List of food contamination incidents
In contrast to microbiologically caused foodborne illness, the link between exposure and effect of chemical hazards in foods is usually complicated by cumulative low doses and the delay between exposure and the onset of symptoms. Chemical hazards include environmental contaminants, food ingredients (such as iodine), heavy metals, mycotoxins, natural toxins, improper storage, processing contaminants, and veterinary medicines.
Incidents have occurred because of poor harvesting or storage of grain, use of banned veterinary products, industrial discharges, human error and deliberate adulteration and fraud.
Definition of an incident
An "incident" of chemical food contamination may be defined as an episodic occurrence of adverse health effects in humans (or animals that might be consumed by humans) following high exposure to particular chemicals, or instances where episodically high concentrations of chemical hazards were detected in the food chain, and traced back to a particular event.
Information on the impacts of these incidents is fragmentary and unsystematic, ranging from thousands of dollars to meet the cost of monitoring analysis, to many millions of dollars due to court prosecutions, bankruptcy, product disposal, compensation for revenue loss, damage to brand or reputation, or loss of life.
List of notable incidents
- Roman Empire – There is speculation that the Romans, in particular the elite, suffered chronic to severe lead poisoning due to the ubiquity of lead in e.g. lined pots in which acidic foodstuffs were boiled, over and above any mere exposure to lead in water pipes. They also used sugar of lead to sweeten their wines.
- Europe - numerous incidents of human poisoning due to the consumption of rye bread made from grain infected with ergot fungi
- 1850s - Swill milk scandal in New York
- 1857 – adulteration of bread with alum in London, causing rickets
- 1857 - poisoning of bread with arsenic in Hong Kong targeting the colonial community.
- 1858 – sweets poisoned with arsenic in Bradford, England.
1900 to 1949
- 1900 – Beer contaminated with arsenic. Traced to sugar manufactured with sulphuric acid that was naturally contaminated with arsenic from Spanish pyrites. An epidemic of 6070 cases in London, including 70 deaths
- 1910–45 – Cadmium from mining waste contaminated rice irrigation water in Japan. Illness known as Itai-itai disease affected more than 20% of women aged over 50 years
- 1920 – In South Africa, 80 people suffered poisoning from eating bread contaminated with naturally occurring pyrrolizidine alkaloids.
- 1900–47 – Severe and widespread neurological disorders due to bread flour bleached with agene, a process no longer in use. The denatured protein in the treated flour is toxic and causes a condition of hysteria in dogs eating biscuits made from the flour.
- 1930s – A striking example of OPIDN Organophosphate poisoning occurred during the 1930s Prohibition Era when thousands of men in the American South and Midwest developed arm and leg weakness and pain after drinking a "medicinal" alcohol substitute called "Ginger Jake", which contained an adulterated Jamaican ginger extract containing tri-ortho-cresyl phosphate (TOCP), which resulted in partially reversible neurologic damage. The damage resulted in the limping "Jake Leg" or "Jake Walk" which were terms frequently used in the blues music of the period. Europe experienced outbreaks of TOCP poisoning from contaminated abortifacients. Morocco experienced outbreaks of TOCP poisoning from contaminated cooking oil.
1950 to 2000
- 1951 - 1951 Pont-Saint-Esprit mass poisoning in France, probably caused by Ergot.
- 1950s – Mercury poisoning in fish in Japan, contaminated by industrial discharge: Minamata disease. By 2010 more than 14,000 victims had received financial compensation.
- 1955 – Arsenic in milk powder in Japan. An industrial grade of Monosodium phosphate additive which inadvertently contained 5–8% arsenic, was added to milk fed to infants. The incident was known as the "Morinaga dried milk poisoning". Over 600 died, and over 6,000 people suffered health effects such as severe mental retardation. Those health effects have continued in the remaining survivors today.
- 1957 – Chicken feed and thence chickens were contaminated with dioxins from polychlorinated biphenyl treated cow hides in the United States. 300,000 chickens were killed or destroyed to avoid consumption
- 1959 – Moroccan oil poisoning disaster: several thousand people in Meknes suffer flaccid paralysis caused by deliberate contamination of cooking oil with jet engine lubricating oil containing tricresyl phosphate got as surplus from a US airbase at Nouaceur.
- 1965 - Mass poisoning resulting from contamination of flour with 4,4'-Methylenedianiline in Epping, Essex, United Kingdom
- 1968 - Yushō disease; mass poisoning resulting from rice bran oil contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls in Kyūshū, Japan
- 1972 – In Iraq 100 to 400 died of mercury poisoning by eating seeds intended for planting and treated with mercury as a fungicide.
- 1973 – Widespread poisoning of people in Michigan by meat from cattle fed feed contaminated with polybrominated biphenyl in flame retardant
- 1974–1976 – Afghanistan: widespread poisoning (an estimated 7800 people affected with hepatic veno-occlusive disease (liver damage) and about 1600 deaths) was attributed to wheat contaminated with weed seeds known as charmac (Heliotropium popovii. H Riedl) that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids.
