List of Allied vessels struck by Japanese special attack weapons
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There were more than 400 Allied vessels struck by Japanese special attack weapons in the last twelve months of World War II, including some vessels that were struck as many as six times in one attack. The one special weapon that is most often associated with World War II is the Japanese kamikaze aircraft. Kamikaze was used to describe the way the Japanese believed they would be victorious by destroying the Allied fleet by crashing aircraft into their ships. The word kamikaze originated as the name of major typhoons in 1274 and 1281, which dispersed Mongolian invasion fleets under Kublai Khan. The Allies referred to these special weapons as "suicide" attacks, and found it difficult to understand why an individual would intentionally crash an airplane into a ship, as the two cultures clashed in battle. Both Imperial Japanese Navy and Imperial Japanese Army had Special Attack Units organized specifically for this mission. Aircraft were not the only special attack weapons. Attack boats, suicide divers, and several types of submarines were also used to destroy ships and landing craft as the Allied forces advanced toward Japan.
- 1 Kamikaze aircraft
- 2 Boats
- 3 Midget submarines
- 4 Fukuryu
- 5 Land-based suicide weapons
- 6 List of ships
- 7 Bibliography
- 8 Notes
Kamikaze (神風?, literally: "God wind"; common translation: "Divine wind") [kamikaꜜze] ( listen), official name: Tokubetsu Kōgekitai (特別攻撃隊?), Tokkō Tai (特攻隊?) or Tokkō (特攻?) were suicide attacks by military aviators from the Empire of Japan against Allied naval vessels in the closing stages of the Pacific campaign of World War II, designed to destroy warships more effectively than was possible with conventional attacks. Numbers quoted vary, but at least 47 Allied vessels, from PT boats to escort carriers, were sunk by kamikaze attacks, and about 300 damaged. During World War II, nearly 3,000 kamikaze pilots were sacrificed. About 14% of kamikaze attacks managed to hit a ship. The Japanese high command exaggerated the effectiveness of the tokko attacks, claiming six aircraft carriers, one escort aircraft carrier and ten battleships had been sunk.
Standard IJN and IJA aircraft
Almost every make and model of aircraft were used as kamikazes. The most often seen were the Mitsubishi A6M (Allied code name "Zeke"), Aichi D3A (Allied code name "Val"), Mitsubishi G4M (Allied code name "Betty"), Nakajima B5N (Allied code name "Kate"), Yokosuka P1Y (Allied code name "Francis"), although in the final months of the war, every flyable aircraft was used. The Army used the Kawasaki Ki-61 (Allied code name "Tony"), Mitsubishi Ki-46 (Allied code name "Dinah"), although like the Navy, all available aircraft were to be used as the threat to Japan increased after Iwo Jima fell.
The Yokosuka MXY-7 Ohka (also spelled Oka) (櫻花; Shinjitai: 桜花; "cherry blossom"; Hebon-shiki transcription Ōka) was a purpose-built kamikaze aircraft employed by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service in the last months of World War II. US forces gave the aircraft the Japanese name Baka which loosely translates as "idiot" or "fool" in English.
Ohka was a small flying bomb that was carried underneath a Mitsubishi G4M "Betty", Yokosuka P1Y Ginga "Frances" or the planned Heavy Nakajima G8N Renzan (Allied code name "Rita") transport type 43A/B and heavy bomber to within range of its target; on release, the pilot would first glide towards the target and, when close, enough he would fire the Ohka 's engine(s) and dive into the ship to destroy it. That final approach was almost unstoppable (especially for the rocket-powered Ohka Type 11) because the aircraft was capable of attaining tremendous speed. Later versions were designed to be launched from coastal air bases and caves, and even from submarines equipped with aircraft catapults, although the war ended before they were used this way.
The Nakajima Ki-115 Tsurugi (剣 "Sabre") was a one-man purpose-built kamikaze aircraft developed by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Force in the closing stages of World War II in late 1945. More than 100 Ki-115s were completed.
