List of countries by intentional homicide rate

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The 25 countries with the highest intentional homicide rates are generally less populous countries. Rates of the 25 most populous countries are shown in blue.[1]

The list of countries by UNODC homicide rate is typically expressed in units of deaths per 100,000 individuals per year; thus, a mortality rate of 30 (out of 100,000) in a population of 100,000 would mean 30 deaths per year in that entire population, or 0.03% out of the total.[1][2][3] The reliability of underlying national murder rate data may vary.[4][5] Only UNODC data is used in the main table below.[1] In some cases it may not be as up to date as other sources. See farther down as to why its data is used over other sources.

Research suggests that intentional homicide demographics are affected by changes in trauma care, leading to changed lethality of violent assaults, so the intentional homicide rate may not necessarily indicate the overall level of societal violence.[6] They may also be under-reported for political reasons.[7][8][page needed]

A study undertaken by the Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development estimated that there were approximately 490,000 intentional homicides in 2004. The study estimated that the global rate was 7.6 intentional homicides per 100,000 inhabitants for 2004.[9] UNODC calculated a rate of 6.9 in 2010.[10] UNODC (United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime) reported a global average intentional homicide rate of 6.2 per 100,000 population for 2012 (in their report titled "Global Study on Homicide 2013").[11][12] In the 2019 edition, the global rate was estimated at 6.1 per 100,000 for 2017. [4]

Definition[edit]

The class of violent deaths documented in this article is intentional killing of others outside of war. Deaths occurring during situations of civil unrest are a grey area.

Intentional homicide is defined by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) in its Global Study on Homicide report[13] thus:

Within the broad range of violent deaths, the core element of intentional homicide is the complete liability of the direct perpetrator, which thus excludes killings directly related to war or conflicts, self-inflicted death (suicide), killings due to legal interventions or justifiable killings (such as self-defence), and those deaths caused when the perpetrator was reckless or negligent but did not intend to take a human life (non-intentional homicide).

Though some discrepancies exist in how specific categories of intentional killings are classified, the definitions used by countries to record data are generally close to the UNODC definition, making the homicide rates highly comparable at the international level.[14] UNODC uses the homicide rate as a proxy for overall violence, as this type of crime is one of the most accurately reported and internationally comparable indicators.[4]

Figures from the Global Study on Homicide are based on the UNODC Homicide Statistics dataset, which is derived from the criminal justice or public health systems of a variety of countries and territories.[4] The homicide rates derived from criminal justice data (typically recorded by police authorities) and the public health system data (recorded when the cause of death is established) may diverge substantially for some countries.[15] The two sources usually match in the Americas, Europe and Oceania, but there are large discrepancies for the three African countries reporting both sources.[16] For the 70 countries in which neither source was made available, figures were derived from WHO statistical models.[15]

Deaths resulting from an armed conflict between states are never included in the count.[17] Killings caused by a non-international armed conflict may or may not be included, depending on the intensity of hostilities and whether it is classified as 'civil unrest' or a clash between organized armed groups.[17]

UNODC's global study[edit]

United Nations geoscheme with region names in the UNODC data source used in table here
Map of countries by their most recent available intentional homicide rate (per 100,000 people)
  •   > 20
  •   15 to 20
  •   10 to 14.9
  •   5 to 9.9
  •   1.5 to 4.9
  •   1 to 1.4
  •   < 1
  •   Data unavailable

All data in this section comes from the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) website.[1][2][3][4]

By region[edit]

UNODC 2017 murder rates per 100,000[4]
Region Rate Homicides
Americas 17.2 173,000
Africa 13.0 163,000
World 6.1 464,000
Europe 3.0 22,000
Oceania 2.8 1,000
Asia 2.3 104,000

By country, region, or dependent territory[edit]

The regions and subregions in the table are based on the United Nations geoscheme since the table sources are United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) reports. The U.N. recognizes that variabilities in the quality and integrity of data provided by certain countries may minimize country murder rates.[18][2]

There is a total yearly count of homicides for each country. Rates are calculated per 100,000 inhabitants.

* in Location column indicates a dedicated article about crime in the specific country or area.

