List of U.S. Department of Defense code names

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This is an incomplete list of U.S. Department of Defense code names primarily the two-word series variety. Officially, Arkin (2005) says that there are three types of code name:

  • Nicknames - a combination of two separate unassociated and unclassified words (e.g. Polo and Step) assgned to represent a specific programme, special access programme, exercise, or activity.
  • Code words - a single classified word (e.g. BYEMAN) which identifies a specific special access programme or portion. A list of several such code words can be seen at Byeman Control System.
  • Exercise terms - a combination of two words, normally unclassified, used exclusively to designate an exercise or test[1]

In 1975, the Joint Chiefs of Staff introduced the Code Word, Nickname, and Exercise Term System (NICKA) which automated the assignment of names. NICKA gives each DOD organisation a series of two-letter alphabetic sequences, requiring each 'first word' or a nickname to begin with a letter pair. For example, AG through AL was assigned to United States Joint Forces Command.[1]

Code names A-M[edit]

  • Able - NATO Allied Command Europe and U.S. European Command nuclear weapons exercise first word. First gained prominence after the Able Archer 83 nuclear command and control exercise.
    • Able Ally - annual command post exercise involving escalation to nuclear use. Held November/December
    • Able Crystal - nuclear weapons related exercise
    • Able Gain - annual United States Air Forces in Europe field training exercise involving NATO Nuclear sharing forces
    • Able Staff - command post exercise, April–September 1997, practicing SACEUR's nuclear warning system
  • Able - Coast Guard first word
    • Able Manner - Windward Passage patrols to interdict Haitian migrants, January 1993-November 1994
    • Able Response, Able Vigil
  • Operation Able Sentry/Sabre 1993–1999 – U.S. Army task force attached to United Nations Preventive Deployment Force (UNPREDEP) in Macedonia to monitor border activity.
  • Ace Guard was a NATO deployment of the ACE Mobile Force (Air) and surface to air missiles to Turkey, between 3 January 1991 – 8 March 1991.[2] Turkey had requested greater NATO forces to be deployed to meet any Iraqi threat in the leadup to the first Gulf Crisis/War.
  • Operation Acid Gambit: operation undertaken by U.S. Army Delta Force and the 160th SOAR to rescue Kurt Muse, a U.S. citizen involved in the broadcast of anti-Noriega material, during the United States invasion of Panama, 1989.
  • Active Edge was a routine no-notice NATO Allied Forces Central Europe readiness exercise held twice yearly. "The most recent such exercise took place, on the date and in the format planned, on 12th June 1989. It did not include the exercise deployment of forces outside their garrisons." (House of Lords Debate 27 June 1989)[3]
  • Operation Active Endeavour - NATO Allied Forces Southern Europe Mediterranean patrols
  • Adventure - ACE Mobile Force first word
    • Adventure Exchange - command post exercise
    • Adventure Express - winter exercise series, dating to at least 1983.
  • African - U.S.-Moroccan EUCOM (now Africa Command) first word
    • African Eagle - U.S.-Moroccan biennial exercise practicing deployment of USAF units to Morocco. Dates to at least 1984.
    • African Falcon '85, African Fox '85.
    • African Lion - in 2009 described as "Train forces capable of conducting joint and combined U.S., air, and land combat interoperability operations."[4]
  • Allied - NATO Allied Command Europe first word
    • Allied Action, Allied Effort - CJTF exercises
    • Operation Allied Force 1999 – Air war over Serbia to withdraw forces from Kosovo.
    • Operations Allied Goodwill I & II, 4–9 February & 27 February-24 March 1992. After the collapse of the Soviet Union in December 1991, NATO flew teams of humanitarian assistance experts and medical advisors to Russia and other former Soviet states using NATO Airborne Early Warning Force trainer cargo aircraft.
  • Operation Amber Star - Delta Force and Intelligence Support Activity anti-Persons Indicted for War Crimes (PIFWC) reconnaissance and surveillance, Bosnia-Herzegovina[5]
  • Operation Anchor Guard - 10 August 1990 – 9 March 1991. Following the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait of 2 August 1990, NATO Airborne Early Warning Force E-3 Sentry aircraft were moved to Konya, Turkey to monitor the situation.[2] The aircraft remained based at Konya to maintain surveillance of south-eastern Turkey throughout the crisis, which led to the Gulf War of January–March 1991.
  • Anatolian Eagle - an air force exercise hosted by the Turkish Air Force and held in Konya, Turkey. There are both national and international exercises held, the international exercises usually involving air arms of the United States, other NATO forces, and Asian countries. The first exercise, Anatolian Eagle 01, was held by TAF Operations Command on 18–29 June 2001. As well as Turkey, the air forces of USA and Israel also participated.[6]
  • Operation Arid Farmer – 1983 Support to the crisis in Chad
  • Ardent Sentry - annual U.S. Northern Command homeland security/defence exercise.[7]
  • Atlas - U.S. European Command/Africa Command African and sometimes European operation first word
    • Atlas Drop - from 1997 to 2003, U.S.-Tunisian exercise[8]
    • Central Accord 14 was started by U.S. European Command in 1996, at which time it was called Atlas Drop. AFRICOM took over the exercise in 2008, and renamed it Atlas Accord in 2012. This put it in line with AFRICOM’s other “Accord series” exercises, which focus on training African ground forces.
