Statue of Liberty in popular culture
After the 1886 unveiling of the Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World), it quickly became iconic, and began to be featured in scores of posters, pictures, and books. The statue's likeness has also appeared in motion pictures, television programs, music videos, and video games, and images of the statue have been used on logos, commemorative coins, and in theatrical productions. It remains a popular local, national, and international political symbol of freedom, and as an often-used public domain marketing image.
Books and stories
- A 1911 O. Henry story relates a fanciful conversation between "Mrs. Liberty" and another statue; "The Lady Higher Up" relates a fanciful dialog between the statue and the then-famous Statue of Diana at Madison Square Garden. In the story, Diana asks "Mrs. Liberty" why she speaks with what Diana terms a "City Hall brogue." Liberty answers: "If ye'd studied the history of art in its foreign complications ye'd not need to ask. If ye wasn't so light-headed and giddy ye'd know that I was made by a Dago and presented to the American people on behalf of the French Government for the purpose of welcomin' Irish immigrants into the Dutch city of New York."
- In Amerika by Franz Kafka, the author inaccurately depicts the statue as holding aloft a sword rather than a torch.
- During the 1940s and 1950s, the iconography of science fiction in the United States was filled with images of ancient, decayed Statues of Liberty, set in the distant future. The covers of famous pulp magazines such as Amazing Stories and Astounding Science Fiction all featured Lady Liberty at one time, surrounded by ruins or by the sediments of the ages, as curious aliens or representatives of advanced or degenerate humans of the future gazed upon her remains. The February 1941 cover of Astounding showed a primitive man and woman approaching on a raft a Statue of Liberty surrounded by wild growth.
- In the final scene of Maggie-Now (1958) by Betty Smith, two characters scatter Maggie's late husband's ashes from the statue's torch.
- Jack Finney's 1970 novel Time and Again takes advantage of the presence, in 1882, of just the arm and torch of the statue in Madison Square Park – where they were exhibited to help raise funds for the pedestal – for an important plot development.
- The final chapter of Roald Dahl's James and the Giant Peach (1981) reveals that "The Glow-worm became the light inside the torch on the Statue of Liberty, and thus saved a grateful City from having to pay a huge electricity bill every year."
- Ellen Kushner's 1986 Choose Your Own Adventure book Statue of Liberty Adventure has the protagonist exploring the statue to find its original inspiration.
- In the disaster novels Her Name Will Be Faith and Category 7: The Biggest Storm in History, hurricanes cause storm surges that topple the statue into the Hudson River.
- In the first volume of the Southern Victory series How Few Remain (1997) by Harry Turtledove, the Statue of Liberty does not exist in New York City, as relations between the United States and France are poor. This is due to France supporting the Confederate States in the War of Succession and the Second Mexican War. However, Liberty Island is taken up by a similar but more grim-looking statue called "The Statue of Remembrance", given to the US by Germany. This statue carries a sword in its right hand and a shield in its left. Its full name is Remembrance, holding aloft her bared sword.
- Nevada Barr's 1999 mystery novel Liberty Falling is set on Liberty Island and Ellis Island, and features deaths caused by falling from the Statue of Liberty.
- The history of the Statue of Liberty is told in the 2008 book Lady Liberty: A Biography., written by Doreen Rapppaport, illustrated by Matt Tavares.
- Giannina Braschi's dramatic novel United States of Banana (2011) takes place after the September 11, 2001 attacks, at the Statue of Liberty, where a political prisoner from Puerto Rico is trapped in the dungeon of liberty beneath the 11-pointed star that serves as the base of the Statue.
- The Statue of Liberty has been depicted on several coins, not only in the USA, but all over the world. One of the most recent silver coins is the 20 euro SMS Sankt Georg commemorative coin. The obverse shows the armored cruiser SMS Sankt Georg sailing into New York Harbor on May 17, 1907; passing right in front of the Statue of Liberty. This was to be the last visit of an Austrian naval vessel in the U.S.A.