The Toka (藤花, "Wisteria Blossom") was the IJN version of the Nakajima Ki-115 Ko. Showa was to build the Toka for the IJN.
The Mitsubishi J8M Shūsui (Japanese: 三菱 J8M 秋水, literally "Autumn Water", used as a poetic term meaning "Sharp Sword" deriving from the swishing sound swords make) used by the Navy and Ki-200 for the Army. The Shusui ("Sword Stroke") was a rocket powered interceptor. It was the Japanese copy of the German Me 163 rocket powered interceptor fighter that was specially designed for use against high flying B-29 bombers. The prototype flew on 7 July 45. The War ended before production.
The Hiryu To-Go, also known as the Ki-167 "Sakura-dan", was a Mitsubishi Ki-67 Kai (Allied code name "Peggy") twin-engine bomber with guns removed and faired over, crew reduced to four men. This flying bomb was built with 3 ton thermite shaped-charge bomb behind the cockpit, pointed forward and angled slightly down, and a blast radius of 1 km. Two of these aircraft were known to have been built. One sorted 17 April 1945 and did not return.
The Mizuno Shinryu ("Divine Dragon") was a proposed rocket-powered kamikaze aircraft designed for the Imperial Japanese Navy towards the end of World War II. It never reached production.
The Maru-Ten was Nakajima's designation for the 'Kōkoku Nigō Heiki (皇国二号兵器 "Imperial Weapon No.2"?). This was a suicide weapon with no landing gear, was catapult launched using Rocket Assisted Take Off (RATO), used Ne-12B engines, and carried a single bomb. It was never built, as it evolved into the Nakajima Kikka (中島 橘花 "Orange Blossom"?).
The Kawanishi Baika (梅花, "Ume Blossom") was a pulsejet-powered kamikaze aircraft under development for the Imperial Japanese Navy towards the end of World War II. The war ended before any were built. The design was greatly inspired by the manned version of the German V1 flying bomb, the Fieseler Fi 103R "Reichenberg".
The Shin'yō (Japanese: 震洋, "Sea Quake") were Japanese suicide boats developed during World War II. They were part of the wider Special Attack Units program. These fast motorboats were driven by one man, to speeds of around 30 kn (56 km/h; 35 mph). They were typically equipped with 250 kg (551 lb) pounds of explosives packed in the bow with several impact fuses. The Shinyo units were known as Shimpu Tokubetsu-Kogekitai. About 6,200 Shinyo were produced for the Imperial Japanese Navy.
An additional 3,000 of the Shinyo were produced for the Imperial Japanese Army as Maru-Ni. The Maru-Ni units were known as Shimbu Tokubetsu-Kogekitai. About 400 of these boats were sent to Okinawa and Formosa, the rest were stored on the coast of Japan for the ultimate defense against the invasion of the Home islands. The Mary-Ni attacked by dropping one or two shallow-set depth charges as close to the target ship as possible, with the intention of turning away as the depth charges were released off the stern.
- Type A Ko-hyoteki-class midget submarines were used in the 1942 Attack on Sydney Harbour, Attack on Diego Suarez Harbor and the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor.
- Type B Midget Ha 45 prototype built 1942 to test Type A improvements.
- Type C Midget Ha 62–76 similar to Type A with crew of 3 and radius increased to 350 nautical miles (650 km) at 6 knots (11 km/h) surfaced or 120 nautical miles (220 km) at 4 knots (7.4 km/h) submerged.
- Type D Koryu (115 completed) improved Type C with crew of 5 and radius increased to 1000 miles at 8 knots surfaced and 320 miles at 16 knots submerged.
The Kaiten (Japanese: 回天, literal translation: "Return to the sky", commonly rendered as: "The turn toward heaven", "The Heaven Shaker" or "Change the World") was a torpedo modified as a suicide weapon, and used by the Imperial Japanese Navy in the final stages of World War II.