Intentional homicide victims per 100,000 inhabitants. From UNODC.[1][2][3]
Location Region Subregion Rate Count Year Source
 
 Afghanistan * Asia Southern Asia 6.7 2,474 2018 NSO
 Albania * Europe Southern Europe 2.1 61 2020 NSO
 Algeria Africa Northern Africa 1.3 580 2020 CTS
 Andorra Europe Southern Europe 2.6 2 2020 CTS
 Angola Africa Middle Africa 4.8 1,217 2012 NSO
 Anguilla Americas Caribbean 28.3 4 2014 SDG
 Antigua and Barbuda Americas Caribbean 11.1 10 2012 OAS
 Argentina * Americas South America 5.3 2,362 2018 MoS
 Armenia * Asia Western Asia 1.8 52 2020 CTS
 Aruba Americas Caribbean 1.9 2 2014 MD
 Australia * Oceania Australia, New Zealand 0.9 221 2020 CTS
 Austria * Europe Western Europe 0.7 65 2020 CTS
 Azerbaijan Asia Western Asia 2.3 230 2020 CTS
 Bahamas Americas Caribbean 18.6 73 2020 CTS
 Bahrain * Asia Western Asia 0.5 7 2014 MD
 Bangladesh * Asia Southern Asia 2.4 3,830 2018 NP
 Barbados Americas Caribbean 9.8 28 2018 CTS
 Belarus Europe Eastern Europe 2.4 226 2018 CTS
 Belgium * Europe Western Europe 1.7 193 2017 CTS
 Belize * Americas Central America 25.7 102 2020 CTS
 Benin * Africa Western Africa 1.1 126 2017 CTS
 Bermuda Americas Northern America 8.1 5 2017 CTS
 Bhutan * Asia Southern Asia 2.5 19 2020 CTS
 Bolivia * Americas South America 6.2 686 2016 CTS
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe Southern Europe 1.2 39 2018 CTS
 Botswana Africa Southern Africa 15.2 303 2010 WHO
 Brazil * Americas South America 20.9 44,033 2019 DATASUS
 British Virgin Islands Americas Caribbean 8.3 2 2006 MD
 Brunei Asia South-Eastern Asia 0.5 2 2013 WHO
 Bulgaria * Europe Eastern Europe 1.0 69 2020 CTS
 Burkina Faso Africa Western Africa 1.3 240 2017 MoJ
 Burundi Africa Eastern Africa 6.1 635 2016 SDG
 Cape Verde * Africa Western Africa 6.5 36 2020 CTS
 Cambodia * Asia South-Eastern Asia 1.8 268 2011 WHO
 Cameroon Africa Middle Africa 1.4 341 2017 CTS
 Canada * Americas Northern America 2.0 743 2020 NP
 Cayman Islands Americas Caribbean 8.2 5 2014 NSO
 Central African Republic Africa Middle Africa 20.1 913 2016 CTS
 Channel Islands Europe Northern Europe 0 0 2010 NP
 Chile * Americas South America 4.4 825 2018 CTS
 China * Asia Eastern Asia 0.5 7,525 2018 NSO
 Colombia * Americas South America 22.6 11,520 2020 CTS
 Costa Rica * Americas Central America 11.2 570 2020 CTS
 Croatia Europe Southern Europe 1.0 39 2020 CTS
 Cuba * Americas Caribbean 5.0 572 2016 MoH
 Curaçao Americas Caribbean 19 26 2007 PAHO
 Cyprus Asia Western Asia 1.2 15 2020 CTS
 Czech Republic * Europe Eastern Europe 0.7 77 2020 CTS
 Denmark * Europe Northern Europe 1.0 55 2020 CTS
 Dominica Americas Caribbean 20.8 15 2020 CTS
 Dominican Republic * Americas Caribbean 8.9 961 2020 CTS
 Ecuador * Americas South America 7.8 1,372 2020 CTS
 Egypt * Africa Northern Africa 2.6 2,207 2012 CTS
 El Salvador * Americas Central America 37.2 2,398 2019 CTS
 England and Wales * Europe Northern Europe 1.2 726 2017 CTS
 Estonia * Europe Northern Europe 3.2 42 2020 CTS
 Eswatini Africa Southern Africa 11.6 130 2017 GSH Revision
 Ethiopia * Africa Eastern Africa 8.8 8,153 2012 GOV Adjusted
 Finland * Europe Northern Europe 1.6 91 2020 CTS
 France * Europe Western Europe 1.2 779 2018 CTS
 French Guiana Americas South America 13.2 30 2009 NP
 Georgia Asia Western Asia 2.2 89 2018 CTS
 Germany * Europe Western Europe 0.8 782 2020 CTS