- 1976 – Seveso dioxin contamination in Italy.
- 1981 – Spanish Toxic Oil Syndrome. Thousands permanently damaged by eating industrial colza oil denatured with aniline and sold as olive oil. There was strong suspicion that the cause was in fact insecticide in Spanish tomatoes, and that official agencies actively supported the contaminated oil position, suppressing evidence contradicting it.
- 1985 – Adulteration of Austrian wines with diethylene glycol.
- 1986 – Adulteration of Italian wines with ethylene glycol killed more than 18 people
- 1987 – Beech-Nut Nutrition Corporation paid $2.2 million, then the largest fine issued, for violating the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act by selling artificially flavored sugar water as apple juice. John F. Lavery, the company's vice president for operations was convicted in criminal court and sentenced to a year and a day in jail; Niels L. Hoyvald, the president of the company, also convicted, served six months of community service. Each of them also paid a $100,000 fine
- 1989 – Milk contamination with dioxin in Belgium
- 1994 – Ground paprika in Hungary was found to be adulterated with lead oxide, causing deaths of several people, while dozens of others became sick.
- 1998 – In New Delhi, India, edible mustard oil adulterated with Argemone mexicana seed oil caused epidemic dropsy in thousands of people, because Argemone mexicana seed oil contains the toxic alkaloids sanguinarine and dihydrosanguinarine. The epidemic in 1998 at New Delhi is the largest so far, in which over 60 people died and more than 3000 were hospitalized. Even after that, the epidemics occurred at alarming frequency in India: in 2000 at Gwalior (2000), and in 2002 at Kannauj, and in 2005 at Lucknow.
- 1998 – In Germany and the Netherlands, meat and milk were found with elevated dioxin concentrations. The dioxin was traced to citrus pulp from Brazil that had been neutralized with lime contaminated with dioxin. 92,000 tons of citrus pulp was discarded. The citrus pulp market collapsed in some European countries. A tolerance level for dioxins in citrus pulp was set by the European Commission.
- 1999 – In Belgium, animal feed contaminated with dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls affected more than 2500 poultry and pig farms. This incident led to the formation of the Belgium Federal Food Safety Agency. The loss to the Belgium economy was estimated at €1500-€2000M.
- 1999–2000 – In Afghanistan, there were an estimated 400 cases of liver damage and over 100 deaths due to pyrrolizidine alkaloid poisoning. The food source was not identified.
2001 to present
- 2001 – Spanish olive pomace oil was contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Contaminated product was recalled.
- 2002 – In Northern Ireland, nitrofurans were detected in 5 (of 45) samples of chicken imported from Thailand and Brazil. The product was withdrawn and destroyed.
- 2002 – In the UK, nitrofurans were detected in 16 (of 77) samples of prawns and shrimps imported from SE Asia. Affected batches were withdrawn and destroyed.
- 2002 – In the UK and Canada, the banned antibiotic, chloramphenicol, was found in honey from China
- 2003 – Dioxins were found in animal feed that was contaminated with bakery waste that had been dried by firing with waste wood.
- 2003 – The banned veterinary antibiotic nitrofurans were found in chicken from Portugal. Poultry from 43 farms was destroyed. Nitrofurans are banned from food because of concerns including a possible increased risk of cancer in humans through long-term consumption.
- 2004 – Organic free-range chicken was found to contain traces of the banned veterinary drug, nitrofuran. Up to 23 tonnes of affected chicken, originating from a farm in Northern Ireland, was distributed to supermarkets across the UK resulting in a voluntary product recall and consumer warnings.
- 2004 – The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) detected chloramphenicol in honey labelled as product of Canada. Chloramphenicol is banned for use in food-producing animals, including honey bees, in Canada as well as in a number of other countries. The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) informed Health Canada that five lots of honey labelled as "Product of Canada" were distributed in British Columbia and were found to contain residues of the banned drug chloramphenicol. A voluntary food recall occurred.
- 2004 – New Zealand soy milk manufactured with added kelp contained toxic levels of iodine. Consumption of this product was linked to five cases of thyrotoxicosos. The manufacturer ceased production and re-formulated the product line.
- 2004 – New Zealand cornflour and cornflour-containing products were contaminated with lead, thought to have occurred as a result of bulk shipping of corn (maize) contaminated by previous cargo in the same storage. Affected product was distributed in New Zealand, Fiji and Australia. Four products were recalled.
- 2004 – Aflatoxin-contaminated maize in Kenya resulted in 317 cases of hepatic failure and 125 deaths.
- 2004 – EHEC O104:H4 in South Korea, researchers pointed at contaminated hamburgers as a possible cause.
- 2005 – Worcester sauce in the UK was found to contain the banned food colouring, Sudan I dye, that was traced to imported adulterated chilli powder. 576 food products were recalled.
- 2005 – Farmed salmon in British Columbia, Canada was found to contain the banned fungicide malachite green. 54 tonnes of fish was recalled. The incident resulted in an estimated $2.4-13M (USD) lost revenue.
