List of Ebola outbreaks
|Articles related to the|
Ebola virus epidemic
|Nations with widespread cases|
|Other affected nations|
This list of Ebola outbreaks records the known occurrences of Ebola hemorrhagic fever, a highly infectious and acutely lethal viral disease that has afflicted humans and animals primarily in equatorial Africa. The pathogens responsible for the disease are the five ebolaviruses recognized by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses: Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Reston virus (RESTV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV), and Bundibugyo virus (BDBV). Four of the five variants have caused the disease in humans as well as other animals; RESTV has caused clinical symptoms only in non-human primates. RESTV has caused subclinical infections in humans, producing and antibody response but no visual symptoms or disease state manifestations.
Transmission of the ebolaviruses between natural reservoirs and humans is rare, and outbreaks of Ebola virus disease are often traceable to a single case where an individual has handled the carcass of a gorilla, chimpanzee, bats, or duiker. The virus then spreads person-to-person, especially within families, hospitals and during some mortuary rituals where contact among individuals becomes more likely.
Learning from failed responses, such as during the 2000 outbreak in Uganda, the World Health Organization (WHO) established its Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network, and other public health measures were instituted in areas at high risk. Field laboratories were established to confirm cases, instead of shipping samples to South Africa. Outbreaks are also closely monitored by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Special Pathogens Branch.
The following tables of outbreaks are based upon information provided by the World Health Organization (WHO) which excludes all laboratory personnel cases, Reston virus cases (since they are all asymptomatic), or suspected cases. For a complete overview, those cases are included below with footnotes and supporting sources.
Major or massive cases
|Date||Country[note 1]||Virus||Human cases||Human deaths||Case fatality rate||Description|
|Jun–Nov 1976||Sudan||SUDV||284||151||53%||Occurred in Nzara (the source town), Maridi, Tumbura, and Juba (cities in present-day South Sudan). The index cases were workers in a cotton factory. The disease was spread by close contact with an acute case, usually from patients to their nurses. Many medical care personnel were infected.|
|Aug 1976||Zaire||EBOV||318||280||88%||Yambuku and surrounding areas in what was then Zaire (present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo). It spread through personal contact and by use of contaminated needles and syringes in hospitals and clinics.Occurred in|
|Aug–Sep 1979||Sudan||SUDV||34||22||65%||Occurred in Nzara and Maridi. This was a recurrent outbreak at the same site as the 1976 Sudan epidemic.|
|Dec 1994–Feb 1995||Gabon||EBOV||52||31||60%||Occurred in Makokou and gold-mining camps deep in the rain forest along the Ivindo River. Until 1995, the outbreak was incorrectly classified as yellow fever.|
|May–Jul 1995||Zaire||EBOV||315||254||81%||Occurred in Kikwit and surrounding areas. The outbreak was traced to a patient who worked in a forest adjoining the city. The epidemic spread through families and hospital admissions.|
|Jan–Apr 1996||Gabon||EBOV||31||21||68%||Occurred in the village of Mayibout 2 and neighboring areas. A chimpanzee found dead in the forest was eaten by villagers hunting for food. Nineteen people involved in the butchery of the animal became ill, and other cases occurred in their family members.|
|Jul 1996–Mar 1997||Gabon||EBOV||60||45||75%||Occurred in the Booué area with transport of patients to Libreville. The index case-patient was a hunter who lived in a forest timber camp. The disease was spread by close contact with infected persons. A dead chimpanzee found in the forest at the time was determined to be infected.|
