicts as the Mormon leaders sought to enforce laws and restrict use of alcohol on the Beaver Archipelago.[47] Further, increased white immigration and homesteading in Northern Michigan brought difficulties in dispatching of Native American land claims stemming from the treaty of 1836. Bands of Chippewa and Odawa Indians sought redress through the Treaty of 1855;[48] by this 1855 treaty agreement, lands and payments would be set aside for individual native American families relateed to the 1836 treaty, but after this treaty, the US would cease to owe anything ("land, money or other thing guaranteed to them") to Indians or their tribes.[49]

1860s to present-- Homestead Act settlements, Lumber, Fishing, Resorts, and other industries[edit]

Starting in the 1870s, railroads connected Northern Michigan to lower cities.
Starting in the 1870s, railroads connected Northern Michigan to lower cities.

Increased Settlement and establishment of port cities[edit]

Now that the land was surveyed and outstanding native land claims eliminated, Northern Michigan settlement increased even further. The Homestead Act of 1862 brought many Civil War veterans and speculators to Northern Michigan, by making 160 acre tracts of land available for $1.25 an acre.[50] The lumber industry emerged, contributing to the rise of port cities like Traverse City, Charlevoix, and Ludington.

1870s: Arrival of rail infrastructure, then economic slowdown[edit]

Starting in the 1870s, railroad were built connecting Northern Michigan to larger industrial areas to the south. The Grand Rapids and Indiana Railroad reached Traverse City in December 1872 (via Walton Junction and Traverse City Rail Road Company) and reached Petoskey in 1873. The Flint and Pere Marquette Railroad completed its terminal at Ludington in 1874. While the Michigan Central Railroad reached Otsego County in the fall of 1872,[51] rail investments slowed for several years due to the financial panic of 1873 and the ensuing five year economic slowdown. Cheboygan [52] Mackinaw City did not have rail service until the early 1880s.[53] The Michigan lumber market experienced a crash in July 1877 [54][55] that coincided with the Great Railroad Strike of 1877.

1880s Rapid growth and diversification[edit]

The effect of rail connections was ultimately transformative; timber and other goods could be produced in the north and shipped to urban markets to the south. Industries such as iron works, tanneries, mills, cement plants, and agricultural enterprises developed. Rail connections to the large midwestern cities through rail centers like Kalamazoo led to settlers immigrating and wealthy resorters establishing summer home associations in Bay View Association near Petoskey, the Belvedere Club in Charlevoix, and other lakeside getaways. By 1885, the intense harvesting and export of pine trees led to visible decline in the lumber industry.[56] As the lumber supply began to run out in Northern Michigan, the rail lines began to promote Northern Michigan as a "fresh air" resort destination.[57] Starting in 1875 (until 1895) the 1,044-acre (422 ha) Mackinac National Park became the second National Park in the United States after Yellowstone National Park in the Rocky Mountains.

20th Century: Resort Era[edit]

The Resort era flourished in lakeside areas of Northern Michigan even as the fishing and lumbering industries experienced slow decline. Other parts of Northern Michigan returned to their forested state through conservation efforts. The Huron National Forest was set aside in 1909. and the Manistee National Forest was set aside in 1938. State Parks were established as well, to include:

As passenger railroad usage ended in the 1960s (due in part to increased automobile travel), aggressive promotion of Northern Michigan by local chambers of commerce led to many of the festivals and attractions that bring visitors north even today.

Weather and Local Culture[edit]

The region has the four seasons in their extremes, with sometimes hot and humid summer days (although, mild in comparison to some parts of the south) to subzero days in winter. With the expansive hardwood forest in Northern Michigan, "fall color" tourist are found throughout the area in early to mid-autumn.[58] When the spring rains come, many roads and bridges become impassable due to flooding or muddy to the point a four-wheel drive cannot pass. Snow fall totals can vary throughout the region due to Lake-effect snow from the prevailing westerly winds off of Lake Michigan, with average yearly snow fall of 141.4" (359.2 cm) in Gaylord to 52.4" (133.1 cm) in Harrisville.[59] Both the high and low temperature records for all of Michigan are held by communities in Northern Lower Michigan. The high is 112 °F (44 °C) set in Mio on July 13, 1936 and the low is -51 °F (-46 °C) set in Vanderbilt on February 9, 1934.[60]

The area was populated by many different ethnicities, including groups from New England, Germany, and Poland. The Odawa nation is located in Emmet County.(Little Traverse Band of Odawa Indians)Native American reservations exist at Mount Pleasant and on the Leelanau Peninsula.

