List of Ebola outbreaks
|Articles related to the|
Ebola virus epidemic
|Nations with widespread cases|
|Other affected nations|
This list of Ebola outbreaks records the known occurrences of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, a highly infectious and acutely lethal viral disease that has afflicted humans and animals primarily in equatorial Africa. The pathogens responsible for the disease are the five ebolaviruses recognised by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses: Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Reston virus (RESTV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV), and Bundibugyo virus (BDBV). Four of the five variants have caused the disease in humans as well as other animals; RESTV has caused symptoms only in non-human primates.
Transmission of the ebolaviruses between natural reservoirs and humans is rare, and outbreaks of Ebola virus disease are often traceable to a single case where an individual has handled the carcass of a gorilla, chimpanzee or duiker. The virus then spreads person-to-person, especially within families, hospitals and during some mortuary rituals where contact among individuals becomes more likely.
Learning from failed responses, such as during the 2000 outbreak in Uganda, the World Health Organization (WHO) established its Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network, and other public health measures were instituted in areas at high risk. Field laboratories were established to confirm cases, instead of shipping samples to South Africa. Outbreaks are also closely monitored by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Special Pathogens Branch.
Major or massive cases
|Date||Country[note 1]||Virus||Human cases||Human deaths||Case fatality rate||Description|
|Jun–Nov 1976||Sudan||SUDV||284||151||53%||Occurred in Nzara (the source town), Maridi, Tumbura, and Juba (Cities in Present-Day South Sudan). The index cases were workers in a cotton factory. The disease was spread by close contact with an acute case, usually from patients to their nurses. Many medical care personnel were infected.|
|Aug 1976||Zaire||EBOV||318||280||88%||Yambuku and surrounding areas in what was then Zaire (present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo). It spread through personal contact and by use of contaminated needles and syringes in hospitals and clinics.Occurred in|
|Aug–Sep 1979||Sudan||SUDV||34||22||65%||Occurred in Nzara and Maridi. This was a recurrent outbreak at the same site as the 1976 Sudan epidemic.|
|Gabon||EBOV||52||31||60%||Occurred in Makokou and gold-mining camps deep in the rain forest along the Ivindo River. Until 1995, the outbreak was incorrectly classified as yellow fever.|
|May–Jul 1995||Zaire||EBOV||315||254||81%||Occurred in Kikwit and surrounding areas. The outbreak was traced to a patient who worked in a forest adjoining the city. The epidemic spread through families and hospital admissions.|
|Jan–Apr 1996||Gabon||EBOV||37||21||57%||Occurred in the village of Mayibout 2 and neighboring areas. A chimpanzee found dead in the forest was eaten by villagers hunting for food. Nineteen people involved in the butchery of the animal became ill, and other cases occurred in their family members.|
|Gabon||EBOV||60||45||75%||Occurred in the Booué area with transport of patients to Libreville. The index case-patient was a hunter who lived in a forest timber camp. The disease was spread by close contact with infected persons. A dead chimpanzee found in the forest at the time was determined to be infected.|
|Uganda||SUDV||425||224||53%||Occurred in the Gulu, Masindi, and Mbarara districts of Uganda. The three greatest risks associated with Sudan virus infection were attending funerals of case-patients, having contact with case-patients in one's family, and providing medical care to case-patients without using adequate personal protective measures.|
Republic of the Congo
|EBOV||135||107||79%||Occurred on both sides of the border between Gabon and the Republic of the Congo (RC). This outbreak included the first reported occurrence of Ebola virus disease in the RC.|
|Republic of the Congo||EBOV||143||128||90%||Occurred in the districts of Mbomo and Kelle in the Cuvette-Ouest Department.|
|Nov–Dec 2003||Republic of the Congo||EBOV||35||29||83%||Occurred in Mbomo and Mbandza villages, located in Mbomo District in the Cuvette-Ouest Department.|
|Apr–Jun 2004||Sudan||SUDV||17||7||41%||Occurred in Yambio county in Western Equatoria of southern Sudan (present-day South Sudan). This outbreak was concurrent with an outbreak of measles in the same area, and several suspected EVD cases were reclassified later as measles cases.|
|Aug–Nov 2007||Democratic Republic of the Congo||EBOV||264||187||71%||Occurred in Kasaï-Occidental province. The outbreak was declared over on 20 November. The last confirmed case was on 4 October, and the last death was on 10 October.|
|Uganda||BDBV||149||37||25%||Occurred in the Bundibugyo District in western Uganda. This was the first identification of the Bundibugyo virus (BDBV).|
|Democratic Republic of the Congo||EBOV||32||14||45%||Occurred in the Mweka and Luebo health zones of the Kasaï-Occidental province.|
|Jun–Aug 2012||Uganda||SUDV||24||17||71%||Occurred in the Kibaale District.|
|Jun–Nov 2012||Democratic Republic of the Congo||BDBV||77||36||47%||Occurred in the Orientale Province.|
Limited and local:
|EBOV||28,616||11,310||70–71% (general)[note 2]
57–59% (among hospitalized patients)