- The Statue of Liberty was also depicted on the Freedom Tower Silver Dollar coin minted in the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.
- In a 1970s issue of DC Comics' Wonder Woman, villainous sorcerer Felix Faust turns the Statue of Liberty into a living enemy of the Princess.
- In the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Adventures issue "Something Fishy Goes Down", Shredder tries to destroy the Statue of Liberty.
- The DC Comics superhero Miss America was originally granted her powers by the Statue in a vision. This was later retconned to have been a dream; she had really gained her powers from an experiment.
- In the Marvel Comics universe, the torch of the Statue of Liberty is the secret meeting spot between superheroes Spider-Man and his friend and confidant Human Torch.
- The cover of the fourth volume of the comic series Universal War One depicts a shattered shell of the Statue of Liberty to represent the destruction of Earth by the Colonization Industrial Companies.
- In the Sinfest webcomic "Lady Liberty", a humanized version of the Statue, is the spouse of a similarly humanized Uncle Sam. Owing to their iconic status as embodiments of current America, while Uncle Sam is shown as often worried, affected by financial woes and bouts of depression, Lady Liberty is shown as a quiet, nurturing and loving spouse, doing her best to help her husband around, but still prone to overreaction.
- The Statue appears in Charlie Chaplin's 1917 comedy film The Immigrant
- The Statue appears in the 1933 science-fiction film Deluge
- Alfred Hitchcock's 1942 espionage film Saboteur
- At the end of the 1946 Warner Bros. cartoon Baseball Bugs, Bugs Bunny goes to the top of the Empire State Building to catch a long fly ball hit by one of the Gashouse Gorillas. When the umpire calls the batter out, and the batter protests, the Statue of Liberty appears, saying "That's what the man said, you heard what he said, he said that...", with Bugs echoing her words.
- The 1952 film Park Row uses the funding of the Statue's pedestal as a subplot.
- In the 1953 comedy Abbott and Costello Go To Mars, their rocketship, on its return trip from Venus, nearly hits the Statue of Liberty, which quickly kneels down while the runaway rocketship flies just over her.
- The 1968 science-fiction classic Planet of the Apes ends with a shot of the Statue.
- The Statue appears in the 1970 science-fiction film Beneath the Planet of the Apes
- The Statue appears in the 1977 children's animated film The Rescuers
- The Statue appears in the 1979 science-fiction film Meteor
- The Statue appears in the 1981 science-fiction film Escape from New York
- The Statue appears in Straub-Huillet's 1984 drama film Klassenverhältnisse
- Madison makes a nude appearance in 1984's Splash at the Statue of Liberty.
- The Statue makes an appearance in the first episode of the 1984 CBS miniseries Ellis Island
- One of the chase scenes in the 1985 movie Remo Williams: The Adventure Begins was filmed on Liberty Island; a replica of the statue was also created to film some detailed scenes.
- The Statue appears in the 1985 comedy film National Lampoon's European Vacation
- The Statue appears under construction in the 1986 Don Bluth animated film An American Tail
- The Statue appears in the 1987 film Superman IV: The Quest for Peace
- The 1987 Mel Brooks' film Spaceballs features a parody of the Planet of the Apes sequence with the Statue
- The opening scene of the 1988 romantic comedy film Working Girl opens with a helicopter shot of the Statue's face, pans around the Statue, then settles on the Staten Island Ferry, then follows the ferry to end with a view of Lower Manhattan.