 Ghana * Africa Western Africa 2.1 609 2017 NP
 Gibraltar * Europe Southern Europe 3.0 1 2010 NP
 Greece * Europe Southern Europe 0.8 78 2020 CTS
 Greenland Americas Northern America 5.3 3 2016 NSO
 Grenada Americas Caribbean 10.8 12 2017 CTS
 Guadeloupe * Americas Caribbean 5.8 23 2016 GOV
 Guatemala * Americas Central America 22.5 3,881 2018 NP
 Guinea-Bissau Africa Western Africa 1.1 21 2017 CTS
 Guyana * Americas South America 20.0 157 2020 CTS
 Haiti * Americas Caribbean 6.7 743 2018 DPKO
 Holy See Europe Southern Europe 0 0 2015 CTS
 Honduras * Americas Central America 36.3 3,598 2020 CTS
 Hong Kong * Asia Eastern Asia 0.3 22 2020 CTS
 Hungary * Europe Eastern Europe 0.8 80 2020 CTS
 Iceland Europe Northern Europe 1.5 5 2020 CTS
 India * Asia Southern Asia 3.0 40,651 2020 CTS
 Indonesia * Asia South-Eastern Asia 0.4 1,150 2017 CTS
 Iran * Asia Southern Asia 2.5 1,936 2014 MD
 Iraq Asia Western Asia 10.1 3,339 2013 CTS
 Iraq (excluding Kurdistan) Asia Western Asia 10.1 3,029 2014 CTS
 Ireland Europe Northern Europe 0.7 34 2020 CTS
 Isle of Man Europe Northern Europe 0 0 2016 NP
 Israel * Asia Western Asia 1.5 123 2017 NSO
 Italy * Europe Southern Europe 0.5 285 2020 CTS
 Jamaica * Americas Caribbean 44.7 1,323 2020 CTS
 Japan * Asia Eastern Asia 0.3 334 2018 MoI
 Jordan Asia Western Asia 1.0 99 2020 CTS
 Kazakhstan Asia Central Asia 3.2 606 2020 CTS
 Kenya * Africa Eastern Africa 4.0 2,151 2020 CTS
 Kosovo * Europe Southern Europe 2.4 44 2018 CTS
 Kurdistan Region (Iraq) Asia Western Asia 2.2 111 2013 CTS
 Kuwait * Asia Western Asia 1.8 61 2012 CTS
 Kyrgyzstan Asia Central Asia 2.2 138 2018 CTS
 Latvia * Europe Northern Europe 2.6 49 2020 CTS
 Lebanon Asia Western Asia 1.9 128 2020 CTS
 Lesotho * Africa Southern Africa 43.6 897 2015 NSO
 Liberia * Africa Western Africa 3.3 135 2012 UNMIL
 Liechtenstein Europe Western Europe 2.6 1 2018 NSO
 Lithuania Europe Northern Europe 3.7 101 2020 CTS
 Luxembourg Europe Western Europe 0.2 1 2020 CTS
 Macau * Asia Eastern Asia 0.3 2 2020 CTS
 Malawi Africa Eastern Africa 1.8 279 2012 NP
 Malaysia * Asia South-Eastern Asia 2.1 627 2013 NP
 Maldives * Asia Southern Asia 0.7 3 2013 CTS
 Malta Europe Southern Europe 1.6 7 2020 CTS
 Martinique Americas Caribbean 2.8 11 2009 NP
 Mauritius * Africa Eastern Africa 2.9 37 2018 NSO
 Mayotte Africa Eastern Africa 5.9 12 2009 NP
 Mexico * Americas Central America 28.4 36,579 2020 CTS
 Monaco Europe Western Europe 0 0 2015 CTS
 Mongolia Asia Eastern Asia 6.0 196 2020 CTS
 Montenegro * Europe Southern Europe 2.9 18 2020 CTS
 Montserrat Americas Caribbean 20.3 1 2012 MD
 Morocco Africa Northern Africa 1.3 487 2020 CTS
 Mozambique Africa Eastern Africa 3.5 849 2011 SDG
 Myanmar * Asia South-Eastern Asia 2.3 1,198 2016 CTS
 Namibia * Africa Southern Africa 11.9 303 2020 CTS
 Nepal * Asia Southern Asia 2.3 627 2016 CTS
 Netherlands Europe Western Europe 0.6 107 2020 CTS
 New Zealand * Oceania Australia, New Zealand 2.6 126 2019 CTS
 Nicaragua Americas Central America 7.2 453 2016 NP
 Niger Africa Western Africa 4.4 788 2012 WHO
 Nigeria * Africa Western Africa 34.5 64,201 2016 UNODC Estimate
 Northern Ireland * Europe Northern Europe 1.2 23 2018 CTS
 Norway * Europe Northern Europe 0.6 31 2020 CTS
 Oman * Asia Western Asia 0.3 13 2018 CTS
 Pakistan * Asia Southern Asia 3.9 8,241 2018 NP
 Panama * Americas Central America 11.1 480 2020 CTS
