List of Ebola outbreaks
|Articles related to the|
Ebola virus epidemic
|Nations with widespread cases|
|Other affected nations|
This list of Ebola outbreaks records the known occurrences of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Pathogens of the disease are the five ebolaviruses recognised by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses: Ebola virus (EBOV), Sudan virus (SUDV), Reston virus (RESTV), Taï Forest virus (TAFV), and Bundibugyo virus (BDBV). RESTV has caused the illness only in primates.
Transmission between natural reservoirs and humans is rare, and outbreaks of Ebola virus disease are often traceable to a single case where an individual has handled the carcass of a gorilla, chimpanzee or duiker. The virus then spreads person-to-person, especially within families, hospitals and during some mortuary rituals where contact among individuals becomes more likely.
Learning from failed responses, such as during the 2000 Uganda outbreak, the World Health Organization (WHO) established its Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network, and other public health measures were instituted in areas at high risk. Field laboratories were established to confirm cases, instead of shipping samples to South Africa. Outbreaks are closely followed by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Special Pathogens Branch) as well.
Major or massive cases
|Year||Country[note 1]||Virus||Human cases||Human deaths||Case fatality rate||Description|
|1976||Sudan||SUDV||284||151||53%||Occurred in Nzara (the source town), Maridi, Tumbura, and Juba between June and November 1976. The index cases were workers in a cotton factory. The disease was spread mainly by close contact with an acute case, usually associated with nursing a patient. Many medical care personnel were infected.|
|1976||Zaire||EBOV||318||280||88%||Yambuku and surrounding areas in August. It spread through personal contact and by use of contaminated needles and syringes in hospitals and clinics.Occurred in|
|1979||Sudan||SUDV||34||22||65%||Occurred in Nzara and Maridi. This was a recurrent outbreak at the same site as the 1976 Sudan epidemic.|
|1994||Gabon||EBOV||52||31||60%||Occurred in Makokou and gold-mining camps deep in the rain forest. Until 1995, this was incorrectly classified as solely a yellow fever outbreak.|
|1995||Zaire||EBOV||315||254||81%||Occurred in Kikwit and surrounding areas. Traced to a patient who worked in a forest adjoining the city. The epidemic spread through families and hospital admissions.|
|1996||Gabon||EBOV||37||21||57%||Occurred in the Mayibout area between January and April. A chimpanzee found dead in the forest was eaten by people hunting for food. Nineteen people who were involved in the butchery of the animal became ill. Other cases occurred in family members.|
|1996–1997||Gabon||EBOV||60||45||75%||Occurred in the Booué area with transport of patients to Libreville between July 1996 and January 1997. The index case-patient was a hunter who lived in a forest camp. The disease was spread by close contact with infected persons. A dead chimpanzee found in the forest at the time was determined to be infected.|
|2000–2001||Uganda||SUDV||425||224||53%||Occurred in the Gulu, Masindi, and Mbarara districts of Uganda. The three greatest risks associated with Sudan virus infection were attending funerals of case-patients, having contact with case-patients in one's family, and providing medical care to case-patients without using adequate personal protective measures.|
Republic of the Congo
|EBOV||135||107||79%||Occurred on both sides of the border between Gabon and the Republic of the Congo (RC) between October 2001 and July 2002. First reported occurrence of Ebola virus disease in the RC.|
|2002–2003||Republic of the Congo||EBOV||143||128||90%||Occurred in the districts of Mbomo and Kelle in the Cuvette-Ouest Department between December 2002 and April 2003.|
|2003||Republic of the Congo||EBOV||35||29||83%||Occurred in Mbomo and Mbandza villages located in Mbomo district, Cuvette-Ouest Departement, between November and December.|
|2004||Sudan||SUDV||17||7||41%||Occurred in Yambio county in Western Equatoria of southern Sudan. This outbreak was concurrent with an outbreak of measles in the same area, and several suspected EVD cases were reclassified later as measles cases.|
|2007||Democratic Republic of the Congo||EBOV||264||187||71%||Occurred in Kasai-Occidental province. The outbreak was declared over on 20 November. The last confirmed case was on 4 October, and the last death was on 10 October.|
|2007–2008||Uganda||BDBV||149||37||25%||This was the first recognition of BDBV. Occurred in the Bundibugyo District in western Uganda between December 2007 and January 2008.|