The Lumberman's Monument honors lumberjacks that shaped the area, exploiting the natural resource. It is located on the River Road National Scenic Byway, which runs parallel with the Au Sable River, and is a designated National Scenic Byway for the 23 miles (37 km) that go into Oscoda.[61] The State of Michigan has designated Oscoda as the official home of Paul Bunyan due to the earliest documented publications in the Oscoda Press, August 10, 1906, by James MacGillivray (later revised and published in The Detroit News in 1910).[62]

Hartwick Pines State Park is a 9,672-acre (39.14 km2) state park and logging museum located in Crawford County near Grayling and I-75. It is the third largest state park on Michigan's Lower Peninsula and the state's fifth-biggest park overall. The park contains an old growth forest of white pines and red pines that resembles the appearance of all of Northern Michigan prior to the logging era. Also to be noted is Interlochen State Park, which is the oldest state park and the other remaining stand of virgin Eastern White Pine in the Lower Peninsula.


Interlochen Center for the Arts is a notable arts center that offers a high-school-level academy and summer camp near Traverse City. There are also several institutions of higher education in Northern Michigan. Community colleges include North Central Michigan College (NCMC, pronounced "nuck-muck" by locals), Alpena Community College, Huron Shores Campus-Alpena Community College, Kirtland Community College, West Shore Community College, and Northwestern Michigan College (NMC) including the Great Lakes Maritime Academy, the only U.S. maritime academy on freshwater. Northern Michigan has arguably only one four-year university (depending on the definition of the southern boundary of the region), Ferris State University in Big Rapids. Other nearby universities are in the Upper Peninsula (Northern Michigan University and Lake Superior State University), as well as Central Michigan University and Ferris State University in the more southern reaches of the state. The University of Michigan runs the University of Michigan Biological Station out of Pellston, MI. Central Michigan University runs the CMU Biological Station on Beaver Island. Hillsdale College runs the biological station in Lake County.

Many four-year universities located downstate offer Bachelor and master's degree programs through Northwestern Michigan College's unique University Center program, located in Traverse City. The University Center, located in Traverse City, is a joint program with Northwestern Michigan College and various universities around the state that allows local students to "attend" universities that offer bachelor's and master's degrees programs not available through NMC, a two-year college, locally without leaving Northern Michigan. NMC supplies the facilities while the senior universities provide the education and endorsement. Universities offering programs here include Michigan State University, Western Michigan University, Central Michigan University, Grand Valley State University, Ferris State University, Spring Arbor University, and others.[63]


The economy of Northern Michigan is limited by its lower population, few industries and reduced agriculture compared to lower Michigan. Seasonal and tourism related employment is significant. Unemployment rates are generally high. (In June 2007, seven of the ten highest unemployment rates occurred in counties in the Northern Michigan area.[64]

The northeast corner has an industrial base. In particular, Alpena is home to the LaFarge Company's holdings in the world's largest cement plant and is home to Besser Block Co. (the inventor of concrete block and maker of concrete block making machine), and has a hardboard manufacturing facility owned by Decorative Panels, International; and Rogers City is the locale of the world's largest limestone quarry, which is also used in steel making all along the Great Lakes.

Nearer to the Lake Michigan shore, Cadillac and Manistee have manufacturing and chemical industries, including the world's largest salt plant. Also, the East Jordan Iron Works corporate offices, as well as the original foundry, are located in East Jordan.

Historically, lumbering and commercial fishing were among the most important industries. Logging is still important but at a mere fraction of its heyday output. Commercial fishing is a minor activity.

A major draw to Northern Michigan is tourism. Real Estate, especially condominiums and summer homes, is another significant source of income. Because money spent in the real estate and tourism market in Northern Michigan is dependent upon visitors from southern Michigan and the Chicago area, the Northern Michigan economy is sensitive to downswings in the automobile and other industries. See Also: Economy of Detroit and Economy of Chicago

Agriculture is limited by the climate and soil conditions compared to southern regions of the state. However, there are significant potato and dry bean farms in the east. wine grapes, vegetables and cherries are produced in the west in the protected microclimates around Grand Traverse Bay. The Grand Traverse region has two of Michigan's four federally-recognized wine growing areas. The Grand Traverse Bay area is listed as one of the most endangered agricultural regions in the U.S. as its scenic land is highly sought after for vacation homes.

Large industries are sparse; cement-making and the mining of limestone and gypsum on the Lake Huron shore are the major exports of the area. Much of Michigan's natural gas extraction is from wells in Northern Michigan. A small number of men work on the Great Lakes freighters.

The only military presence in Northern Michigan is in two places:



Airports serving Northern Michigan include MBS International Airport near Freeland, Pellston Regional Airport,[65] Traverse City Cherry Capital Airport and Alpena County Regional Airport in the Lower peninsula. Depending on one's destination, Chippewa County International Airport in Sault Ste. Marie, in the eastern Upper peninsula might be a viable alternative. Grand Rapids and Bishop airport at Flint (although neither is within the area) also have scheduled service proximate to parts of the region. The Oscoda-Wurtsmith Airport is now a public airport which gives 24-hour near-all-weather service for general aviation.