Early designs allowed for the pilot to escape after the final acceleration towards the target, although whether this could have been done successfully is doubtful. There is no record of any pilot attempting to escape or intending to do so, and this provision was dropped from later production kaitens. The inventor of the Kaiten, Lt. Hiroshi Kuroki was lost during one of the first training missions. When the sub was raised a note was found with a note written during his final minutes before death, sending his respects to his family and detailing the cause of the accident and how to repair the defect.
The Kairyu (海龍 Kairyū?, "Sea Dragon") was a Small, 2-man, midget submarine of the Imperial Japanese Navy of 20 ton that was based on the Type A midget submarine that was used in the 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor. All five of the Type A midget submarines used were captured (1) or destroyed (4). Midgets also attacked in Sydney (all four lost) and Madagascar in June 1942. The Kairyu mini-submarines were meant to meet the invading American Naval forces upon their anticipated approach of Tokyo. Although not intended only as a suicide weapon, crew survival was possible, but the odds of survival were not high. These mini-submarines were built so that they could be equipped with either two torpedoes or a 1,000 pound warhead in the bow, for crashing into ships as the kaiten did. Over 760 of these submarines were planned, and by August 1945, 200 had been manufactured, most of them at the Yokosuka shipyard, but of the 200, only 115 were ready for use at the time of surrender.
Fukuryu (Japanese:伏龍, Fukuryu "Crouching dragons") suicide divers were a part of the Special Attack Units prepared to resist the invasion of the Home islands by Allied forces. They were equipped with a diving jacket and trousers, diving shoes, and a diving helmet fixed by four bolts. They were typically weighed down with 9 kg (20 lb) of lead, and had two bottles of compressed air at 150 bars. They were expected to be able to walk at a depth of 5 to 7 m (16 to 23 ft), for about six hours. The Fukuryu were armed with a 15 kg (33 lb) mine fired with a contact fuse, fitted onto the end of a 5 m (16 ft) bamboo pole. To attack, they would swim under a ship and slam the mine onto the ship's hull, destroying themselves in the process. This new weapon is only known to have been used a few times operationally:
- January 8, 1945: Infantry landing craft (gunboat) LCI(G)-404 damaged by suicide divers in Yoo Passage, Palaus.
- February 10, 1945: Attempted attack on surveying ship USS Hydrographer (AGS-2) by suicide divers in Schonian Harbor, Palaus.
Land-based suicide weapons
Although the Nikaku were not specifically designated as anti-ship weapons, the mental conditioning and training they received prepared them to pilot a Maru Ni, should the need arise. Nikaku were IJA soldiers with explosives strapped to their bodies, acting as human anti-tank mines. The method used in the attack was very simple: the soldier would crawl between the tank treads or allow the tank to drive over him, then explode the charge. The army pioneered this technique in the Philippines and on Okinawa. Other methods used were where the weapon was a shaped-charge on a spike or a simple hand grenade.
Giretsu (義烈空挺隊 Giretsu Kūteitai?) was an airlifted special forces unit of the Imperial Japanese Army formed from Army paratroopers, in November 1944 as a last-ditch attempt to reduce and delay Allied bombing raids on the Japanese home islands. These forces were airlifted and crash landed onto Allied Army or Marine air strips, with the intention of destroying as many aircraft as possible before being killed.
List of ships
This table list every known ship that was attacked and damaged by a Japanese special weapon. Not included are ships that were not damaged from a near miss, or were damaged when debris from another ship that was attacked and hit fell or flew on or into it.
Unless otherwise noted, these ships were hit by one kamikaze aircraft.
Sunk by one or more kamikaze aircraft
- LCI: Landing Craft Infantry, Volume II. Turner Publishing. 1995. ISBN 1563112620.
- Ball, Donald L. (1997). Fighting Amphibs; The LCS(L) in World War II. Williamsburgh, VA: Mill Neck Publications. ISBN 0965905500.
- Browning Jr., Robert M. (1996). US Merchant Vessel War Casualties of World War II. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 978-1557500878.
- Cressman, Robert J. (1999). The Official Chronology of the U.S. Navy in World War II. Naval Historical Center: Contemporary History Branch.