 Paraguay * Americas South America 6.7 481 2020 CTS
 Peru * Americas South America 7.9 2,487 2017 CTS
 Philippines * Asia South-Eastern Asia 4.4 4,764 2019 CTS
 Poland * Europe Eastern Europe 0.7 268 2020 CTS
 Portugal * Europe Southern Europe 0.9 93 2020 CTS
 Puerto Rico * Americas Caribbean 18.5 529 2020 CTS
 Qatar * Asia Western Asia 0.4 9 2014 MD
 South Korea * Asia Eastern Asia 0.6 308 2020 CTS
 Moldova * Europe Eastern Europe 4.1 166 2018 NSO
 North Macedonia Europe Southern Europe 1.2 25 2018 CTS
 Réunion Africa Eastern Africa 1.8 15 2009 NP
 Romania * Europe Eastern Europe 1.5 281 2020 CTS
 Russia * Europe Eastern Europe 7.3 10,697 2020 CTS
 Rwanda Africa Eastern Africa 2.6 293 2015 NSO
 Saint Helena Africa Western Africa 0 0 2009 NSO
 Saint Kitts and Nevis * Americas Caribbean 36.1 18 2012 OAS
 Saint Lucia * Americas Caribbean 21.4 39 2018 NSO
 Saint Martin (French part) Americas Caribbean 27.7 10 2016 GOV
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon Americas Northern America 15.8 1 2009 NP
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Americas Caribbean 36.5 40 2016 CTS
 San Marino Europe Southern Europe 0 0 2011 WHO
 São Tomé and Príncipe Africa Middle Africa 3.3 6 2011 CTS
 Saudi Arabia * Asia Western Asia 1.3 419 2017 CTS
 Scotland * Europe Northern Europe 1.1 61 2018 CTS
 Senegal Africa Western Africa 0.3 39 2015 CTS
 Serbia * Europe Southern Europe 1.0 89 2020 CTS
 Seychelles Africa Eastern Africa 12.5 12 2016 NSO
 Sierra Leone Africa Western Africa 1.7 124 2015 SDG
 Singapore * Asia South-Eastern Asia 0.2 10 2020 CTS
 Slovakia * Europe Eastern Europe 1.2 63 2020 CTS
 Slovenia * Europe Southern Europe 0.5 11 2020 CTS
 South Africa * Africa Southern Africa 33.5 19,846 2020 CTS
 South Sudan Africa Eastern Africa 14.9 1,504 2012 NP
 Spain * Europe Southern Europe 0.6 298 2020 CTS
 Sri Lanka * Asia Southern Asia 2.4 514 2018 CTS
 Palestine * Asia Western Asia 1.0 48 2020 CTS
 Sudan Africa Northern Africa 5.1 1,702 2008 CTS
 Suriname * Americas South America 5.4 31 2017 CTS
 Sweden * Europe Northern Europe 1.2 124 2020 CTS
 Switzerland * Europe Western Europe 0.5 47 2020 CTS
 Syria Asia Western Asia 0.9 149 2018 CTS
 Taiwan * Asia Eastern Asia 0.8 192 2015 SDG
 Tajikistan Asia Central Asia 0.9 87 2020 CTS
 Thailand * Asia South-Eastern Asia 2.6 1,787 2017 CTS
 East Timor Asia South-Eastern Asia 4.1 49 2015 NSO
 Trinidad and Tobago * Americas Caribbean 30.6 420 2015 CTS
 Tunisia Africa Northern Africa 4.8 562 2020 WHO
 Turkey * Asia Western Asia 2.6 2,154 2018 CTS
 Turkmenistan Asia Central Asia 4.2 203 2006 TransMonEE
 Turks and Caicos Islands Americas Caribbean 5.7 2 2014 MD
 Uganda Africa Eastern Africa 9.7 4,460 2020 CTS
 Ukraine * Europe Eastern Europe 6.2 2,751 2017 CTS
 United Arab Emirates * Asia Western Asia 0.5 44 2017 CTS
 United Kingdom * Europe Northern Europe 1.2 809 2018 CTS Adjusted
 Tanzania Africa Eastern Africa 6.5 3,439 2016 NSO
 United States * Americas Northern America 6.3 20,982 2020 CTS
 U.S. Virgin Islands Americas Caribbean 49.3 52 2012 MD
 Uruguay Americas South America 12.1 416 2018 CTS
 Uzbekistan Asia Central Asia 1.1 363 2017 CTS
 Venezuela * Americas South America 36.7 10,598 2018 CTS
 Vietnam * Asia South-Eastern Asia 1.5 1,358 2011 WHO
 Yemen * Asia Western Asia 6.8 1,703 2013 NSO
 Zambia Africa Eastern Africa 5.4 853 2015 NP
 Zimbabwe * Africa Eastern Africa 7.5 981 2012 WHO