The primary means of transportation in Northern Michigan is by automobile.[citation needed] Northern Michigan is served by one Interstate, and a number of U.S. Highways and Michigan state trunklines.[66]

  • I-75 runs northwest–southeast through the region between the Flint/Tri-Cities area and Mackinac Bridge at Mackinaw City, which leads on to the Upper Peninsula.
  • US 10
    The SS Badger connects the Wisconsin and Michigan segments of US 10
    enters Michigan after it crosses Lake Michigan from Manitowoc to Ludington. US 10 runs from Ludington through Baldwin and Reed City before it becomes a freeway west of US 127 near the junction with M-115. US 10 bypasses Midland and terminates at I-75 in Bay City.
  • US 23 runs northward for about 200 miles (320 km) along (or parallel with) the Lake Huron shoreline as the Sunrise Side Coastal Highway from the Flint/Tri-Cities area.
  • US 31 mainly parallels the Lake Michigan shore from the Ludington area north to Mackinaw City; near Traverse City, the highway cuts the base of the Leelanau Peninsula.
  • US 127 ends at Grayling, connecting Northern Michigan with points south
  • US 131 is a primary north–south highway that is a freeway from Manton southwards; north of the freeway terminus, the highway is mostly two lanes, connecting Kalkaska, Mancelona, and ending at US 31 in Petoskey.
  • M-22 follows the Lake Michigan shoreline from Traverse City to Manistee and is a scenic drive along the Leelanau Peninsula and the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore.
  • M-27 runs along the old route of US 27 between Indian River and Cheboygan.
  • M-32 runs between East Jordan and Alpena.
  • M-55 is a 150-mile (240 km) transpeninsular highway at the southern edge of the region from Manistee to Tawas City.
  • M-65 runs northward from Au Gres (just north of Standish) to Rogers City
  • M-66 traverses almost the entire north-south distance of the Lower Peninsula ending at Charlevoix.
  • M-68 is an east–west state highway that runs from Alanson to Rogers City; it passes through Indian River, Afton, Tower, and Onaway.
  • M-72 crosses the Lower Peninsula from Empire to Harrisville.
  • M-115 is a "diagonal highway", taking a generally northwest–southeast direction from Clare to Frankfort.
  • M-212 is the shortest signed highway in the state, connecting Aloha State Park to M-33 south of Cheboygan.

Ferries and bridges[edit]

Several ferries still operate in the region.

The largest bridge in Northern Michigan is the Mackinac Bridge connecting Northern Michigan to the Upper Peninsula. The second largest is the Zilwaukee Bridge.



The Northern Lower Peninsula was home to many different railroads during the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. One of these lines was the Detroit, Bay City & Alpena Railroad, later known as the Detroit and Mackinac Railway. The railroad had a main line along the Lake Huron shore and branch lines connecting to logging camps and gravel quarries. The railroad was a part owner of the SS Chief Wawatam a rail car ferry that crossed the Straits of Mackinac. Running down the center of the Northern Lower Peninsula was the Michigan Central Railroad, which connected Mackinaw City with Bay City, Detroit, Lansing, and beyond. This line later became the New York Central and was sold to the Detroit and Mackinac Railway in 1976.[69] Several other railroads have existed in Alpena's history.[70]

On the west side of the peninsula, the Chicago and West Michigan Railway (later the Pere Marquette Railway) and several commercial cruise lines were early in generating traffic to Northern Michigan destinations. The Pere Marquette Railway operated rail car ferries across Lake Michigan out of Ludington. The most known ferry is the SS Badger which is still in use today for automobiles and passengers.

The Grand Rapids and Indiana Railroad provided rail service between Cincinnati, Ohio and Mackinaw City. It was later bought out by the Pennsylvania Railroad. It served resort towns such as Traverse City, Petoskey, and Cadillac. In 1975 the line was bought by the Michigan Department of Transportation and the Michigan Northern Railway was contracted to operate. By 1984 much of the railroad was abandoned and operations were handed over to the Tuscola and Saginaw Bay Railway.

The Ann Arbor was a railroad stretching from Toledo, Ohio to Elberta, Michigan where it operated an rail car ferry until 1982. The ferry serviced the cities of Manitowoc, Wisconsin, Menominee, Michigan, and Manistique, Michigan. The Ann Arbor became a part of Conrail and then was later divided up between the Michigan Northern Railway and the Michigan Interstate Railway Company. The remaining portions of the line were absorbed into the state owned lines operated by the Tuscola and Saginaw Bay Railway.[71]


Currently, Northern Michigan's railroad system is a skeleton of its former self. After the Chief Wawatam stopped running in 1984, rail lines serving the Straits of Mackinac were soon abandoned. In years past, four different railroads served Mackinaw City and St. Igance, and now none are left.

The remainder of the former Detroit and Mackinac Railway is now the Lake State Railway. It operates a line from Bay City to Pinconning where it then branches northeast to Alpena and northwest to Gaylord.