- The Statue makes an appearance in the 1989 science-fiction film Ghostbusters II
- A version of the Statue appears in the 1995 film Batman Forever
- The Statue appears in the 1995 science-fiction film Judge Dredd
- The Statue makes an appearance in the 1996 science-fiction film Independence Day
- The Statue appears in the 1997 epic film Titanic
- The Statue appears in the 1998 science-fiction film Deep Impact
- The Statue is featured prominently in the 2000 super hero film X-Men
- The Statue appears briefly in the 2001 science-fiction film A.I. Artificial Intelligence
- The Statue appears in the 2002 science-fiction film Men in Black II
- The Statue appears in the 2004 science-fiction film Godzilla: Final Wars
- The Statue makes a brief appearance in the 2004 adventure film National Treasure
- The Statue is featured prominently in the 2004 science-fiction film The Day After Tomorrow
- The Statue appears as a bamboo in the 2005 animated film Madagascar
- The Statue appears from the Empire State Building in the epic monster adventure 2005 film King Kong
- The Statue appears in the 2006 animated film The Wild
- The Statue appears briefly in the 2006 science-fiction film Children of Men
- A version of the Statue appears in the 2007 action-adventure film National Treasure 2: Book of Secrets
- The Statue appears in the 2008 animated film Madagascar 2: Escape to Africa
- The 2008 monster film Cloverfield features the Statue.
- The Statue appears in the 2010 Nicolas Cage live-action fantasy film The Sorcerer's Apprentice
- The Statue appears in the 2010 animated comedy film Despicable Me, albeit the one from Las Vegas
- The Statue appears in the 2011 science-fiction film The Adjustment Bureau
- The Statue appears in the 2012 animated film Madagascar 3: Europe's Most Wanted
- The Statue's torch appears in the 2013 science-fiction film Oblivion
- The Statue makes a brief appearance in the 2014 action thriller film Jack Ryan: Shadow Recruit
- The Statue is featured in the 2015 film The Walk. The movie features Joseph Gordon-Levitt playing Phillippe Petit, who narrates the events of the film from Liberty's torch. The film is set in the 1970s, so it includes the original flame before restoration.
- The Statue appears in the 2017 action-adventure film Spider-Man: Homecoming
- The US Army 77th Sustainment Brigade, originally the 77th Infantry Division, has used a gold Statue of Liberty on a blue background as its shoulder patch, since its activation for World War I from draftees and recruits mostly from the New York City area.
- In March 2011, Nike SB released a two-layer sneaker featuring the Statue of Liberty logo on the tongue. When skated, the sneaker turns the oxidized color (seagreen) back to copper.
- New York and New Jersey have both featured the statue on license plates. The statue was on the regular New York plate from 1986 until 2001. A New Jersey speciality plate celebrating Liberty State Park has been available for many years and is still available as of 2005[update].
- The Central Railroad of New Jersey used the national monument as its logo. Its main station, Communipaw Terminal, is located on Upper New York Bay nearby.
- The Japanese entertainment company Amuse has a replica of the Statue of Liberty above the word "Amuse" as its logo.
- The mission flight patch worn by the crew of STS-51-J (the debut launch of the Space Shuttle Atlantis) has the Statue of Liberty embossed on it.
- The statue appears in the logo of the insurance company Liberty Mutual. A series of television commercials for the company begun in 2013 which show the statue in the background, with each commercial being shot from a different angle from places in New York City and New Jersey.
- Toward the end of Michael Jackson's video for "Black or White", Jackson can be seen standing at the top of a replica of the statue.
The Statue of Liberty was featured in the music video for "Walk Like An Egyptian" by The Bangles, walking like an egyptian
- The artist Joseph Pennell created a poster 1918 for the fourth Liberty Loans campaign of 1918, during World War I, showing her headless and torchless while around her the New York area was in flames, under enemy attack by air and by sea. The poster is sometimes referred to on the Web as "That liberty shall not perish" since these are the first words that appear on it.
- Many libertarian organizations use images of the statue as their symbol.
- The Conservative Party of New York uses the statue's torch and flame as its symbol.
- The German magazine Der Spiegel, on the cover of their February 4th 2017 issue, showed the Statue as beheaded by Donald Trump.