    • Atlas Eagle - in 2009 described as "Train forces capable of conducting joint and combined U.S., air, and land combat interoperability operations."[4]
    • Atlas Response - response to Mozambique floods of 2001
    • Atlas Vision - peacekeeping exercise with Russia. Atlas Vision 2012 appears to have been the first of a series, according to commentators at Small Wars Journal. Atlas Vision 2013 took place in Germany. U.S. European Command had been in the planning stages for Atlas Vision 2014, which was to take place in July in Chelyabinsk (Chelyabinsk Oblast), and focus on joint peace-keeping operations. Because of the 2014 pro-Russian conflict in Ukraine, “all planning for this exercise has been suspended.”[9]
  • Attain Document - in 1986, the US Navy began several "Freedom of Navigation" operations in the area around Libya, the first two parts of the operation being held from January 26–30, and February 12–15 without incident. The third part began on 23 March 1986 and led to the Action in the Gulf of Sidra (1986).
  • Operation Assured Delivery - OAD was the United States Armed Forces' logistical support to humanitarian aid efforts in Georgia following the Russo-Georgian War in 2008.
  • Operation Avid Recovery 2002 – Explosive Ordnance Disposal support to Nigeria.
  • Operation Autumn Return - evacuation operation from Côte d'Ivoire.
  • Assured Lift - a Joint Task Force carried out move of Economic Community of West African States Monitoring Group troops into Liberia, March-April 1997, from Abidjan (Arkin, 262)
  • Assured Response - a Joint Task Force carried out Non-combatant evacuation operation from Monrovia, Liberia, 8 April-12 August 1996. Run by Special Operations Command, Europe.[10]
  • Exercise Austere Challenge - October 2012 US-Israel military exercise (missile defence). Austere Challenge '15 was a warfighting exercise conducted across several locations in the U.S. European Command area,[11] which involved participation by the 1 (German/Netherlands) Corps.
  • Austere Strike - U.S. Air Force system utilizing an electro-optical seeker and tracker for acquisition and tracking missions flown by McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II aircraft.[12]
  • Autumn Forge - A series of NATO exercises conducted each year in Allied Command Europe. It began in 1975 linking a number of training exercises under a common scenario to enhance the readiness of combat forces and the capability of NATO forces to work together.[12]
  • Autumn Return - non-combatant evacuation operation (NEO) in Côte d'Ivoire, September–October 2002.
  • Joint Task Force Aztec Silence - European Command "established Joint Task Force AZTEC SILENCE under the Commander of the U.S. Sixth Fleet in December 2003 to counter transnational terrorism in the under-governed areas of Northern Africa and to build closer alliances with those governments. In support of this, U.S. Navy intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance assets [Lockheed P-3 Orions] based in Sigonella, Sicily were used to collect and share information with partner nations and their militaries. This robust cooperative ISR effort was augmented by the release of intelligence collected by national assets."[13]
  • Exercise Battle Griffin - amphibious exercise practising reception, staging, and operation of a MAGTF in defence of Northern Norway. Also involved UK, Netherlands. Utilized reserve components with 2 MEB circa 1990 (see Thomas D. Dinackus, Gulf War Order of Battle); Battle Griffin 93; Battle Griffin 96 (Arkin 273).
  • Beacon Flash - U.S.-Oman dissimilar air combat exercise going back to the 1970s.[14]
  • Operation Big Buzz - a U.S. military entomological warfare field test conducted in the U.S. state of Georgia in 1955.
  • Operation Big Star - Minuteman Mobility Test Train rail-mobile test of deployment of Minuteman ICBMs, 1960.
  • Operation Burnt Frost - interception and destruction of a non-functioning U.S. National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) satellite named USA-193.[15] A launch from the cruiser Lake Erie took place on February 20, 2008.
  • Operation Blade Jewel: the return of military dependents to the U.S. at the time of the United States invasion of Panama.[16]
  • Busy Sentry: Strategic Air Command exercise for intercontinental ballistic missile units.
  • Busy Sentry II: Strategic Air Command Single Integrated Operational Plan (SIOP) 4D missile training assistance program
  • BUSY USHER: Strategic Air Command launch of No. 13 LF-02 missile MK-1 Minuteman-II
  • BUTTON UP: Strategic Air Command security system reset procedures used during Minuteman facility wind down
  • Celestial Balance - 2009 Baraawe raid in Somalia that killed Saleh Ali Saleh Nabhan
  • Exercise Central Enterprise - NATO Allied Forces Baltic Approaches/Allied Forces Central Europe exercise, "designed to test the integrated air defense system throughout Western Europe. Regular exercises which incorporate a major military low flying element over the United Kingdom include Exercises Elder Forest (once every two years), Elder Joust (once a year), Central Enterprise (once a year), Mallet Blow (twice a year), OSEX (once a year) and Salty Hammer (once a year). Some of these exercises test and practice the United Kingdom air defences while others primarily provide aircrews with training in tactical low flying techniques. The June 1982 Central Enterprise exercise marked the first practical test of the new NATO airborne early warning system."[17] 1997 included deployment of 302nd Fighter Wing, Air Force Reserve, to Karup, Denmark.