Portions of the former Pere Marquette Railway, Grand Rapids and Indiana Railroad, and the Ann Arbor Railroad became the Tuscola and Saginaw Bay Railway. The main line of this railway runs from Ann Arbor north to Petoskey, with branch lines to Yuma and Traverse City. The railroad was renamed the Great Lakes Central Railroad. There have been discussions of reviving passenger service along this line.[citation needed]

Tourist attractions[edit]

Flora and fauna[edit]

Extent of the Laurentian Mixed Forest nearly coincides with Northern Michigan

Northern Michigan has many tree types including maple, birch, oak, ash, white cedar, aspen, pine, and beech. Ferns, milkweed, Queen Anne's lace, and chicory grow in the open fields and along roadsides. Forest plants include wild leeks, morel mushrooms, and trilliums. Marram grass grows on beaches. Several mosses cover the land.

Common animals in Northern Michigan include white-tailed deer, fox, raccoons, porcupines, and rabbits. black bear, elk, coyote, bobcat, wolves, and mountain lions are also present. Although not common, the presence of cougars has been persistently reported over many years.[72][73][74] Fish include whitefish, yellow perch, trout, bass, northern pike, walleye, muskie, and sunfish.

Common birds are ducks, seagulls, wild turkey, great blue herons, cardinals, blue jays, black-capped chickadees, hummingbirds, Baltimore oriole, and ruffed grouse. Canada geese may be seen flying over head in spring and fall. Less well known birds that are unique in Michigan to the Northern Lower Peninsula are spruce grouse, sharp-tailed grouse, red-throated loon, Swainson's hawk, and the boreal owl. [2] [3].

The Au Sable State Forest is a state forest in the north-central Lower Peninsula of Michigan. Much of the forest is used for wildlife game management and the fostering of endangered and rare species, such as the Kirtland's warbler – there are regular controlled burns to maintain its habitat. The Kirtland's Warbler has its habitat in an increasing part of the area.[75] There is a Kirtland's Warbler Festival, which is sponsored in part by Kirtland Community College.[76]

The American Bird Conservancy and the National Audubon Society have designated several locations as internationally Important Bird Areas.[77]

Insect populations are similar to those found elsewhere in the midwestern United States. ladybugs, crickets, dragonflies, mosquitoes, ants, house flies, and grasshoppers are common, as is the Western conifer seed bug, and several kinds of butterflies and moths (for example, monarch butterflies and tomato worm moths). Notable deviations in insect populations are a high population of June bugs during June as well as a scarcity of lightning bugs because of the lower average temperatures year round and especially in the summer.

Northern Michigan is home to Michigan's most endangered species and one of the most endangered species in the world: the Hungerford's crawling water beetle. The species lives in only five locations in the world, four of which are in Northern Michigan (one is in Bruce County, Ontario. Indeed, the only stable population of the rare beetle occurs along a two and a half mile stretch of the East Branch of the Maple River in Emmet County, Michigan.

There are no fatally poisonous snakes native to Northern Michigan. The poisonous Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake lives in Michigan, but it is not common, particularly in Northern Michigan. In any event, its non-fatal bite may make an adult sick, but it should be medically treated without delay.

Snakes present include the eastern hog-nosed snake, brown snake, common garter snake, eastern milk snake and the northern ribbon snake. The only common reptiles and amphibians are various pond frogs, toads, salamanders, and small turtles.


Prominent Northern Michigan corporations include:

Notable people[edit]

See the "Notable people" sections in the various settlement articles.


Northern Michigan is in the Designated Market Areas of "Traverse City-Cadillac" (116), "Alpena" (208), and some portions of "Flint-Saginaw-Bay City" (66) .


Daily editions of the Detroit Free Press and The Detroit News are also available throughout the area with the Bay City Times and Saginaw News available in the east and The Grand Rapids Press available the west.


  • Traverse is published monthly with a focus on regional interests.



// designates a simulcast.