|Oct 2000–Jan 2001||Uganda||SUDV||425||224||53%||Occurred in the Gulu, Masindi, and Mbarara districts of Uganda. The three greatest risks associated with Sudan virus infection were attending funerals of case-patients, having contact with case-patients in one's family, and providing medical care to case-patients without using adequate personal protective measures.|
|Oct 2001–Jul 2002||Gabon||EBOV||65||53||82%||Occurred on both sides of the border between Gabon and the Republic of the Congo.|
|Oct 2001–Jul 2002||Republic of the Congo||EBOV||59||44||75%||Occurred on both sides of the border between Gabon and the Republic of the Congo (RC). This outbreak included the first reported occurrence of Ebola virus disease in the RC.|
|Dec 2002–Apr 2003||Republic of the Congo||EBOV||143||128||90%||Occurred in the districts of Mbomo and Kelle in the Cuvette-Ouest Department.|
|Nov–Dec 2003||Republic of the Congo||EBOV||35||29||83%||Occurred in Mbomo and Mbandza villages, located in Mbomo District in the Cuvette-Ouest Department.|
|Apr–Jun 2004||Sudan||SUDV||17||7||41%||Occurred in Yambio county in Western Equatoria of southern Sudan (present-day South Sudan). This outbreak was concurrent with an outbreak of measles in the same area, and several suspected EVD cases were reclassified later as measles cases.|
|Apr-May 2005||Republic of the Congo||EBOV||12||10||83%||Occurred in the Etoumbi district of Cuvette Ouest Department of the Republic of the Congo |
|Aug–Nov 2007||Democratic Republic of the Congo||EBOV||264||187||71%|
|Dec 2007–Jan 2008||Uganda||BDBV||149||37||25%||Occurred in the Bundibugyo District in western Uganda. This was the first identification of the Bundibugyo virus (BDBV).|
|Dec 2008–Feb 2009||Democratic Republic of the Congo||EBOV||32||14||45%||Occurred in the Mweka and Luebo health zones of the Kasaï-Occidental province.|
|Jun–Aug 2012||Uganda||SUDV||24||17||71%||Occurred in the Kibaale District.|
|Jun–Nov 2012||Democratic Republic of the Congo||BDBV||57||29||51%||Occurred in the Orientale Province.|
|Dec 2013–Jan 2016||Widespread:
Limited and local:
|EBOV||28,646||11,323||70–71% (general)[note 2]
57–59% (among hospitalized patients)
|Guéckédou, Guinea, in December 2013 and spread abroad. Flare-ups of the disease continued into 2016, and the outbreak was declared over on 9 June 2016.This was the most severe Ebola outbreak in recorded history in regards to both the number of human cases and fatalities. It began in|
|Aug–Nov 2014||Democratic Republic of the Congo||EBOV||66||49||74%||Équateur province. Outbreak detected 24 August and, as of 28 October 2014, the WHO said that twenty days had passed since the last reported case was discharged and no new contacts were being followed. Declared over on 15 November 2014.Occurred in|
|May–Jul 2018||Democratic Republic of the Congo||EBOV||54||33||61%||
On 8 May 2018, the government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo reported two confirmed cases of Ebola infection in the northwestern town of Bikoro. On 17 May, a case was confirmed in the city of Mbandaka. Health authorities are planning to ring vaccinate with rVSV-ZEBOV, a recently developed experimental Ebola vaccine, to contain the outbreak. The outbreak is ongoing as of 24 June 2018, in 2014 a different area of Equateur province was affected On July 24, 2018 the outbreak was declared over.
|August 2018 – present||Widespread:
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Limited and local:
On 1 August 2018, the Democratic Republic of the Congo Ministry of Health declared an outbreak when 4 individuals tested positive for the Ebola virus. As of 17 November 2019[update] the outbreak is still ongoing. On 11 June 2019, the WHO confirmed that a five-year-old boy in Uganda died after being diagnosed with Ebola.