  • Exercise Commando Sling - Approximately three deployments of USAF F-15s and F-16s from both Active Duty and National Guard units from around the world are made each year to Singapore under the auspices of EXERCISE COMMANDO SLING. The 497th Combat Training Flight takes part in regional exercise and global contingencies, and provides housing; morale, recreation and welfare facilities and programs: medical services; force protection to resources and personnel; and legal, financial, communications, and contracting support to assigned and deployed personnel.
  • Constant - Arkin lists this prefix as a 'Air force operations first word, often referring to Air Force Technical Applications Center and other reconnaissance missions. Constant programmes in the 1980s included Constant Bore, Constant Dome, Constant Fish, Constant Globe, Constant Seek, and Constant Take.'
    • Sublisted Constant programmes in Arkin, 310, included Constant Blue (Presidential successor helicopter evacuation plan), Constant Gate, Constant Help, Constant Phoenix (55th Wing nuclear monitoring) Constant Pisces, Constant Shotgun, Constant Source, Constant Spur, Constant Star, Constant Stare (an Air Intelligence Agency organisation).[18]
    • Constant Peg - evaluation of clandestinely-acquired Soviet fighter aircraft at Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada, by 4477th Test and Evaluation Squadron.
  • Operation Continuing Promise is a periodic series of US military exercises conducted under the direction of United States Southern Command. Designated by Roman numeral (“Continuing Promise I” was in 2007), or by year (“Continuing Promise 2009”); they provide medical, dental and veterinary aid to people in Latin America.[19]
  • Exercise Cope North is an annual multinational military exercise taking place in and around Guam.[20] The first exercise took place in 1978.[21]
  • Exercise Cope Thunder - A Pacific Air Forces-sponsored exercise initiated in 1976, Cope Thunder was devised as a way to give aircrews their first taste of warfare and quickly grew into PACAF's "premier simulated combat airpower employment exercise."[22] Moved from Clark Air Base to Eielson Air Force Base in Alaska in 1992, permanently.
  • Exercise Cope Tiger - USAF exercise in Thailand
  • Corona South
  • Coronet Nighthawk - Operation Coronet Nighthawk was a Caribbean deployment of Air Force fighters.
  • Coronet Oak - the continuing operation in which Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC) and Air National Guard (ANG) C-130 aircraft, aircrews and related support personnel deploy from the United States to Muñiz Air National Guard Base, Puerto Rico, to provide theater airlift support for the U.S. Southern Command. The Guard and Reserve support the Coronet Oak mission year round since April, 19, 1999 from Muñiz Air National Guard Base when this mission moved from Howard Air Force Base, Panama as result of the U.S. military withdrawal from Panama. Units rotate in and out of Muñiz ANGB every two weeks. Forces assigned to Coronet Oak provide United States Southern Command with logistic and contingency support throughout Central and South America.[23]
  • Exercise Deep Furrow - 1960s-1970s Allied Forces Southern Europe exercise practicing the defence of Greece and Turkey.[24]
  • Deep Siren - Raytheon/RRK/Ultra Electronics Maritime Systems expendable "long-range acoustic tactical pager", launched via sub/surface/air-launched buoy (JDW 21 Nov 2007).
  • Operation Deliberate Force 1995 – NATO air strikes on Bosnian Serb military forces.
  • Operation Deny Flight 1993–1995 – U.S./NATO enforcement of no-fly zone over Bosnia-Herzegovina.
  • Operation Desert - various
  • Dust Hardness - A modification improvement to Minuteman-III approved for service use in 1972
  • Operation Eager Glacier was a secret United States effort to spy on Iran with aircraft in 1987 and 1988.[25] The information gathered became part of an intelligence exchange between U.S. military intelligence services and Iraq during the Iran–Iraq War.[26]
  • Exercise Eager Light - In October 2012, more than 70 U.S. 1st Armored Division personnel deployed to Jordan to conduct Exercise Eager Light, a 30-day command post exercise that focuses on brigade-level warfighting tactics and procedures. This exercise dates back to the mid-1980s.
  • Exercise Eager Lion - Eager Lion 12 took place in Jordan. Now the largest U.S. military exercise in the Middle East, surpassing Bright Star.[27] The exercise "amounts to an outgrowth of the annual bilateral "Infinite Moonlight" US-Jordan exercise that stretches back to the 1990s."[28] Now possibly involves Syrian Civil War contingencies.
  • Operation Eagle Eye 1998–1999 – Monitoring compliance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1199 in Kosovo.
  • CONPLAN Eagle Guardian
  • Operation Earnest Will
  • Operation Eastern Exit was the codename given to the military evacuation of the United States embassy in Mogadishu, Somalia, in 1991.
  • Operation El Dorado Canyon 1986 – USAF and USN air strikes on Libya in retaliation for terrorist bombing of La Belle Disco in West Berlin.
  • Operation Enduring Freedom 2001–present – Anti-Al Qaeda operations in Afghanistan and subsequent anti-terrorist operations worldwide.
  • Operation Essential Harvest 2001 – Successful NATO program to disarm NLA in Macedonia.
  • Fervent Archer - EUCOM directed Joint Special Operations Command task force in Sarajevo from 2001. Believed to be a continuation of 'Amber Star' (see above) (Arkin, 364).