  • 88.5 WIAB Mackinaw City - //88.7 WIAA
  • 88.5 WSFP Rust Twp/Alpena - Smile FM
  • 88.7 WIAA Interlochen - Classical "IPR Music Radio"
  • 89.3 WTLI Bear Creek Twp. (Petoskey) - Contemporary Christian; Smile FM (//88.1 WLGH Lansing)
  • 89.7 WJOJ Harrisville/Alpena - Smile FM
  • 89.9 WLJN Traverse City - Religious
  • 90.5 WPHN Gaylord - Adult Contemporary Christian "The Promise FM"; also airs on 99.7 FM translator in Petoskey
  • 90.7 WNMC Traverse City - Variety, College
  • 90.9 WTCK Charlevoix - Catholic; also airs on translators 92.1 FM Gaylord/95.3 FM Mackinaw City
  • 90.9 WMSD Rose Township (Ogemaw County) - Religious
  • 91.1 WOLW Cadillac - //90.5 WPHN
  • 91.3 WJOG Good Hart/Petoskey - Smile FM
  • 91.3 WZHN East Tawas - //90.5 WPHN
  • 91.5 WICA Traverse City - NPR, Public News/Talk
  • 91.7 WCML Alpena - Public Music Variety/News/Talk "CMU Public Radio"
  • 92.1 WTWS Houghton Lake - Hot Country "92-1 The Twister"
  • 92.3 WOUF Beulah - currently silent
  • 92.5 WFDX Atlanta - //94.3 WFCX
  • 92.9 WJZQ Cadillac/Traverse City - Contemporary Hits "Z-93"
  • 93.5 WBCM Boyne City - //103.5 WTCM
  • 93.7 WKAD Harrietta/Cadillac - Oldies "Oldies 93.7"
  • 93.9 WAVC Mio - //Talk radio "The Patriot"
  • 94.3 WFCX Leland/Traverse City - Classic Hits "94.3 the Fox FM"
  • 94.5 WYPV Mackinaw City - Talk radio "The Patriot"
  • 94.9 WKJZ Hillman/Alpena - //103.3 WQLB; also airs on 98.1 FM translator in Alpena proper
  • 95.5 WJZJ Glen Arbor - Modern Rock "The Zone"
  • 95.7 WCMB-FM Oscoda - CMU Public Radio
  • 96.1 WHNN Bay City - Classic Hits; listenable in the West Branch and Tawas areas
  • 96.3 WLXT Petoskey - Adult Contemporary "Lite 96"
  • 96.7 WLXV Cadillac - Hot Adult Contemporary "Mix 96"
  • 96.7 WRGZ Rogers City - //99.3 WATZ
  • 96.9 WWCM Standish - CMU Public Radio
  • 97.3 WDEE-FM Reed City/Big Rapids - Oldies "Sunny 97.3"
  • 97.5 WKLT Kalkaska/Traverse City - Classic Rock "KLT the Rock Station"
  • 97.7 WMLQ Manistee - Soft Adult Contemporary/EZ Listening "97 Coast-FM"
  • 97.7 WMRX-FM Beaverton - Oldies/Adult Standards "Timeless Favourites"
  • 98.1 WGFN Glen Arbor/Traverse City - Classic Rock "The Bear"
  • 98.5 WUPS Harrison/Mount Pleasant - Classic Hits "98.5 UPS"
  • 98.9 WKLZ Petoskey - //WKLT 97.5
  • 99.3 WATZ Alpena - Country
  • 99.3 WBNZ Frankfort - Soft Rock
  • 99.9 WHAK-FM Rogers City - Oldies "99-9 The Wave"
  • 100.3 WGRY Grayling - Country "Y100"
  • 100.7 WWTH Oscoda - Country "Thunder Country" also airs on 94.1 FM translator in Alpena
  • 100.9 WICV East Jordan/Charlevoix - //88.7 WIAA
  • 101.1 WQON Roscommon/Grayling - Adult Contemporary "Decades 101"
  • 101.5 WMJZ Gaylord - Adult Hits "Eagle 101.5"
  • 101.5 WMTE Manistee - Classic Hits "Kool 101.5"
  • 101.9 WLDR Traverse City - Country "Sunny Country"
  • 102.1 WLEW Bad Axe - Adult Hits; listenable on the Lake Huron west shore up to Harrisville.
  • 102.7 WMOM Ludington/Pentwater - Top 40 "Always Listen to your Mom"
  • 102.9 WMKC St. Ignace - Country "102.9 Big Country Hits"
  • 103.3 WQLB Tawas City - Classic Hits "Hits FM"
  • 103.5 WTCM-FM Traverse City - Country "Today's Country Music"
  • 103.9 WCMW Harbor Springs - CMU Public Radio
  • 104.3 WRDS-LP Roscommon - Southern Gospel "The Lighthouse"
  • 104.7 WKJC Tawas City - Country
  • 104.9 WAIR Lake City/Cadillac - Smile FM
  • 105.1 WGFM Cheboygan - //98.1 WGFN
  • 105.5 WSJR Honor/Traverse City - //106.7 WSRT
  • 105.5 WBMI West Branch - Classic Country
  • 105.7 WZTK Alpena - news, talk and sports
  • 105.9 WKHQ Charlevoix - Contemporary Hits "106 KHQ"
  • 106.1 WHST Tawas City - //90.5 WPHN
  • 106.3 WKLA Ludington - Hot Adult Contemporary "The Lakeshore's Hit Music Station"
  • 106.7 WSRT Gaylord - Adult Contemporary "106.7 You FM" also airs on 95.3 FM translator in Petoskey area
  • 107.1 WCKC Cadillac - //98.1 WGFN
  • 107.5 WCCW Traverse City - Oldies "Oldies 107.5"
  • 107.7 WHSB Alpena - Hot Adult Contemporary "107-7 The Bay"
  • 107.9 WCZW Charlevoix/Petoskey - //107.5 WCCW