Source abbreviations explained[edit]

Source abbreviations explained
Abbreviation Source
ABSP Anuario Brasileiro de Seguranca Publica
AG Attorney General
CTS United Nations Surveys on Crime Trends and the Operations of Criminal Justice Systems (UN-CTS)
DMDB European Detailed Mortality Database (DMDB)
DPKO Department of Peacekeeping Operations (UN)
EUR Eurostat
FBI Federal Bureau of Investigation
GEN User Generated
GEO Gender Equality Observatory for Latin America and the Caribbean
GHD Estimate Global Health Data Exchange (GHDx, IHME)
GOV Government
IHME Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation
INTP International Criminal Police Organization (ICPO; Interpol)
JP Judicial police
MD World Health Organization Mortality Database
MNS Ministry of National Security
MNTH United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH)
MOH Ministry of Health
MOI Ministry of Interior
MOJ Ministry of Justice
MSCO United Nations Stabilization Mission in the DR Congo (MONUSCO)
NBHW National Board of Health and Welfare
NCCP National Council for Crime Prevention
NGO Non-governmental Organization
NIFM National Institute of Forensic Medicine
NP National Police
NSO National Statistical Organization
OAS Organization of American States (OAS)
OCAVI Observatorio Centroamericano sobre Violencia (OCAVI)
PAHO Pan American Health Organization (PAHO)
PPR Public Prosecution
RIC Regional System of Standardized Indicators in Peaceful Coexistence and Citizen Security (IDB)
RSC Research Center
SDG Sustainable Development Goals
SES Sistema Regional de Indicadores Estandarizados en Convivencia y Seguridad Ciudadana (SES)
SO Statistical Organization
TSMNEE Transformative Monitoring for Enhanced Equity (TransMonEE)
UNECE United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE)
UNMIT United Nations Integrated Mission in Timor-Leste (UNMIT)
UNMIL United Nations Mission in Liberia (UNMIL)
UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
UNSDC UNODC Special Data Collection
VAL Validated
WHO World Health Organization (WHO)
WPP World Population Prospects 2017
Adjusted Obtained based on an adjusted value from an external source
Attempt Indicates that the data may include attempted homicides
_N Indicates data obtained in the 2017 search for external sources
CTS_N Indicates that the disaggregation was partially or completely updated with data from the CTS 2017

Other studies[edit]

A 2020 study by InSight Crime found that Jamaica had the highest homicide rate in Latin America and the Caribbean, while Venezuela had the second highest rate.[19]