- In 1978, at the University of Wisconsin–Madison, Jim Mallon and Leon Varjian of the "Pail and Shovel Party" won election by promising to give campus issues "the seriousness they deserve." In 1979 (and again in 1980), they created their own version of the Planet of the Apes scene by erecting replicas of the torch and the top of the head on the frozen surface of Lake Mendota, creating a fanciful suggestion that the entire statue was standing on the bottom of the lake.
- The New York Rangers of the National Hockey League used the head of the Statue of Liberty as their logo on their third jersey from 1996 to 2007.
- The New York Liberty of the Women's National Basketball Association use the Statue of Liberty image in their team logo.
- In American football, the "Statue of Liberty play" is an old trick play in which the quarterback holds the ball over his head and slightly behind, as if to throw a pass – thus looking somewhat like the Statue – and then does a stealthy handoff to a running back, who plucks the ball out of the quarterback's hand.
- On April 8, 1983, CBS broadcast a program, the fifth of a series featuring illusionist David Copperfield, in which he made the statue apparently vanish. The effect took place at night. The program showed the statue from the point of view of an audience seated on a ground-level platform, viewing the statue between two scaffolding towers in which a large curtain was raised.
- On the television show Fringe, Liberty Island is the militarized stronghold of the Department of Defense in the alternate universe, and scenes from several episodes take place on or around the island. In the show's alternate universe, the statue has not acquired a green patina and is its original copper color.
- In the Gene Roddenberry's Andromeda episode "The Sum of Its Parts", Captain Dylan Hunt quotes the poem on the Statue.
- In the Doctor Who episode "The Angels Take Manhattan", the statue is depicted as a colossal Weeping Angel.
- In the Family Guy episode "Death Has a Shadow", the Statue is shown on television at a stag party and all the guys there drink until she "looks hot". In the episode "I Take Thee Quagmire", Peter gets Quagmire the Statue's foot as a wedding present, leading Mayor West to believe that the Statue was blown up.
- In Courage The Cowardly Dog the statue can be seen in a few episodes (Like in A Beaver's Tale the statue can be flooded).
- In My Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic, a statue seen in Applejack's flashback in "The Cutie Mark Chronicles" and in "Rarity Takes Manehattan" greatly resembles the Statue of Liberty, but in the form of a mare instead of a woman.
- Epcot's The American Adventure attraction ends with Benjamin Franklin and Mark Twain standing on the Statue's torch, relishing their view of America. The attraction used a replica of the statue from its 1982 opening until its 1986 renovation.
- The statue has its own Unicode character: 🗽
- In the 2000 video game Deus Ex (2000), the statue appears damaged during the first mission which is set on the Libery Island.
- The 2008 video game Grand Theft Auto IV features a parody of the statue called the Statue of Happiness, which holds a coffee cup instead of a torch. The coffee cup is the tribute to the infamous Hot Coffee mod in San Andreas.
- In the 2014 video game Assassin's Creed Unity, the statue appears in a time distortion Rift Mission which features 1889 Paris as a paradox; the statue should have been shipped from France to America by that year as mentioned in the game.
- It is a playable character in Lego Marvel Super Heroes, and Lego released a minifigure of it at the same time.
- It appeared in the final downloadable content for Call of Duty: Advanced Warfare as a map on multiplayer.
- Working on the Statue of Liberty, a 1946 painting by Norman Rockwell, shows workmen repairing the torch held aloft by the Statue. It resides in the Oval Office of the White House in Washington, D.C.
- Liberty by contemporary artist Mark Wagner is a large-scale collage composed of 14 individual panels created from 1,121 United States one-dollar bills—a 17-by-six-foot decoupage homage to the Statue of Liberty. George Washington, the face of the dollar bill, is prominently featured throughout the work, engaged in a variety of unexpected, humorous activities taking place from top-to-bottom of the Statue of Liberty. Beyond its humor and craftsmanship, however, Liberty addresses issues of civil liberties, economics, and American identity.