  • Exercise Fearless Guardian 2015 - U.S./Ukrainian training exercise. (total 2,200 participants, including 1,000 U.S. military). Initial personnel and equipment of the 173rd Airborne Brigade arrived in Yavoriv, Lviv Oblast, on 10 April 2015. Fearless Guardian will train Ukraine's newly formed National Guard under the Congress-approved Global Contingency Security Fund. Under the program, the United States will begin training three battalions of Ukrainian troops over a six-month period beginning in April 2015.[29]
  • Operation Focus Relief - the movement and support of West African troops intended for the UN-mandated peacekeeping operations in Sierra Leone
  • Fincastle Trophy an anti-submarine warfare contest between the air forces of the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and New Zealand. During the competition, crews compete in anti-submarine warfare, anti-surface warfare, and intelligence gathering, and surveillance.
  • Glory Trip - United States Air Force Follow-on Test and Evaluation (FOT&E) program for intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs).
  • Golden Spear
  • Exercise Grand Slam was a 1952 major naval exercise of the newly formed North Atlantic Treaty Organization in the Mediterranean Sea
  • Infinite Moonlight - U.S.-Jordanian exercise, 1990s.
  • Island Thunder - U.S.-Italian "non-combatant evacuation exercise", 1996, 1997.
  • Operation Ivory Coast - On 21 November 1970, a joint United States Air Force/United States Army force commanded by Air Force Brigadier General LeRoy J. Manor and Army Colonel Arthur D. "Bull" Simons landed 56 U.S. Army Special Forces soldiers[30] by helicopter at the Sơn Tây prisoner-of-war camp located only 23 miles (37 km) west of Hanoi, North Vietnam. The raid was intended to free U.S. prisoners of war, but failed because the POWs had already been moved.
  • Operation Ivy Bells was a joint United States Navy, CIA, and National Security Agency (NSA) mission whose objective was to place wire taps on Soviet underwater communication lines from 1971.[31]
  • Joint Anvil - unknown special operation, 1999-2001[32]
  • Operation Joint Endeavor - NATO operation to enforce the Treaty of Paris ending the war in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Began when the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps entered Bosnia on 20 December 1995.
  • Operation Joint Force
  • Operation Joint Forge - NATO support for SFOR 1998-c.2005
  • Operation Joint Guard - NATO follow-on force to Joint Endeavor, SFOR, Bosnia-Herzegovina, 1996-1998
  • Joint Guardian - NATO-led Kosovo Force
  • Joint Spirit - NATO Combined Joint Task Force CPX/computer-aided exercise, planned as a building block for Strong Resolve, 1–30 September 2001. Cut short after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks.[33]
  • Operation Joint Venture
  • Exercise Joint Winter - NATO exercise in Norway, 5–16 March 2001.
  • Jolly Roger - UK national submarine exercise, 1995[33]
  • Operation Jump Start
  • Operation Junction City - Vietnam War operation
  • Exercise Judicious Response - U.S. Africa Command CJCS-directed warfighting TTX. JR 15 included certification of 2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade.
  • Juniper - EUCOM/Israeli first word.
    • Juniper Cobra
    • Juniper Falconry - On 29 March 1992, Vice Admiral W. A. Owens, Commander, United States Sixth Fleet, embarked aboard USS Monterey (CG-61) with a 28-man Army, Navy, and Air Force staff including Brigadier General James Mathers (Commanding General, Provide Comfort) at Haifa for Exercise Juniper Falconry II.[34] From 1–7 April, Monterey was underway for Juniper Falconry II, with a two-day port visit in Haifa on 3–4 April. From 7–9 April, Monterey visited Haifa again for exercise debriefs and to disembark the Joint Task Force.
    • Juniper Fox, Juniper Hawk, Juniper Stallion
  • Operation Just Cause - Panama
  • Operation Justice Reach
  • Exercise Keen Edge/Keen Sword - U.S./Japan defence of Japan exercise
  • Operation Mount Hope III
  • Operation Mountain Resolve - launched by the United States and coalition allies on 7 November 2003 in the Nuristan province and Kunar province in Afghanistan. It involved an airdrop into the Hindu Kush mountains by the U.S. 10th Mountain Division and resulted in the killing of Hezbi commander Ghulam Sakhee, a few clashes, and the finding of some minor weapon caches.
  • Mountain Shield I and II - rehearsal exercises for withdrawing UNPROFOR from the former Yugoslavia, 1990s. Mountain Shield I was held at Grafenwohr, Germany, from 7-15 July 1995, by United States Army Europe.[35]

Code names N-Z[edit]

  • Exercise Natural Fire - East Africa
  • Neon - U.S./Bahrain first word
    • Neon Response
    • Neon Spark - U.S./Bahrain naval exercise series, including the UK. Neon Spark 98.
  • Neon Spear - Disaster response symphosium with Eastern African countries
  • Operation Nickel Grass 1973 – Support of Israel during the 1973 October War.
  • Exercise Nifty Nugget, a 1978 transportation plans exercise, exposed great gaps in understanding between military and civilian participants: mobilization and deployment plans fell apart, and as a result, the United States and its NATO allies "lost the war". Two major recommendations came out of Nifty Nugget: a direct line of command between the transportation agencies and the Joint Chiefs of Staff; and the creation of an agency responsible for deployments.[36]
  • Operation Nifty Package was a United States Delta and Navy SEAL-operated plan conducted in December 1989 designed to capture Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega. It unfolded as part of the wider Operation Just Cause. When Noriega took refuge in the Apostolic Nunciature of the Holy See (diplomatic quarter), deafening music and other psychological warfare tactics were used to convince him to exit and surrender himself.[37]
  • Operation Night Reach 1973 – Transported UN peacekeepers to Middle East at end of Yom Kippur War.