  • WTCM 580 50000 watt day, 1100 night, directional day and night, Talk, Traverse City
  • WARD 750 1000 watt day, 330 night, directional day and night, Country (with WLDR-FM 101.9), Petoskey
  • WMMI 830 1000 day only, talk, Shepherd
  • WIDG 940 5000 watt day, 4 watt night, Catholic Talk, St. Ignace
  • WHAK 960 5000 watt day, 137 night, Country (simulcasting WWTH FM Oscoda), Rogers City - simulcast of WWTH 100.7 FM
  • WJML 1110 10000 watt day, 10 night, directional day and night, Talk, Petoskey
  • WJNL 1210 50000 watt day, 2500 critical hours, day only, Talk (with WJML-AM), Kingsley
  • WGRY 1230 1000 watt day and night, Adult Standards, Grayling
  • WATT 1240 1000 watt day and night, Talk, Cadillac
  • WCBY 1240 1000 watt day and night, Classic Country "Big Country Gold"
  • WMKT 1270 27000 watt day, 5000 night, directional night, Talk, Charlevoix
  • WMBN 1340 1000 watt day and night, Adult Standards, Petoskey
  • WLJW 1370 5000 watt day, 1000 night, directional day and night, Christian Talk, Cadillac
  • WLJN 1400 1000 watt day and night, Christian, Traverse City
  • WIOS 1480 1000 watt day only, directional, Adult Standards, Tawas City "The Bay's Best"

Broadcast television[edit]

The following stations serve parts of Northern Michigan as their viewing area, but some also areas outside of the region.

  • WPBN (7)—NBC, Traverse City/Cadillac
    • WTOM (4)—Cheboygan
  • WWTV (9)—CBS, Cadillac
  • WCMU (14)—PBS, Mount Pleasant
    • WCML (6)—Alpena
    • WCMW (21)—Manistee
    • WCMV (27)—Cadillac
    • W46AD (46)—Traverse City
    • W69AV (69)—Leland
  • WBKB (11)—CBS, Alpena
  • WGTU (29)—ABC, Traverse City
    • WGTQ (8)—Sault Ste. Marie
  • WFQX (33)—FOX, Cadillac
    • WFUP (45)—Vanderbilt
  • WLLZ (12)—independent, Traverse City/Cedar

Cities, villages and towns[edit]



A number of annual festivals occur in Northern Michigan including:

See also[edit]



  1. ^ The largest city is Traverse City. The 4 counties surrounding it make up Traverse City Micropolitan Area and have a population of 143,372, 7th in nation.