As damaged and destroyed
As a famous landmark, damage and destruction of the statue has been used to symbolize the end of mankind or the destruction of New York City. The table below lists some examples of movies which feature the statue damaged or destroyed.
There have been questions raised about how the statue would hold up for thousands of years, based on her current corrosion patterns. Studies done during various repairs in the past hundred years show that the copper "skin" of the statue herself will hold up, but her insides may not. The copper has aged and chemically changed to create a patina, which on metal is a coating of various chemical compounds such as oxides, carbonates, sulfides, or sulfates formed on the surface during exposure to atmospheric elements. This patina is what gives the statue her sea-green coloring, due to the oxidation of the copper. It also means that the statue's deterioration by seawater and winds is greatly slowed. The only thing that still poses a threat to the patina is acid rain, which has the power to corrode through the surface.
The joints holding the statue together have had some damage by seawater, and have been periodically replaced or repaired. The greatest damage comes in the form of a weakening to the arm holding up the torch, as that is one of the areas of the statue that supports the most weight over a small area. This arm weakness was most recently repaired in the mid 1980s. The torch that the statue holds was also replaced during these repairs, as the original torch was irrevocably damaged from water and snow seeping in through the windows. The old torch now sits in the Statue of Liberty Museum. The stone at Liberty's feet has also needed repair in the past. 50 years after the statue was first erected, in 1937, it was discovered that water was leaking in to the pedestal that the statue stands upon. A giant copper apron (250 ft. tall) was placed over the pedestal to prevent future damage. Overall, the majority of the statue would likely survive the test of time if an apocalyptic event happened on Earth, as it does in many of the following movies.
|1933||Deluge||The statue is surrounded by a tsunami.|
|1959||The World, the Flesh, and the Devil||The statue is seen in an abandoned Manhattan.|
|1968||Planet of the Apes||Thousands of years in the future, the statue is seen half buried in sand. Astronaut Taylor sees it and realizes he has time-traveled and has been on Earth the whole time.|
|1970||Beneath the Planet of the Apes||The half-buried statue is again seen at the beginning of the film.|
|1979||Meteor||The statue is seen when the meteor fragment enters New York City. Although its destruction is never shown, this scene shows that the statue might have been destroyed by the meteor fragment.|
|1981||The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy Episodes 1 and 3||In Episode 1 (the pilot episode), after the Vogons have destroyed the Earth, the Statue of Liberty can be briefly seen inside a storage room in their spaceship. The production notes commentary on the DVD states that the statue was abducted from Earth, possibly moments before its destruction, because the Vogons like to keep souvenirs from the planets they demolish. In an Episode 3 animation sequence the statue is seen being destroyed in a nuclear war, with the ruins resembling Joseph Pennell's iconic 1918 World War I recruiting poster.|
|1981||Escape from New York||The statue's head is seen decapitated and in the streets of New York City on the poster. However, it is intact in the film.|
|1983||2019, After the Fall of New York||The statue is seen abandoned on Liberty Island.|
|1985||National Lampoon's European Vacation||The Griswold family, returning to U.S., sees the Statue of Liberty. Clark accidentally opens the cockpit door while searching for a bathroom, bumps the pilot, and causes the plane to hit the statue's torch, damaging it.|
|1987||Superman IV: The Quest for Peace||Nuclear Man lifts the Statue of Liberty from her pedestal and hurls her towards Metropolis. Superman catches and re-attaches her to her pedestal.|
|1989||The Abyss Special Edition||The statue is nearly threatened by a tsunami, but is ultimately not destroyed. She is incorrectly depicted facing the Verrazano Narrows Bridge.|