  • Operation Nimbus Moon - Cleared the Suez Canal
  • Operation Nimbus Stream – Cleared the Suez Canal
  • Operation Nimbus Spar 1974-1975 – Cleared the Suez Canal
  • Joint Task Force Noble Anvil 1999 - Operation Allied Force, air war against Serbia
  • Noble Resolve - a United States Joint Forces Command (USJFCOM) experimentation campaign plan to enhance homeland defense and improve military support to civil authorities in advance of and following natural and man-made disasters.[38]
  • Operation Nomad Vigil - deployment to Gjadër Air Base, Albania of General Atomics MQ-1 Predator unmanned aerial vehicles, April 1995 – 1996.
  • Exercise Northern Entry - 1 NZ SAS Group unilateral special forces training in Canada.[39]
  • Exercise Northern Light - 1 NZ SAS Group extreme cold weather training in Norway.[39]
  • Exercise Northern Safari - Conducted on Great Barrier Island from 5–28 March (1983 or 1984). The aim was to mobilize the New Zealand Army Ready Reaction Force and practice selected elements in air/sea deployment and the conduct of operations. The exercise was supported by HMAS Tobruk, a company of the Gurkha Regiment from British Forces, Hong Kong which acted as the enemy for the exercise, and an Australian Army engineer squadron.[40]
  • Operation Northern Watch - 1997–2003 enforcement of No Fly Zone over northern Iraq.
  • Operation Odyssey Dawn - air campaign against Libya, 2011.
  • Operation Pacer Goose - annual resupply of Thule Air Base, Greenland, by a heavy supply ship each summer.[41] MV American Tern (T-AK-4729) made the trip in 2010.
  • PACEX (Pacific Exercise) United States Pacific Fleet exercise series. PACEX '89 was the biggest peacetime exercise since the end of World War II. Three aircraft carrier battle groups conducted operations in the northern Pacific Ocean. PACEX 02.[42]
  • Pacific Bond - U.S.-Australian army reserve exchange
  • Pacific Castle - Pacific naval exercise
  • Pacific Haven - emergency evacuation of pro-U.S. Kurds to Andersen AFB, Guam, September 1996-April 1997
  • Pacific Horizon - WMD exercise
  • Pacific Kukri - UK-NZ exercise, 2000-2001
  • Pacific Look - U.S.-Australian army reserve exchange, 1997
  • Pacific Nightingale - PACAF exercise, South Korea
  • Exercise Pacific Partnership
  • Pacific Protector - Proliferation Security Initiative exercise involving Japanese-flagged merchant ship simulating carrying WMD.
  • Pacific Reserve
  • Pacific Spectrum
  • Pacific Warrior - SPAWAR telemedicine exercise connected to South Korea
  • Pacific Wind
  • PANAMAX - exercise to defend the Panama Canal. Held 2005 and in 2006, under the leadership of Commander, United States Naval Forces Southern Command.[43]
  • Peace Atlas II
  • Operation Prime Chance - special operations forces operating off U.S. Navy vessels in the Persian Gulf, mid-1980s.
  • Promise Kept - International Committee of the Red Cross facilitated visit to the crash site of Scott Speicher, Iraq, 1995.[44]
  • Proven Force - northern air campaign from Turkey over Iraq in 1991. General Jamerson activated JTF Proven Force at Ramstein Air Base, Germany. The task force had three component organizations: Commander Air Force Forces (later to be mostly the 7440th Composite Wing (Prov)), Commander Army Forces, and Commander Joint Special Operations Task Force, which would seek and rescue downed allied pilots.[45]
  • Polo Hat - nuclear command and control exercise
  • Provide - EUCOM humanitarian assistance operations first word
    • Provide Assistance
    • Operation Provide Comfort - Provide Comfort II – Kurdish security zone in northern Iraq, 1991.[46]
    • Provide Hope I/II/III/IV/V
    • Provide Promise
    • Provide Refuge
    • Provide Relief
    • Provide Transition
  • Provide Relief
  • Purple - British joint exercise prefix
  • Purple Dragon - joint forced entry operations. Purple Dragon 00/Roving Sands 00, Fort Bragg and Puerto Rico; Purple Dragon 98/JTFEX 98-1, Fort Bragg and Puerto Rico, Jan-Feb. 1998.
  • Exercise Purple Star/Royal Dragon - held in April–May 1996, the exercise brought together the XVIII Airborne Corps and the 82nd Airborne Division (both from the United States), 5th Airborne Brigade (British Army), the U.S. Air Force, the Royal Air Force, the U.S. Marines and 3 Commando Brigade Royal Marines.[16] It saw the deployment of 5th Airborne Brigade to North Carolina in the largest Anglo-American exercise for twenty-three years. U.S. Atlantic Command, headquartered at Norfolk, Virginia, directed the exercise. The aim of the operation was to practise a joint UK force in combined manoeuver in an overseas theatre. The exercise provided the first opportunity to test the new UK Permanent Joint Headquarters, which provided the core of the British Joint Headquarters in support of the exercise Joint Commander.[47] The exercise also was designed to test the new UK Joint Rapid Deployment Force which was established on 1 August 1996. A description of 1st Brigade, 82nd Airborne Division's experience during Royal Dragon can be found in Tom Clancy, Airborne: A Guided Tour of an Airborne Task Force, Berkley Books, New York, 1997, 222-228.