- Masterson, Dr. James R. (October 1949). U. S. Army Transportation, In The Southwest Pacific Area. US Army: Transportation Unit Historical Division Special Staff.
- Rielly, Robin L. (2008). Kamikazes, Corsairs, and Picket Ships. Havertown, PA: Casemare. ISBN 978-1935149415.
- Rielly, Robin L. (2010). Kamikaze Attacks of World War II. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland ∓ Company, Inc. ISBN 978-0786446544.
- Watts, Anthony J. (1967). Japanese Warships of World War II. Doubleday & Company.
- Zaloga, Steven J. (2010). Defense of Japan. Oxford, UK: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9781846036873.
- Ships' Data US Naval Vessels Vol I 250-010. Navships. April 15, 1945.
- Ships' Data US Naval Vessels Vol II 250-011. Navships. April 15, 1945.
- Ships' Data US Naval Vessels Vol III 250-012. Navships. April 15, 1945.
- Casualties: U.S. Navy and Coast Guard Vessels, Sunk or Damaged Beyond Repair during World War II 7 December 1941-1 October 1945. Department Of The Navy: Naval History And Heritage Command.
- USS Aaron Ward (DM-34) was struck by six kamikaze aircraft 3 May 1945
- Zaloga, p 37
- Zaloga p 38
- Zaloga p 39
- Zaloga p 40
- Century of flight
- Zaloga, p 40
- Hearst Magazines (May 1942). "Jap Sub Had Guard to Cut Net in Harbor". Popular Mechanics. Hearst Magazines. pp. 71–. ISSN 0032-4558. Retrieved 2 October 2011.
- Watts, Anthony J. Japanese Warships of World War II Doubleday & Company (1967), p 213
- Watts, Anthony J. Japanese Warships of World War II Doubleday & Company (1967), p 216
- Zalogo, p 43
- Hashimoto, Mochitsura (1954). Sunk: The Story of the Japanese Submarine Fleet, 1914–1945. Translated by Commander E.H.M. Colegrave. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
- Zalogo pp 42-45
- USS Aaron Ward was hit by 6 kamikazes
- USS Barry, see Barry 21 June and Barry 22 June
- The Naval Historical Center listing states that USS Barry (APD-29) was "damaged by Kamikaze attack off Okinawa, Ryukyu Islands, 25 May 1945, and sunk as a decoy, 21 June 1945." This description does not make clear how Barry sank on June 21, 1945. The Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships describes the sinking as follows:
- Barry was towed to the anchorage at Kerama Retto 28 May and found too extensively damaged to warrant repair or salvage. Stripped of useful gear, she was decommissioned 21 June 1945. Later in the day she was towed from the harbor of Kerama Retto to be used as a decoy for the kamikazes. While under tow she was attacked by Japanese suicide planes and sunk along with her escort, LSM-59.
- The USS Barry was an old four-stacker Destroyer commissioned around 1920 and modernized and converted into a high-speed troop transport and reclassified as an APD. It took some hits and was intentionally run up on the beach to avoid sinking in deep water and it spent sometime just sitting there. The High Command was experimenting with methods of defending against the relentless kamikaze attacks by the Japanese pilots and it was decided to use the Barry as a decoy to attract the suicide pilots. Since Barry was stripped of all usable equipment its hulk was expendable. Lipan's divers put a soft patch on the hull of the Barry and its interior was filled with empty sealed 5" ammo containers. It was hoped the sealed containers would act as flotation gear and make the Barry less vulnerable to sinking from direct hits. The Barry was fitted with remote controlled flashing lights that looked like anti-aircraft gun muzzle flashes from the air. It also had smudge pots placed at strategic locations and remotely controlled to simulate stack smoke and damage from attacks. From the air it looked like a fully operational Destroyer and it was intended to draw the kamikaze pilots to it and away from the nearby manned vessels. The LSM contained the remote controls for the Barry's pseudo weapons and Lipan was to tow the Barry to simulate an underway tin can. It didn't take long before two kamikaze planes appeared just ten feet off the water equipped with huge bombs strapped to their belly to create a gigantic explosion when they slammed into a vessel. To our dismay, the first attacking Japanese plane slammed into the small USS LSM-59 and hit it directly amidships. The resultant explosion blew the ship into the hereafter and there was not one recognizable part left floating and at least sixty sailors met their demise. We hadn't anytime to think as the second kamikaze climbed straight up to make a dive on us and the Barry. I was a gunner on the 40mm and we gave him all we had, shooting off his wings and setting him afire. Nevertheless, he was able to slam into the Barry and hit her right on the bridge. We could not save her so we tried to tow her to Ie Shima. In the middle of the night the Barry started to sink and was pulling our old "Green Dragon" down by the stern. We had a pelican hook rigged and a sailor hit the release and the Barry slipped from our grasp and headed for Davy Jones' Locker.