|1989||Ghostbusters II||The statue is brought to life by the Ghostbusters to help save New York City. After Liberty helps, she is seen lying on the street. At the end of the film, she is rebuilt.|
|1995||Batman Forever||During the film's opening sequence, Batman chases Two-Face in a helicopter until it crashes into the head of the statue, heavily damaging its face. The statue, notably different from its real-life counterpart, has a Gothic design, the word "Gotham" imprinted on its crown, and in place of the torch is a rotating light similar to a lighthouse.|
|1995||Judge Dredd||In the future, after the Earth has suffered massive damage, the statue is seen in the middle of Mega-City 1 and is the location of the Janus laboratories. The statue is shown in a derelict state, and a fight sequence takes place in her head.|
|1996||Independence Day||The statue is seen after the satellite crashes into the mother ship and the camera points at her tablet to indicate July 4, Independence Day. The statue is also seen being covered in the shadow of an alien destroyer that arrives in New York City. After the aliens destroy New York City, the statue is seen toppled into the river.|
|1996||Twisted Metal 2||On the New York level of this video game, players can ignite the statue's torch by firing missiles at her. Further missiles will blow off her robe, revealing a bikini underneath. Still more missiles will destroy her.|
|1997||The Fifth Element||In this futuristic thriller, the statue can be briefly spotted as the spacecraft takes off over New York Harbor. The sea level has lowered drastically so that Liberty Island is now connected directly to the mainland. The statue also has a new pedestal, roughly five times its present height.|
|1998||Deep Impact||The statue and the island of Manhattan are flooded in a tsunami created by a comet impact. The severed head is later seen in the now-submerged streets of New York City.|
|1998||Earthquake in New York||In this made-for-TV movie, the torch of the statue collapses during an earthquake.|
|1999||Aftershock: Earthquake in New York||The pedestal collapses during the earthquake, causing the statue to fall either on Liberty Island or into New York Bay, likely destroying the statue. At the end of the film it is shown being rebuilt.|
|1999||Futurama episode "When Aliens Attack"||The statue is seen being covered in the shadow of an alien destroyer that arrives in New York City. After the aliens leave Earth, there is a shot of the torch of the statue collapsing, due to it being damaged by the invasion.|
|2000||The Busy World of Richard Scarry episode "The Big Apple Christmas Caper"||The statue is depicted as a anthropomorphic pig. A villian piloting a blimp with a giant magnet attached to it uses it to rip the crown and torch off, along with many other pieces of New York City, like skyscraper spires and vehicles. After the villain with the magnet is defeated, the torch and crown fall into the streets of the city. Later, in an error of continuity, the torch and crown are shown to have fallen on top of skyscrapers, and the spire of the Chrysler Building is shown to have fallen onto the head of the statue, which makes it look like it has a new crown.|
|2001||A.I. Artificial Intelligence||The statue is seen submerged in the ocean up to the bottom of Liberty's torch due to global warming.|
|2004||The Day After Tomorrow||The statue is hit by a tsunami and is later shown to have frozen due to climate change.|
|2004||Godzilla: Final Wars||The statue is seen destroyed after Rodon destroys New York City.|
|2005||Category 7: The End of the World||The statue is hit by a tsunami and destroyed by tornadoes due to global warming. The torch is ripped off by a tornado and thrown into the streets of New York City, almost hitting two main characters (Tommy Tornado and Faith Clavell).|
|2006||Superman II: The Richard Donner Cut||Superman is kicked into the torch of the statue by General Zod, destroying it. The destruction is later reversed when Superman turns back time to repair the damage caused by the three supervillains.|
|2006||Disaster Zone: Volcano in New York||The statue is seen several times in the skyline, but is not destroyed. At one point a fishing boat is blown up by a volcano in the harbor very close to the statue.|
|2006||Children of Men||In an advertisement stating that the whole world, except for Britain, was destroyed due to infertility, the statue is seen being destroyed in a nuclear bomb attack on New York City.|