|Guéckédou, Guinea, in December 2013 and spread abroad.:pages 1481–95 Flare-ups of the disease continued into 2016, and the outbreak was declared over on 9 June 2016.This was the most severe Ebola outbreak in recorded history in regards to both the number of human cases and fatalities. It began in|
|Aug–Nov 2014||Democratic Republic of the Congo||EBOV||66||49||74%||Équateur province. Outbreak detected 24 August and, as of 28 October 2014, the WHO said that twenty days had passed since the last reported case was discharged and no new contacts were being followed. Declared over on 15 November 2014.Occurred in|
|2018||Democratic Republic of the Congo||EBOV||57||25||n/a (ongoing)||
On 8 May 2018, the government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo reported two confirmed cases of Ebola infection in the northwestern town of Bikoro. On 17 May, a case was confirmed in the city of Mbandaka. Health authorities are planning to ring vaccinate with rVSV-ZEBOV, a recently developed experimental Ebola vaccine, to contain the outbreak. The outbreak is ongoing as of 27 May 2018, in 2014 a different area of Equateur province was affected
Minor or single cases
|Date||Country[note 1]||Virus||Human cases||Human deaths||Description|
|1976||United Kingdom||SUDV or EBOV[note 3]||1||0||Laboratory infection by accidental stick of contaminated needle.|
|1977||Zaire||EBOV||1||1||Noted retroactively in the village of Tandala.|
|1989–1990||Philippines||RESTV||3[note 4]||0||The Reston virus (RESTV) was first identified when it caused high mortality in crab-eating macaques in a primate research facility responsible for exporting animals to the United States. Three workers in the facility developed antibodies to the virus but did not get sick.|
|1989||United States||RESTV||0||0||RESTV was introduced into quarantine facilities in Virginia and Pennsylvania by monkeys imported from the Philippines. No human cases were reported.|
|1990||United States||RESTV||4[note 4]||0||Monkeys imported from the Philippines introduced RESTV into quarantine facilities in Virginia and Texas. Four humans developed antibodies but did not get sick.|
|1992||Italy||RESTV||0||0||RESTV was introduced into quarantine facilities in Siena by monkeys imported from the same facility in the Philippines that was the source of the 1989 and 1990 U.S. outbreaks. No human cases resulted.|
|1994||Côte d'Ivoire[note 5]||TAFV||1||0||This case was the first and thus far only recognition of Taï Forest virus (TAFV). Approximately one week after conducting necropsies on infected western chimpanzees in Taï National Park, a scientist contracted the virus and developed symptoms similar to those of dengue fever. She was discharged from a Swiss hospital two weeks later and fully recovered after six weeks.|
|1995||Côte d'Ivoire||1||0||One person, fleeing the civil war in neighboring Liberia, was identified as an Ebola case in Gozon.|
|1996||South Africa||EBOV||2||1||A medical professional traveled from Gabon to Johannesburg, South Africa, in October 1996 after having treated Ebola virus-infected patients. He was hospitalized, and the nurse that took care of him became infected and died.|
|1996||United States||RESTV||0||0||RESTV was again introduced into a quarantine facility in Texas by monkeys imported from the same facility in the Philippines that was the source of the 1989 and 1990 U.S. outbreaks. No human cases resulted.|
|1996||Philippines||RESTV||0||0||RESTV was identified at a monkey export facility in the Philippines. No human cases resulted.|
|2008||Philippines||RESTV||6[note 4]||0||First recognition of RESTV in pigs. Strain very similar to earlier strains. Occurred in November. Six workers from the pig farm and slaughterhouse developed antibodies but did not become sick.|
|2015||Philippines||RESTV||0||0||On 6 September 2015, the Philippine health secretary reported an outbreak of RESTV in a primate research and breeding facility. Twenty-five workers subsequently tested negative for the virus.|
|2017||Democratic Republic of the Congo||EBOV||8||4||
On 11 May 2017, the Ministry of Public Health for the Democratic Republic of the Congo notified the WHO of an Ebola outbreak in the Likati health zone (LHZ) in Bas-Uele province, in the northern part of the country. The suspected infections have been reported from Nambwa, Mouma, and Ngay. The LHZ borders the Central African Republic, making this outbreak a moderate risk to the region.
|2018||Hungary||0||0||On April 20 a laboratory accident led to the Ebola virus being exposed to a single worker, though he did not develop symptoms|
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- The mortality rate (death/case ratio) recorded in Liberia up to 26 August 2014 was 70 percent. However, the general estimated case fatality rate (70.8 percent) for this ongoing epidemic differs from the ratio of the number of deaths divided by that of cases due to the estimation method used. Current infections have not run their course, and the estimate may be poor if reporting is biased towards severe cases.
- The Centers for Disease Control chronology notes this infection as "Sudan virus", whereas the 1977 British Medical Journal (BMJ) article refers to it as "Ebola virus". In 1977, there was no distinction between different ebolaviruses. The BMJ article notes only that the patient received "convalescent serum from the Sudan" following similar serum from Zaire.
- All cases were asymptomatic.
- The case was repatriated to Switzerland for medical treatment.
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