- USS Barry sank as the result of damage received the previous day (see Barry 24 May 1945 and Barry 21 June 1945)
- USS Birmingham was damaged by a kamikaze's bomb, a torpedo, and a second kamikaze that struck her amidships
- Damaged or sunk by a Shinyo or Maru-Ni manned demolition boat
- SS Bozeman Victory was the first ship damaged or sunk by a manned demolition boat
- USS Braine was hit by two kamikazes
- USS Bunker Hill was hit by two kamikazes
- USS Callaghan was sunk by kamikaze while on radar picket station approximately 50 miles southwest of Okinawa. She was the last Allied vessel lost to that weapon.
- The Naval Historical Center listing gives July 28, 1945, as the date USS Callaghan sunk, which was reported occurring at 0235. Cressman has 29 July 1945 as the date
- USS Callaway is listed at The Naval Historical Center with 8 January 1945 as the date for the attack while Cressman has 7 January as the date
- SS Cape Constance is listed as damaged 3 November in Cressman, 4 November at The Naval Historical Center
- USS Carina is listed in Cressman with date of 3 May and on 4 May at The Naval Historical Center
- USS Charles J. Badger was damaged by an IJA Maru-Ni attack
- USS Chilton was damaged by a kamikaze near-miss
- USS Colhoun was irreparably damaged by four kamikazes, and was scuttled by destroyer USS Cassin Young (DD-793)
- USS Curtiss was fired on by a midget submarine at Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1941. Curtiss rammed the submarine. Curtiss shot down 3 aircraft the same day
- USS Devilfish was attacked by a kamikaze 20 March 1945 before she entered her patrol area. The plane struck her as she was submerging, destroying the mast structure, causing serious leaks.
- USS Dickerson was irreparably damaged 2 April 1945. She was towed out to sea and scuttled off Kerama Retto by salvage crew
- Damaged or sunk by a kaiten manned torpedo
- USS Earl V. Johnson was damaged by the explosion from a near-miss of a kaiten manned-torpedo that was launched from submarine I 53, Philippine Sea
- USS Emmons was struck by five kamikazes
- USS Emmons was irreparably damaged by five kamikazes the previous day, is scuttled by high speed minesweeper USS Ellyson (DMS-19)
- USS Enterprise was damaged from the 3 direct hits and 4 near misses kamikazes
- USS Evans was struck by four kamikazes
- SS Francisco Morozan was damaged when a kamikaze that was shot down by a US fighter exploded over the ship
- USS Franklin was the first ship hit by a Japanese aircraft. It was reported that "The Betty, hit numerous times by anti-aircraft fire, went out of control. The bomber’s shallow dive caused it to strike a glancing blow on the flight deck abaft the carrier’s island, and it went over the side of the ship without causing any significant damage." The report continued "Damage to Franklin was minimal, but she suffered one dead and ten wounded."