  1. ^ "45th Parallel - Old Mission Point". 
  2. ^ "45th Parallel - Elk Lake". 
  3. ^ Gaylord signs denoting the 45th Parallel.
  4. ^ "45th Parallel - Alpena". 
  5. ^ "45th Parallel North America". 
  6. ^ Managing Michigan Wildlife: A Landowners Guide., Sargent, M.S and Carter, K.S., 1999, Michigan United Conservation Clubs, East Lansing, MI.
  7. ^ Facts & Figures December 27, 2012
  8. ^ "Diocese of Gaylord.". 
  9. ^ "Michigan regional geology.". 
  10. ^ "Map and links for sea kayaking in Michigan.". 
  11. ^ Mansnerus, Laura (June 6, 1993). "Bicycling in western Michigan, New York Times". The New York Times. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  12. ^ "Cherry capital cycling club map". 
  13. ^ "Michigan Department of Natural Resources on bicycling". 
  14. ^ "Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lake Shore Visitors Bureau.". 
  15. ^ "Frankford Elberta Chamber of Commerce". 
  16. ^ *Mackinac Island Tourism Bureau.
  17. ^ Detroit Free Press, May 26, 2007
  18. ^ "Michigan Shore to Shore Riding and Hiking Trail". 
  19. ^ "Great Lakes Circle Tour". 
  20. ^ Jennings, p. 15 & 26
  21. ^ "Then Again WebChron". 
  22. ^
  23. ^ Fenton, William N "KONDIARONK, Le Rat." Dictionary of Canadian Biography. ©2000 University of Toronto/Universite Laval. Web. 21 Feb. 2012.
  24. ^ "The original French fort and Jesuit mission were there from about 1671, although there was no French commandant after Lamothe Cadillac left in 1697, as the post was ordered closed in 1696. The Jesuits (and several Coureurs de Bois) remained there until the Jesuits burned their residence and church in 1705"
  25. ^ Petersen, Eugene T. "High Cliffs". Retrieved March 4, 2007. 
  26. ^ Slevin, Mary McGuire. "History". Archived from the original on January 23, 2007. Retrieved March 8, 2007. 
  27. ^ Brinkley, Alan (2003). American History: A Survey (11 ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education. pp. 141, 173. ISBN 0-07-242436-2. 
  28. ^,%20Jacqueline%20and%20Jennifer%20S.%20H.%20Brown,%20ed.%20The%20New%20Peoples:%20Being%20and%20Becoming%20Metis%20in%20North%20America.%20St.%20Paul,%20MN:%20Minnesota%20Historical%20Society%20Press,%202001.&f=false Peterson, Jacqueline and Jennifer S. H. Brown, ed. The New Peoples: Being and Becoming Metis in North America. St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press, 2001. p. 44-45
  29. ^ "In 1804, Mackinac Island was the center of the American fur trade."
  30. ^ "French-Canadian canoe men, known as voyageurs, were among the most colorful historic visitors to Michilimackinac."
  31. ^ The Autobiography of Gurdon Saltonstall Hubbard: Pa-pa-ma-ta-be, "The Swift Walker" page x-xi "This, of course, involved annual trips to Mackinaw, the headquarters of John Jacob Astor and his colleagues, the descent of lake Michigan in open Mackinaw boats, a short stop at Chicago, and then the rivers and praries of Illinois, with few but savages for friends at the outset. "
  32. ^ Battle for the Soul: Mètis Children Encounter Evangelical Protestants at Mackinaw Mission 1823 - 1837 By Keith R. Widde ISBN 0-87013-491-4 MSU Press East Lansing
  33. ^ "The several Government factories operating under the Superintendent of Indian Trade are listed below in the order of their establishment: ...Mackinac (Michilimackinac), 1808-12"
  34. ^
  35. ^
  36. ^
  37. ^ "It was not until after the appearance of steamers on the lakes in 1818, and the opening of the Erie canal in 1825, that the lands of Michigan began to be occupied."
  38. ^ "By the 1840s, the Erie Canal brought tens of thousands of settlers to Buffalo each year in search of passage to the West. Population in cities bordering the upper Lakes reportedly quadrupled in the eight years previous to 1840 as a result of that influx."
  39. ^ In 1843, Margaret Fuller travelled from Niagara Falls, through the Erie Canal, to Mackinaw Island, and on to Chicago and Milwaukee via steamboat and documented it in her 1844 book Summer on the Lakes.
  40. ^
  41. ^
  42. ^
  43. ^
  44. ^
  45. ^ Poole, Benjamin (1837). Survey of a Road Route from Saginaw to Mackinac (Map). Scale not given. Washington: Benjamin Poole. M.T. 25 Congress 2 Session, Doc. no. 234. Retrieved June 14, 2012 – via Michigan State University Map Library. 
  46. ^,_michilimackinac.htm
  47. ^
  48. ^
  49. ^ "Still further progress was made in the same direction by treaty with the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of Michigan made on the 31st day of July, 1855. By this treaty the United States withdraws from sale certain townships of the State of Michigan and assigns to each one of some twenty bands into which the Indians are divided, the particular townships in which its members may select land. The United States agree to give to each Ottawa and Chippewa Indian, being the head of a family, eighty acres of land, to each single person over twenty-one years of age forty acres, to each family of orphan children under twenty-one years of age containing tow or more persons, eight acres and to each single orphan child under twenty-one years of age forty acres; and each beneficiary is to select his land in the tract reserved for the band to which he belonged. On such selection being made each was at liberty to go into possession of the land selected by him and was to receive a certificate therefore, but he could not assign his interest secured thereby. At the end of ten years he was entitled to receive a patent therefore in the usual form, but still the president might, in his discretion, order the patent to be issued at an earlier date or to be longer withheld when it was proved that the welfare of the holder of the certificate would be promoted thereby. The treaty also provides that the portion of the land so described and set apart which shall not be selected by the Indians within five years shall remain the property of the United States and may be sold like other public lands, except that the exclusive