|2008||Life After People||The documentary and pilot episode of the spinoff series show the statue slowly deteriorating until about 300 years after the human race ceases to exist. After the 300 years (approx.) have passed, the steel connecting the "skin" of Lady Liberty to the main steel frame begins to fail, causing the torch, arm, and face to fall into the harbor. The narrator suggests it continues on like this until the entire structure collapses.|
|2008||Aftermath: Population Zero||Similar to Life After People, although the statue is shown deteriorating at a faster rate. Beginning to collapse after 230 years rather than 300, large sections of the statue collapse in stages soon after each other, rather than slowly peeling away as in Life After People.|
|2008||Cloverfield||The statue is decapitated by a giant monster and the head is thrown into the streets of New York City. The decapitated statue is later seen from the Brooklyn Bridge.|
|2008||NYC: Tornado Terror||A tornado forms over the statue, ripping the torch and tablet off.|
|2008||Lost City Raiders||The statue is submerged due to global warming.|
|2008||Turning Point: Fall of Liberty||The statue is destroyed by German bombers when they invade the East Coast in 1953.|
|2010||Futurama episode That Darn Katz!||When the Earth stops rotating, many objects get tossed around due to the first law of motion. The Eiffel Tower is blown off its base in Paris and Big Ben from London crashes down in its place. Soon after, the Statue of Liberty falls on top of Big Ben.|
|2010||Skyline||The statue is seen when the alien destroyer abducts people in New York City.|
|2012||Iron Sky||The statue is destroyed by the Nazis when they invade New York City.|
|2013||Oblivion||The statue is seen buried up to her torch in a canyon sixty years after the destruction of New York City in an alien invasion. In a flashback seen earlier in the film showing New York City before its destruction, the statue can be seen intact from the Empire State Building's observation deck.|
- Henry, O., Sixes and Sevens, "The Lady Higher Up." Project Gutenberg text
- Marlow, Max (1988). Her Name Will Be Faith. New English Library. ISBN 0-450-50101-9.
- Evans, Bill; Jameson, Marianna (2007). Category 7: The Biggest Storm in History. Tor Books. ISBN 0-7653-5671-6.
- "TMNT Adventures #5". TMNT Entity. October 1989. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- Bajram, Denis UW1 vol 4
- UCSD History Project, Slide: WP-A-29 "Poster: That Liberty Shall Not Perish from the Earth" (512x768 pixel image) Caption: "Poster, "That Liberty Shall Not Perish from the Earth... Buy Liberty Bonds. Fourth Liberty Loan, 1918. The Statue of Liberty has been attacked. The head and arms have been knocked off and lie by the edge of Bedloe's Island as enemy planes fly over New York harbor in a fiery red glow. Joseph Pennell." Citation from the page: "Public domain. Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division, Washington, DC 20540. LC-USZC4-1347. In Walton Rawls, Wake Up America!, 1988, p. 66."
- Royal Albert Museum, "That at Liberty Shall Not Perish From The Earth 1918, Joseph Pennell (1857-1926), U.S.A. 103 x 71 cm"
- "Posters American Style: Advice to Americans" (website)
- "German magazine defends cover showing Trump beheading Statue of Liberty". Reuters. 2017-02-05. Retrieved 2017-02-11.
- Lady Liberty on Lake Mendota, pictures of the University of Wisconsin prank
- Foss, Cindy (February 16, 2009). "History of Lady Liberty on Lake Mendota". University of Wisconsin–Madison. Retrieved August 17, 2015.
- New York Liberty website, showing Statue of Liberty in logo. Note that the team's mascot is not the statue, but a dog, named Maddie after Madison Square Garden.
- Willian Poundstone. (1986). Bigger Secrets. Houghton Mifflin
- "The New Moneyed Art". Huffington Post. April 8, 2011.
- "Thenceforward, and Forever Free. (2012)". Patrick and Beatrice Haggerty Museum of Art Marquette University
- Peterson, I. (Jun 29, 1985). "A Statue of a Different Color". Science News. 127 (26): 404. JSTOR 3969749. doi:10.2307/3969749.
- "Reclothing the First Lady of Metals". Copper Development Association Inc. Retrieved January 21, 2015.
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