- Damaged or sunk by Ohka manned flying bomb
- USS Gayety was damaged by two kamikaze near-misses and was the first ship hit by an Ohka
- USS Gladiator was damaged by a near-miss of kamikaze
- USS Gladiator was damaged by strafing and the near-miss of a kamikaze
- USS Guest was struck on the mast by a kamikaze that subsequently crashed just over the side, Guest suffered little or no damage
- USS Hank, reported that, while under attack, a kamikaze came in low off the port bow, heading directly for the bridge, Hank's accurate antiaircraft fire deflected it slightly, but the "Zeke" came in close enough to kill three sailors before crashing into the sea and exploding close aboard.
- USS Helm had a close call when a kamikaze took off her mast and searchlight, finally crashing alongside the ship.
- SS Hobbs Victory's uncontrollable fires lead to her abandonment. SS Hobbs Victory exploded and sank the following morning
- USS Hudson reported that a kamakaze crashed close aboard 22 April 1945, clipping a chief on the head with a wingtip but missing the ship.
- USS Hugh W. Hadley was struck by one bomb, an Ohka, and two kamikazes
- USS Hyman was hit by both a kamikaze and a torpedo
- HMS Indomitable was hit by a kamikaze, but her armored deck deflected the attacker into the sea with no damage to Indomitable
- USS Jeffers was hit by both a Ohka and a kamikaze
- USS John C. Butler received minor damage when a kamikaze struck her mast and antennas
- SS Josiah Snelling's Armed Guard gunfire deflected the Japanese plane from its deckhouse target to a less vulnerable part, saving the ship from worse damage.
- USS Laffey was badly damaged by four bombs and five kamakaze hits
- USS Lagrange was the last US Navy ship hit by a kamikaze
- USS LCI(G)-404 was the first and only US Navy ship sunk or damaged by Fukuryu suicide swimmers
- USS LCI(L)-600 was hit and sunk by a dud kaiten manned-torpedo launched from Japanese submarine I 36
- The Naval Historical Center listing states that LCS(L)(3)-33 was "sunk by shore batteries off Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands, 19 February 1945". However, the LCS(L)(3)-33 Action Report dated 4 April 1945 describes the ship's firing at attacking Japanese planes, so the ship obviously did not sink off Iwo Jima. Rielly (2010) p 231 describes the sinking of LCS(L)(3)-33 on April 12, 1945 "Under attack by three kamikazes, she downed the first one and a Val struck the starboard side, setting her on fire. The call to abandon ship was made and the crew went into the water. Purdy sank her flaming hulk with two five-inch rounds"
- LCS-52 was damaged by the near-miss of kamikaze
- LCS(L)-61 was damaged by the near-miss of kamikaze
- USS LCT-1075 sunk from debris from a kamakize that hit SS Marcus Daly, which was nearby
- USS Little was struck by four kamikazes
- The burning Logan Victory was scuttled
- USS LSM-59 sank while escorting fleet tug USS Lipan (ATF-85) with USS Barry (APD-29) in tow. Barry was damaged twice by kamikazes the previous day (see 24 May 1945 and 21 June)
- Warner p 328 gives the date of the sinking as April 6, 1945. However, the Naval Historical Center listing and the Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships indicate that USS LST-447 sank on April 7, 1945, following a kamikaze attack.
- USS LST-472 was scuttled by destroyer USS Hall (DD-583)
- USS LST-534 was deemed beyond economical repair and towed to sea and sunk off Okinawa, 9 December 1945
- LST-700 is shown in Cressman damaged on 12 January, Rielly shows she was damaged 13 January.