  • Purple Guardian - U.S. homeland defence exercise
  • Purple Horizon - Cyprus, 2005.[48]
  • Purple Solace - 4-6 Jun 2013 Three officers from the Combined Joint Operations from the Sea Center of Excellence (CJOS COE) supported the U.S. Joint Forces Staff College’s Exercise “Purple Solace” as mentors. This exercise is a 3-day faculty guided planning exercise which reinforces the initial steps necessary to derive a mission statement and a commander’s intent (end state) and a limited Concept of Operations in response to a series of natural disasters.
  • Exercise Purple Sound is a high level computer assisted exercise designed to support the training of the Command and Staff of the Permanent Joint Headquarters which deploys and commands the Joint Rapid Deployment Force.
  • Operation Purple Storm
  • Exercise Purple Warrior
  • Operation Quick Lift 1995 – Support of NATO Rapid Reaction Force and Croatia forces deployment to Bosnia-Herzegovina
  • Rapid Trident 14 - the exercise, in Lviv, Ukraine, near the border with Poland, is to “promote regional stability and security, strengthen partnership capacity, and foster trust while improving interoperability between USAREUR, the land forces of Ukraine, and other (NATO and partner) nations,” according to the USAREUR website.[9]
  • Exercise Real Thaw - Real Thaw is an annual exercise run by the Portuguese Air Force (PRT AF) with the participation of forces from the Army and Navy and foreign military forces. The exercise has the objective of creating a realistic as possible operational environment in which Portuguese forces might participate, provide joint training with both land, air and naval forces, and provide interoperability between different countries.[49]
  • Operation Red Hat - publicly acknowledged part of this operation involved relocation of chemical and biological weapons stored in Okinawa to Johnston Atoll for destruction. Most of the operation took place at night, to avoid observation of the operation by the Okinawans, who resented the presence of chemical munitions on the island.[50] The Chemical weapons were brought from Okinawa under Operation Red Hat with the re-deployment of the 267th Chemical Company and consisted of rockets, mines, artillery projectiles, and bulk 1-ton containers filled with Sarin, Agent VX, vomiting agent, and blister agent such as mustard gas. Chemical agents were stored in the high security Red Hat Storage Area (RHSA) which included hardened igloos in the weapon storage area, the Red Hat building (#850), two Red Hat hazardous waste warehouses (#851 and #852), an open storage area, and security entrances and guard towers.There are indications that the codename was also used to designate storage and/or testing of chemical and biological agents on Okinawa in the 1960s, connected with Project 112.
  • Operation Restore Hope - U.S. participation in UNOSOM II, 1992–1994, Somalian humanitarian aid and security efforts
  • Operation Resolute Support - NATO non-combat advisory and training mission to support the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (GiROA) from 2015 onwards.
  • Resultant Fury - DoD activity in November 2004 which included the weapons testing of free-fall bombs against decommissioned USN vessels off Hawaii.
  • Rugged Nautilus '96 - a joint service exercise aimed at discouraging any possible terrorist challenges through a show of force in the Gulf while the 1996 Atlanta Olympics were underway.
The tank landing ship ex-USS Schenectady lists after being struck by seven 2,000lb Joint Direct Attack Munitions during exercise Resultant Fury at the Pacific Missile Range Facility off the Island of Kauai, Hawaii, on Nov. 23, 2004.
  • Exercise Sage Brush - November–December 1955 joint U.S. Army/Air Force exercise at Fort Polk, Louisiana, lasting forty-five days.[51] Involved 110,000 Army and 30,500 Air Force personnel to trial army airmobility concepts to try to settle a dispute over the matter by the Army and Air Force. Some helicopter lift provided by the special 516th Troop Carrier Group, Assault, Rotary Wing, flying Piasecki H-21s as part of the 20th Combat Airlift Division (Provisional).
McDonnell Douglas F-4G Phantom II of the 52nd TFW based at Spangdahlem AB in Germany, seen taking part in the exercise 'Salty Hammer', 22 May 1990
  • Exercise Salty Hammer - NATO air defence exercise, including sorties flown over the UK.
  • Senior Citizen - Aurora reconnaissance aircraft or similar low observable system (Arkin, 495).
  • Senior Trend - Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk special access program development, previously Have Blue (Arkin, 496).
  • Shadow Express - a Non-combatant evacuation operation in Liberia, September-October 1998, to assure the evacuation of Liberian faction leader Roosevelt Johnson (Krahn). Run by Special Operations Command, Europe, involving a 12-man survey and assessment team (ESAT), the USS Chinook (PC-9), dispatched from NSWU-10 at Rota, Spain, and a Hercules-delivered detachment of NSWU-2 which was moved to Freetown. USS Firebolt also arrived. (Arkin, 500).
  • Operation Sharp Edge - was a non-combatant evacuation operation (NEO) carried out by the 22nd and 26th Marine Expeditionary Units of the United States Marine Corps in Liberia from 5-21 August 1990 (and 1991?). Involved USS Nashville (LPD-13). (Arkin, 503)
  • Operation Sharp Guard was a multi-year joint naval blockade in the Adriatic Sea by NATO and the Western European Union on shipments to the former Yugoslavia.[52] Succeeding NATO's Maritime Guard and the WEU's Sharp Fence, it ran from 1993 to 1996.