|2008–2009||Democratic Republic of the Congo||EBOV||32||14||45%||Occurred in the Mweka and Luebo health zones of the Kasai-Occidental province between December 2008 and February 2009.|
|2012||Uganda||SUDV||24||17||71%||Occurred in the Kibaale District between June and August.|
|2012||Democratic Republic of the Congo||BDBV||77||36||47%||Occurred in the Orientale Province between June and November.|
Limited and local:
|EBOV||28,616||11,310||70-71% (General) [note 2]
57-59% (Among hospitalized patients)
|Guéckédou, Guinea, in December 2013 and spread abroad.:pages 1481–95 Although the epidemic is no longer out of control, flare-ups of the disease have continued into 2016, and the WHO has warned that this may continue for some time.This was the most severe Ebola outbreak recorded in regards to both the number of human cases and fatalities. It began in|
|2014||Democratic Republic of the Congo||EBOV||66||49||74%||Équateur province. Outbreak detected 24 August and, as of 28 October 2014, the WHO said that twenty days had passed since the last reported case was discharged and no new contacts were being followed. Declared over on 15 November 2014.Occurred in|
Minor or single cases
|Year||Country[note 1]||Virus||Human cases||Human deaths||Description|
|1976||United Kingdom||SUDV or EBOV[note 3]||1||0||Laboratory infection by accidental stick of contaminated needle.|
|1977||Zaire||EBOV||1||1||Noted retroactively in the village of Tandala.|
|1989–1990||Philippines||RESTV||3[note 4]||0||High mortality among crab-eating macaques in a primate facility responsible for exporting animals in the USA. Three workers in the facility developed antibodies but did not get sick.|
|1989||United States||RESTV||0||0||RESTV was introduced into quarantine facilities in Virginia and Pennsylvania by monkeys imported from the Philippines. No human cases.|
|1990||United States||RESTV||4[note 4]||0||Monkeys imported from the Philippines introduced RESTV into quarantine facilities in Virginia and Texas. Four humans developed antibodies but did not get sick.|
|1992||Italy||RESTV||0||0||RESTV was introduced into quarantine facilities in Siena by monkeys imported from the same facility in the Philippines as the 1989 and 1990 US outbreaks. No human cases resulted.|
|1994||Côte d'Ivoire[note 5]||TAFV||1||0||First and thus far only recognition of TAFV. Approximately one week after conducting necropsies on infected western chimpanzees in Taï National Park, a scientist contracted the virus and developed symptoms similar to those of dengue fever. She was discharged from a Swiss hospital two weeks later and fully recovered after six weeks.|
|1995||Côte d'Ivoire||1||0||One person, who fled the civil war in neighboring Liberia, was identified as an Ebola case in Gozon.|
|1996||South Africa||EBOV||2||1||A medical professional traveled from Gabon to Johannesburg, South Africa, in October 1996 after having treated Ebola virus-infected patients. He was hospitalized, and the nurse that took care of him became infected and died.|
|1996||United States||RESTV||0||0||RESTV was introduced into a quarantine facility in Texas by monkeys imported from the same facility in the Philippines as the 1989 and 1990 US outbreaks. No human cases resulted.|
|1996||Philippines||RESTV||0||0||RESTV was identified at a monkey export facility in the Philippines. No human cases resulted.|
|2008||Philippines||RESTV||6[note 4]||0||First recognition of RESTV in pigs. Strain closely similar to earlier strains. Occurred in November. Six workers from the pig farm and slaughterhouse developed antibodies but did not become sick.|
|2015||Philippines||RESTV||0||0||On 6 September 2015, the Philippines health secretary reported an outbreak of RESTV in a primates research and breeding facility. Twenty-five workers subsequently tested negative for the virus.|
|2017||Democratic Republic of the Congo||EBOV||8 ||4||
On 11 May 2017, the Ministry of Public Health for the Democratic Republic of the Congo notified the WHO of an Ebola outbreak in the Likati health zone (LHZ) in Bas-Uele province, which is in the northern part of the country. The suspected infections have been reported from Nambwa, Mouma, and Ngay. The LHZ borders the Central African Republic, making this outbreak a moderate risk to the region.
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- The mortality rate (death/case ratio) recorded in Liberia up to 26 August 2014 was 70 percent. However, the general estimated case fatality rate (70.8 percent) for this ongoing epidemic differs from the ratio of the number of deaths divided by that of cases due to the estimation method used. Current infections have not run their course, and the estimate may be poor if reporting is biased towards severe cases.
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