right to become purchasers within the next five years was reserved to the Indians. In consideration of these provisions of the treaty and the payment of $538,400 in manner therein specified, the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians release the United States from all liability on account of former treaty stipulations and receive them in lieu and satisfaction of all claims legal and equitable on the part of said Indians, jointly and severally, for land, money or other thing guaranteed to them or either of them by previous treaties. And by the fifth article of the treaty the tribal organization of said Ottawa and Chippewa Indians is dissolved, except so far as is necessary to carry out the provisions of said treaty; and all future matters of business are to be transacted not with the entire tribe, but with those only who are interested in the subject matter, and the payments which are to be in money by the terms of the treaty are to be paid not to the tribe as such, but to the individual Indians of these several bands per capita."
  50. ^ Manistee County By Shannon McRae "The Homestead act of 1863 drew another type of settler to northern Michigan. Any person over 21 who headed a household -- ... who could successfully build a dwelling, clear, and farm at least five acres on a 160-acre parcel of land for five years -- could claim the property."
  51. ^ "In the fall of 1872, the Village of Otsego Lake was established and the railroad reached the Otsego Lake area about this same time."
  52. ^ The Inland Water Route By Matthew J. Friday ISBN 978-0-7385-7734-0, 2010 Arcatia Publishing. p 14 "The railroad arrived in Cheboygan in 1881... prior to this, seasonal navigation provided the only real link to places further south."
  53. ^ "In 1881, the Michigan Central Railroad had extended their line to Mackinaw City. The Grand Rapids Railroad completed their line to Mackinaw in 1882"
  54. ^,1218279&hl=en Ludington Daily News January 17, 1998 page 8 Title: "Lumberman Stanchfield left Ludington in 1883" "[he was] a sawmill owner until the lumber-market crash of 1877"
  55. ^ Beneath The Wings of Geronimo's Spirit: Haskay Bay Nay Ntay By R. James Roybal, 2013 ISBN 978-1-4836-8756-8 (accessed as an ebook on google), p258, "Further trouble came in July 1877 in the form of a crash in the market for lumber, resulting in the bankruptcy of several leading Michigan lumbering concerns."
  56. ^ The Economic Aspects of Forest Destruction in Northern Michigan (US Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin No. 92, January 1929) By William Norwood Sparhawk, Warren David Brush page 8 "As early as 1885 depletion of the accessible pine began to be noticed even in the northern part of the lower peninsula"
  57. ^,%20MCR.html "By the mid to late 1890s, very much of the white pine in Michigan had been cut and the railroads lacked for traffic. The Michigan Central, the Grand Rapids and Indiana and the Detroit and Mackinac began promoting northern Michigan as a summer vacation destination in hopes of generating revenue from passengers. "
  58. ^ [1]
  59. ^ "Average Annual Snowfall Totals in Michigan - Current Results". 
  60. ^ U.S. state temperature extremes
  61. ^ "River Road Scenic Byway". America's Byways. Federal Highway Administration. 
  62. ^ "Oscoda Press on Paul Bunyan designation". 
  63. ^ "Home : University Center at Northwestern Michigan College". 
  64. ^ "Michigan Labor Market Information, Mi Fast Facts, HOME". 
  65. ^ "Pellston Regional Airport". 
  66. ^ State Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:15 mi / 1 cm:9 km. Michigan Department of Transportation. 2011. § E8–J13. 
  67. ^ "Charity Island ferry service.". 
  68. ^ Robert E. Johnston. "Plaunt Transportation, Inc. :: Ferry Service to Bois Blanc Island". 
  69. ^ "Detroit and Mackinac Railway pictures and history.". 
  70. ^ "Michigan Railroad history for Alpena.". 
  71. ^ Drury, George H. (1994). The Historical Guide to North American Railroads: Histories, Figures, and Features of more than 160 Railroads Abandoned or Merged since 1930. Waukesha, Wisconsin: Kalmbach Publishing. pp. 19–20. ISBN 0-89024-072-8. 
  72. ^ "DNRE confirms Michigan cougar sighting". 
  73. ^ "SaveTheCougar.Org - The Michigan Cougar Conservation Effort *please scroll down*". 
  74. ^ Michigan Wildlife Conservancy 1/29/2009 Lawmakers Look At Cougar Evidence
  75. ^ "Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Kirtland's Warbler Populations Continue to Grow.". 
  76. ^ "Kirtland Warbler Festival and links.". 
  77. ^ Michigan IBA Program. "Michigan Important Bird Areas Program". 
  78. ^ "AuSable River Canoe Marathon". 
  79. ^ "Chestnut Festival". 
  80. ^ a b Great Lakes Lighthouse Festival causes.
  81. ^ West Michigan Tourist Association, FLea Roast and Ox Market.
  82. ^ "Scottville Harvest Festival". 
  83. ^ Sled Dog Central, Kalkaska race.

Further reading[edit]

  • Bogue, Margaret (1985). Around the Shores of Lake Michigan: A Guide to Historic Sites. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 978-0-299-10004-9. 
  • Cappel, Constance, ed. (2006). Odawa Language and Legends: Andrew J. Blackbird and Raymond Kiogima. Philadelphia: Xlibris. ISBN 1-59926-920-1. 
  • —— (2007). The Smallpox Genocide of the Odawa Tribe at L'Arbre Croche, 1763: The History if a Native American People. Lewiston,NY: The Edwin Mellen Press. ISBN 0-7734-5220-6. 
  • McRae, Shannon (2003). Manistee County. Images of America. Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-4124-2. 
  • Ruchhoft, Robert H. (1991). Exploring North Manitou, South Manitou, High and Garden Islands of the Lake Michigan Archipelago'. Cincinnati, OH: Pucelle Press. ISBN 978-0-940029-02-6. 
  • Russell, Curran N .; Baer, Dona Degen (1954). The Lumberman's Legacy. Manistee, MI: Manistee County Historical Society. OCLC 1213029. 
  • Wood, Mable C.; Ingells, Douglas J. (1962). Eerdmans. Grand Rapids, MI. OCLC 2556377. 

External links[edit]