  • Shining Express - NEO evacuation in Liberia, 2003, coordinated aboard USS Kearsarge (LHD-3).
  • Tandem Thrust - in 2005, Exercise Tandem Thrust, along with Exercises Crocodile and Kingfisher, was combined to form Exercise Talisman Saber.
  • Teal Ruby - STS-62-A was a planned Space Shuttle mission to deliver a reconnaissance payload (Teal Ruby) into polar orbit
  • Exercise Teamwork was a major NATO biennial exercise in defence of Norway against a Soviet land and maritime threat. It was established by Norway, Denmark, the UK and the U.S. in 1982 and grew considerably up until the early 1990s. Teamwork '88 allowed NATO to evaluate its ability to conduct a maritime campaign in the Norwegian Sea and project forces ashore in northern Norway. Teamwork '92 was the largest NATO exercise for more than a decade.[53] Held in the northern spring of 1992, it included a total of over 200 ships and 300 aircraft, held in the North Atlantic. Vice Admiral Nicholas Hill-Norton led the RN contingent as Commander, Anti-Submarine Warfare Striking Force (CASWF), with Commodore Amphibious Warfare (COMAW) embarked in HMS Fearless.[54]
  • Tempest Express - United States Pacific Command computer-assisted exercise to train the HQ USPACOM staff to function as a Joint Task Force headquarters. The exercise is held as often as needed, three to seven times a year.[53] Tempest Express 2013 involved elements of the PACOM command post traveling to New Zealand to carry out a disaster relief exercise.
  • Tempest Rapid - Employment of DOD resources in natural disaster emergencies in the Continental United States.
  • Ulchi-Freedom Guardian - previously Ulchi Focus Lens. Command post/computerised exercise simulating the defence of South Korea.
  • Operation United Shield 1995 – Support of US withdrawal from Somalia.
  • Operation Unified Resolve
  • Exercise Valiant Usher 86 - a declassified U.S. Central Command historical document[55] said that: 'Valiant Usher 86 was conducted in Somalia from 1 to 7 November 1985. Initially planned to be an amphibious, combined/joint exercise including the Mediterranean ARG/MAU and Somalia forces, the exercise was completely restructured when the ARG was retained in the Mediterranean and replaced with a battalion (-) of the 101st Airborne Division. In spite of limited planning time, the exercise was a total success, highlighting both the rapid capability of the command to substitute forces, as well as the flexibility of the forces to accomplish assigned objectives.'
  • Exercise Vigilant Eagle - NORAD/Russian Armed Forces exercise, repeated several times, involving response to a simulated hijacked airliner over Canadian/U.S./Russian airspace.
  • Operation Vigilant Warrior 1994 – Response to Iraqi buildup along Kuwait border.
  • Operation White Star, also known as Project White Star, was a United States military advisory mission to Laos in 1959-62.

LGM-30 Minuteman related code names[edit]

  • LONG LIFE: launch of Minuteman from 'live' launch facility w/7 sec of fuel
  • GIANT PATRIOT: The code name describes an operational base launch program of test flights of Minuteman-II missiles. The program was terminated by Congress in July 1974
  • GIANT PLOW: An Air Force Minuteman launcher closure test program
  • GIANT PROFIT: A Minuteman modified operational missile test plan
  • GIGANTIC CHARGE: Program to notify NORAD of all or part of Single Integrated Operational Plan (SIOP)[i] targeting for Minuteman
  • GIN PLAYER: Strategic Air Command tests of Minuteman missile for identification and execution
  • HAVE LEAP: A Space and Missile Test Center support of Minuteman-III program
  • MIDDLE GUST: An Air Force test conducted at Crowley, CO involving a simulated nuclear overblast of a Minuteman silo
  • OLD FOX: Minuteman-III flight tests
  • OLYMPIC ARENA III: Strategic Air Command missile competition of all nine operational missile units
  • OLYMPIC EVENT: A Minuteman III nuclear operational systems test
  • OLYMPIC PLAY: A Strategic Air Command missiles and operational ground equipment program for EWO missions
  • OLYMPIC TRIALS: A program to represent a series of launches having common objectives
  • PACER GALAXY: Support of Minuteman force modification program
  • PAVE PEPPER: An Air Force SAMSO (Space & Missile Systems Organization) project to decrease the size of the Minuteman III warheads and allow for more to be launched by one Minuteman.
  • RIVET ADD: Modification of Minuteman-II launch facilities to hold MM III missiles
  • RIVET MILE: Minuteman Integrated Life Extension. Included IMPSS security system upgrade.
  • RIVET SAVE: A Minuteman crew sleep program modification to reduce personnel number
  • SABER SAFE: Minuteman pre-launch survivability program
  • SABER SECURE: A Minuteman rebasing program
  • SENTINEL ALLOY: Land gravity surveys in support of the Minuteman system, cancelled
  • UPGRADE SILO: A modification improvement program for Minuteman-III

See also[edit]


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  2. ^ a b "NATO's Operations 1949 - Present" (PDF). Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe. 
  3. ^ ""ACTIVE EDGE" NATO EXERCISE". 27 June 1989. 
  4. ^ a b Brief to Interagency Working Group, Worldwide Joint Training & Scheduling Conference (24-28 Aug 09)
  5. ^ Luttwak, Edward (March 28, 2004). "The generals were scared of their own strength". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved August 4, 2016. 