Minor or single cases
|Date||Country[note 1]||Virus||Human cases||Human deaths||Description|
|1976||United Kingdom||SUDV or EBOV[note 3]||1||0||Laboratory infection by accidental stick of contaminated needle.|
|1977||Zaire||EBOV||1||1||Noted retroactively in the village of Tandala.|
|1989–1990||Philippines||RESTV||3[note 4]||0||The Reston virus (RESTV) was first identified when it caused high mortality in crab-eating macaques in a primate research facility responsible for exporting animals to the United States. Three workers in the facility developed antibodies to the virus but did not get sick.|
|1989||United States||RESTV||0||0||RESTV was introduced into quarantine facilities in Virginia and Pennsylvania by monkeys imported from the Philippines. No human cases were reported.|
|1990||United States||RESTV||4[note 4]||0||Monkeys imported from the Philippines introduced RESTV into quarantine facilities in Virginia and Texas. Four humans developed antibodies but did not get sick.|
|1992||Italy||RESTV||0||0||RESTV was introduced into quarantine facilities in Siena by monkeys imported from the same facility in the Philippines that was the source of the 1989 and 1990 U.S. outbreaks. No human cases resulted.|
|1994||Côte d'Ivoire[note 5]||TAFV||1||0||This case was the first and thus far only recognition of Taï Forest virus (TAFV). Approximately one week after conducting necropsies on infected western chimpanzees in Taï National Park, a scientist contracted the virus and developed symptoms similar to those of dengue fever. She was discharged from a Swiss hospital two weeks later and fully recovered after six weeks.|
|1995||Côte d'Ivoire||Unknown||1||0||One person, fleeing the civil war in neighboring Liberia, was identified as an Ebola case in Gozon. This is considered as a suspected case, excluding from the WHO outbreak counts.|
|1996||United States||RESTV||0||0||RESTV was again introduced into a quarantine facility in Texas by monkeys imported from the same facility in the Philippines that was the source of the 1989 and 1990 U.S. outbreaks. No human cases resulted.|
|1996||Philippines||RESTV||0||0||RESTV was identified at a monkey export facility in the Philippines. No human cases resulted.|
|2008||Philippines||RESTV||6[note 4]||0||First recognition of RESTV in pigs. Strain very similar to earlier strains. Occurred in November. Six workers from the pig farm and slaughterhouse developed antibodies but did not become sick.|
|2015||Philippines||RESTV||0||0||On 6 September 2015, the Philippine health secretary reported an outbreak of RESTV in a primate research and breeding facility. Twenty-five workers subsequently tested negative for the virus.|
|2017||Democratic Republic of the Congo||EBOV||8||4||
On 11 May 2017, the Ministry of Public Health for the Democratic Republic of the Congo notified the WHO of an Ebola outbreak in the Likati health zone (LHZ) in Bas-Uele province, in the northern part of the country. Suspected infections were reported from Nambwa, Mouma, and Ngay. The LHZ borders the Central African Republic, which made this outbreak a moderate risk to the region.
|2018||Hungary||0||0||On April 20 a laboratory accident led to a single worker being exposed to the Ebola virus, though he did not develop symptoms|
List of other Filoviridae outbreaks
|Year||Country[note 1]||Virus||Human cases||Human deaths||Case fatality rate||Comments|
|1967|| West Germany
|MARV||31||7||23%||In 1967 outbreaks in Marburg, Germany where the virus was first identified (historically) and the subsequent naming of the virus per the location|
|MARV||3||1||33%||Individual had traveled to Zimbabwe|
|1980||Kenya||MARV||2||1||50%||Individual(s) traveled to Kitum Cave|
|1987||Kenya||RAVV||1||1||100%||RAVV(Ravn virus) one of two members of the species Marburg marburgvirus|
|1990||Soviet Union||MARV||1||1||100%||Laboratory incident|
|1998–2000||Democratic Republic of the Congo||MARV & RAVV||154||128||83%||Occurred in Durba|
|2004–2005||Angola||MARV||252||227||90%||Largest Marburg virus outbreak ever occurred in Angola|
|2007||Uganda||MARV & RAVV||4||1||25%||Occurred in Kamwenge |
|2012||Uganda||MARV||15||4||27%||Occurred in Kabale|
|2017||Uganda||MARV||3||3||100%||Uganda has had five outbreaks of the virus|
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- The mortality rate (death/case ratio) recorded in Liberia up to 26 August 2014 was 70 percent. However, the general estimated case fatality rate (70.8 percent) for this ongoing epidemic differs from the ratio of the number of deaths divided by that of cases due to the estimation method used. Current infections have not run their course, and the estimate may be poor if reporting is biased towards severe cases.
- The Centers for Disease Control chronology notes this infection as "Sudan virus", whereas the 1977 British Medical Journal (BMJ) article refers to it as "Ebola virus". In 1977, there was no distinction between different ebolaviruses. The BMJ article notes only that the patient received "convalescent serum from the Sudan" following similar serum from Zaire
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... [I]s between 57% and 59% in the 3 intense-transmission countries, with no detectable improvement since the onset of the epidemic.
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