- USS LST-738 was scuttled by destroyer USS Hall (DD-583)
- USS LST-750 was scuttled by destroyer USS Edwards (DD-619)
- Decommissioned, and sunk 6 February 1946, due to damage from a kamikaze attack on 1 April 1945
- USS Mahan was scuttled by destroyer Walke (DD-723)
- USS Mannert L. Abele was sunk by an Ohka. USS Mannert L. Abele was the first U.S. Navy ship to be sunk or damaged by that type of weapon
- USS Mazama was hit and damaged by a dud kaiten manned-torpedo launched from Japanese submarine I 36
- USS Mississinewa was sunk by kaiten (launched by Japanese submarine I-47 or I-36. USS Mississinewa was the first U.S. Navy ship sunk or damaged by a kaiten)
- USS Mullany was hit by two kamikazes
- SS Newcomb was struck by five kamikazes within an hour and a half
- USS Ommaney Bay was irreparably damaged. Destroyer USS Burns (DD-588) scuttled Ommaney Bay, 11°25'N, 121°19'E
- USS PC-1603 was struck by two kamikaze, towed to Kerama Retto. The hulk was ordered destroyed on 24 October 1945 and was incorporated in the building of a breakwater/dock
- USS Porcupine was ultimately scuttled by Gansevoort
- USS Prichett was damaged by the near-miss of suicide plane, as she was assisting USS Callaghan. The depth of desperation reached by the Japanese kamikaze forces,as Callaghan is sunk by a bomb-carrying WILLOW (a Japanese biplane primary trainer)!
- USS Richard P. Leary is listed in Cressman as damaged by a kamikaze, DANFS does not indicate damage that date.
- USS Saratoga is shown as damaged by kamikaze and a bomb in Cressman, no indication of kamikaze strike in DANFS
- USS Skirmish shot down a Mitsubishi G4M "Betty" which scattered its parts across her forecastle deck as it passed over her bow, crashing to starboard
- The Naval Historical Center listing states that USS St. Lo was sunk by Japanese aircraft on October 25, 1944, but there is no mention of kamikaze. However, several sources (e.g., Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships;) describe the sinking of St. Lo when a Zero carrying a bomb hit the escort carrier.
- |USS Stanly absorbed the baka's impact on the starboard side of her bow, five feet above the waterline. Fortunately, the warhead continued through Stanly, passed out her port side, and exploded in the water close aboard. Within minutes of the first attack, another baka whisked over the ship and snatched her ensign from its gaff in passing.
- USS Starr was damaged by the explosion of assault demolition boat that exploded when it contacted one of a cluster of Starr's landing craft that were moored alongside.
- USS Telfair was struck by two kamikazes
- USS Ticonderoga was struck by two kamikazes
- USS Twiggs was first struck by an aerial torpedo, then by the torpedo-dropping kamikaze aircraft
- See USS Tyrrell on 3 April 1945
- USS Underhill was damaged by kaiten launched from Japanese submarine I 53, cutting the ship in two. After rescuing the Underhill' survivors, she was scuttled by submarine chasers PC-803 and PC-804, and escort patrol vessel PCE-872.
- USS Vammen struck a heavy floating object with her bow at 2100. A few seconds later, an explosion occurred beneath her stern, as though a depth charge had exploded under the ship, possibly depth charge dropped by Japanese assault demolition boat, or the boat itself
- HMS Victorious reported that on 4 May 1945, Concentrated KAMIKAZE attacks and 7 destroyed but 3 hit selected targets. One exploded on island structure causing fires and damage to boiler steam piping. Speed reduced to 19 knots. Air operations resumed after 8 hours.
- HMS Victorious reported that on 9 May, she was hit twice in unexpected KAMIKAZE attacks. The first damaged the Flight Deck and equipment but second failed to explode. 3 killed and 19 of ship's company injured. Capability reduced due to damaged forward lift but remained operational.
- USS Walke was attacked by four kamikazes
- USS Walter Colton had a kamikaze crash alongside; the ship received additional damage from friendly fire from nearby ships in the anchorage
- USS Ward was scuttled by destroyer USS O'Brien (DD-725)
- USS Ward (DD-139) fired the first shot at Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1941 when she shot at, hit and sunk a Japanese mini submarine just outside the harbor entrance.
- Although William Sharon was abandoned, salvage vessel USS Grapple (ARS-7) later tows Sharon to San Pedro Bay for repairs.
- USS YMS-327 was damaged by kamikaze and by friendly fire
- USS Zeilin was damaged by four near-miss kamikazes
|Ship events in 1944|