  6. ^ "History of Anatolian Eagle". Archived from the original on 4 September 2010. Retrieved 6 June 2011. 
  7. ^ Arkin, William (April 30, 2012). "Ardent Sentry 12: Homeland Defense Not So Ardent to Say Much". William M. Arkin Online. Retrieved June 1, 2014. 
  8. ^ Arkin 2005, p. 263.
  9. ^ a b Stars and Stripes, U.S. Army to proceed with planned exercise in Ukraine
  10. ^ Arkin, William (2005). Code Names. p. 262. 
  11. ^ Neumann, Amanda (March 26, 2015). "'March Madness' exercises evaluate DLA's readiness capabilities". Archived from the original on June 14, 2015. 
  12. ^ a b Andreas Parsch, Code Names for U.S. Military Projects and Operations
  13. ^ U.S. European Command Senate testimony, 1 March 2005
  14. ^ Arkin 2005, p. 273.
  15. ^ Webb, Angela (February 26, 2008). "Joint effort made satellite success possible". US Air Force. Archived from the original on March 22, 2008. 
  16. ^ a b "OPERATION JUST CAUSE HISTORICAL SUMMARY". Operation Just Cause Lessons Learned. 1. 1990. 
  17. ^ "Central Enterprise". 
  18. ^ AFI 10-204, AIA Supplement 1, Participation in the Military Exercise Program, 29 Jan 1999
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  20. ^ US, Japan, Australia to hold Cope North 2017 February 9, 2017 Guam Post Retrieved March 27, 2017
  21. ^ U.S., JASDF members complete Cope North 09-1 February 12, 2009 Retrieved March 27, 2017
  22. ^ Silvestre, Esmeralda (July 17, 2002). "Multilateral exercise kicks off in Alaska". Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska. Archived from the original on August 11, 2002. 
  23. ^ " Oak". Global Retrieved 2 February 2013. 
  24. ^ "Proposed British participation in exercise ''DEEP FURROW 1969''". The National Archives. 
  25. ^ Barry, John (August 13, 1992). "The Secret War". Newsweek. Retrieved October 16, 2008. 
  26. ^ Arkin 2005, p. 350.
  27. ^ Arkin, William (May 18, 2012). "Eager Lion Now Supplants Bright Star as Largest U.S. Exercise in Middle East". William M. Arkin Online. 
  28. ^ "US, 18 other nations, wrap up Eager Lion military exercise in Jordan". Christian Science Monitor. 2012-05-29. ISSN 0882-7729. Retrieved 2017-12-10. 
  29. ^ Weisman, Michael J (April 10, 2015). "Fearless Guardian ground convoy arrives in Ukraine". The United States Army. 
  30. ^ Schemmer (1976), p. 91.[full citation needed]
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  32. ^ Arkin 2005, p. 405.
  33. ^ a b Arkin 2005, p. 406.
  34. ^ USS Monterey Command History 1992.[full citation needed]
  35. ^ Armed Peacekeepers in Bosnia. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 9781428910201. 
  36. ^ Pearson, David E. The World Wide Military Command and Control System evolution and effectiveness. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 978-1428990869. Retrieved February 3, 2016. 
  37. ^ New York Times, "The Noriega Case: Panama City; Papal Envoy Asserts Psychology, Not Ultimatum, Swayed Noriega," January 6, 1990
  38. ^ "About USJFCOM Noble Resolve". U.S. Joint Forces Command. Archived from the original on March 6, 2008. 
  39. ^ a b "Output Expense 10: Special Operations Forces" (PDF). New Zealand Defence Force. 2008. 
  40. ^ Report of the Naval Board of the New Zealand Defence Council 1983-1984[full citation needed]
  41. ^ Choi, April (9 July 2010). "Ship Heads To Greenland For Once-A-Year Supply Trip". Norfolk Virginian-Pilot. Retrieved 2012-07-13. 
  42. ^ Arkin 2005, p. 448.
  43. ^ Affairs, This story was written by USS Kearsarge Public. "Kearsarge Gets Underway for PANAMAX 06". Retrieved 2017-12-10. 
  44. ^ Weiner, Tim (1997-12-07). "Gulf War's First U.S. Casualty Leaves Lasting Trail of Mystery". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-12-10. 
  45. ^ "Joint Task Force Proven Force". July 15, 2002. Archived from the original on March 23, 2004. 
  46. ^ See 'Certain Victory', the U.S. Army official history.[full citation needed]
  47. ^ "Statement on the Defence Estimates 1996". Federation of American Scientists. 1 October 1996. Archived from the original on April 16, 2015. 
  49. ^ "Real Thaw – Objectives" (in Portuguese). Portuguese Air Force. Archived from the original on 12 November 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013. 
  50. ^ "Operation Red Hat". 
  51. ^ "Exercise Sage Brush". 
  52. ^ Elleman, Bruce A.; Paine, S. C. M. (2007). Naval coalition warfare: from the Napoleonic War to Operation Iraqi Freedom. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-77082-3. Retrieved June 7, 2010. 
  53. ^ a b Arkin 2005, p. 525.
  54. ^ Roberts 2009, p. 219.
  55. ^ "Volume 7 of the 1984 and 1985 Ninth Air Force History" (PDF). U.S. Central Command. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 29, 2014.