On the other side, Asturias region, in Northern Spain, has one of world's lowest homicide rates. With a population of 1 million people, it registered only 1 homicide during full year 2021.[20] Its biggest city, Gijón, with more than 250,000 inhabitants, has not registered a homicide since February 2020 (as of June 2022), before COVID-19 lockdown.[21][22]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "Homicide Country Data". dataunodc.un.org. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Latest available data for some countries is for 2020. There is a "Download dataset" link to get all the data.
  2. ^ a b c d "Victims of Intentional Homicide: 2018". UNODC. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Map and table of rates and counts. Pick a country (or countries) in the sidebar "Country" dropdown menu. Then pick a year (1990-2018). Click that country on the map to see a timeline graph of homicide rates. Below the map see a timeline table of the rates and counts for that country or countries. There is a "Bulk data download" link at top right (hover to see name). May need to click twice to download.
  3. ^ a b c "Homicide rate | dataUNODC". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Timeline graph of "Victims of intentional homicide 1990-2018". Can select a country and a region. Table below graph shows data 1990-2018. Download link icon below table offers multiple formats just for selected country and region. Click "bulk data download" link icon twice at top of page to get Excel file that covers years 1990-2018 for all countries.
  4. ^ a b c d e f Global Study on Homicide 2019. Booklet 2. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). See page 11 for global rate. See page 9 about homicide rates as proxy for overall violence. See Box 1 on page 14 for criminal justice data sources versus public health sources. See figure 2 on page 14 for regional homicide rates in 2017. See figure 3 on page 16 for regional number of homicides. See page 85 about the six-booklet format of this study. Look for page numbers on the bottom of pages, and ignore the incorrect page numbers provided by your PDF reader.
  5. ^ Richards, Patsy (27 May 1999). "Homicide statistics, research paper 99/56" (PDF). London, UK: House of Commons of the United Kingdom library, Social and general statistics section. See page 7 for section called "Definition of the offence of homicide". See page 29 for table of nations and homicide rates for the years 1994–97. It also has further info on how homicide is defined across countries.
  6. ^ Harris, Anthony R.; Stephen H. Thomas; Gene A. Fisher; David J. Hirsch (May 2002). "Murder and medicine: the lethality of criminal assault 1960–1999". Homicide Studies. 6 (2): 128–166. doi:10.1177/1088767902006002003. From the abstract: "we assembled evidence from national data sources to show that the principal explanation of the downward trend in lethality involves parallel developments in medical technology and related medical support services that have suppressed the homicide rate compared to what it would be had such progress not been made."
  7. ^ Fry, Don. (1985). Believing the news. ISBN 978-0-935742-11-4.
  8. ^ Vizzard, William J. (2000). Shots in the dark. ISBN 978-0-8476-9560-7.
  9. ^ Global Burden of Armed Violence Report (PDF) (report). Geneva, Switzerland: Geneva Declaration Secretariat. September 2008. pp. 67ff. ISBN 978-2-8288-0101-4. data from 2004-2007. The Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development.
  10. ^ 2011 Global Study on Homicide: Trends, Contexts, Data. "data from 2010 or latest available year". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Vienna, Austria.
  11. ^ UNODC 2014, p. 12.
  12. ^ Intentional homicide count and rate per 100,000 population, by country/territory (2000–2012). Data (in spreadsheet format) for UNODC report titled "Global Study on Homicide 2013". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). Linked from Global Study on Homicide – Data: UNODC Homicide Statistics 2013
  13. ^ UNODC 2014, p. 10.
  14. ^ UNODC 2014, pp. 102–103.
  15. ^ a b UNODC 2014, p. 99.
  16. ^ UNODC 2014, p. 101.
  17. ^ a b UNODC 2014, p. 104.
  18. ^ UNODC 2014, pp. 7–8.
  19. ^ "InSight Crime's 2020 Homicide Round-Up". January 29, 2021.
  20. ^ "Asturias registró en 2021 la segunda tasa de criminalidad más baja del país (in Spanish)". www.rtpa.es.
  21. ^ "Gijón - Crimen: asesinatos, robos, secuestros y otros delitos registrados en cada municipio (in Spanish)". www.epdata.es.
  22. ^ Peláez, I. (2022-05-06). "El asesino de la gijonesa Lorena Dacuña, condenado a 20 años de cárcel y cinco de libertad vigilada". La Nueva España (in Spanish).

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]