- 2006 – Pork, in China, containing clenbuterol when pigs were illegally fed the banned chemical to enhance fat burning and muscle growth, affected over 300 persons.
- 2007 – Pet food recalls occurred in North America, Europe, and South Africa as a result of Chinese protein export contamination using melamine as an adulterant.
- 2008 – Baby milk scandal, in China. 300,000 babies affected, 51,900 hospitalisations and 6 infant deaths. Lost revenue compensation~$30M, bankruptcy, trade restrictions imposed by 68 countries, 60 or more arrests, executions, prison sentences, and loss of consumer confidence. Melamine from the contaminated protein worked into the food chain a year later
- 2008 – Wheat flour contaminated with naturally-occurring pyrrolizidine alkaloids is thought to be the cause of 38 cases of hepatic veno-occlusive disease including 4 deaths in Afghanistan
- 2008 – Irish pork crisis of 2008: Irish pork and pork products exported to 23 countries was traced and much was recalled when animal feed was contaminated with dioxins in the feed drying process. The cost of cattle and pig culling exceeded €4M, compensation for lost revenue was estimated to be €200M.
- 2008 – It was discovered that additives included substances like sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid had been used to dilute wines in Italy.
- 2009 – Pork, in China, containing the banned chemical clenbuterol when pigs were illegally fed it to enhance fat burning and muscle growth. 70 persons were hospitalised in Guangzhou with stomach pains and diarrhoea after eating contaminated pig organs
- 2009 – Hoola Pops from Mexico contaminated with lead
- 2009 – Bonsoy-brand Soymilk in Australia, enriched with 'Kombu' seaweed resulted in high levels of iodine, and 48 cases of thyroid problems. The product was voluntarily recalled and a settlement of 25 million AUS$ later reached with the victims.
- 2010 – Snakes in China were contaminated with clenbuterol when fed frogs treated with clenbuterol. 13 people were hospitalised after eating contaminated snake. There were 113 prosecutions in 2011 relating to clenbuterol, with sentences ranging from three years imprisonment to death.
- 2011 – Poor-quality illegal alcohol in West Bengal has resulted in an estimated 126 deaths. The alcohol may have contained ammonium nitrate and/or methanol.
- 2011 – German E. coli O104:H4 outbreak was caused by EHEC O104:H4 contaminated fenugreek seeds imported from Egypt in 2009 and 2010, from which sprouts were grown in Germany.
- 2011 – Vinegar from China contaminated with ethylene glycol when stored in tanks that previously contained antifreeze, led to 11 deaths and an estimated 120 cases of illness.
- 2011 – Meat, eggs and egg products in Germany contaminated from animal feed containing fat contaminated with dioxins. 4,700 German farms affected. 8,000 hens and hundreds of pigs were culled. Imports from Germany to China were banned
- 2012 – More than a quarter of a million chicken eggs were recalled in Germany after in-house testing discovered "excessive levels" of the poisonous chemical, dioxin.
- 2012, June – A Brazilian housewife discovered an apparently used condom at the bottom of a can of Knorr tomato paste. Unilever was fined £3,100 ($4,800) by the Supreme Federal Court. She was awarded £1,110 ($1,700) for moral damages, as she and her family had consumed a meal prepared with the paste.
- 2012, July – Around 1 million pots of herbs had to be destroyed in North Rhine-Westphalia after treatment with an apparently organic plant growth strengthener was found to contain DDAC (didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) which resulted in contamination levels above the EU MRL of 0.01 mg/kg. This has resulted in significant additional costs to member states across the EU who put in place a monitoring programme until February 2013 for DDAC and other quaternary ammonium compounds across a wide range of commodity groups.
- 2012, August to September – Multiple American Licorice Company black licorice products recalled due to high lead levels in the products. Consuming a bag of product could give children lead levels as high as 13.2 micrograms/daily limit, double the amount regulators consider actionable.
- 2013, January – It was disclosed that horse meat contaminated beef burgers had been on sale in Britain and Ireland. Two companies, ABP Food Group and Liffey Meats, had supplied various supermarkets with contaminated own brand burgers from their meat factories in the U.K. and Ireland.
- 2013, February – In Germany 200 farms are suspected of selling eggs as "organic" but not adhering to the conditions required for the label.
- 2013, March – A batch of 1800 almond cakes with butter cream and butterscotch from the Swedish supplier, Almondy, on its way to the IKEA store in Shanghai were found by Chinese authorities to have a too high amount of coliform bacteria and were subsequently destroyed.
- 2013, March – A vegetable seller in western Germany, Rhine Main, realized that the lettuce he had been selling throughout the day contained rat poison. The poison appears as small blue kernels.
- 2013, February–March – Contamination with aflatoxins results in a milk recall in Europe and a dog food recall in the United States. See 2013 aflatoxin contamination for further details.
- 2013, May – A Chinese crime ring was found to have passed off rat, mink, and small mammal meat as mutton for more than 1 million USD in Shanghai and Jiangsu province markets.
- 2013, May – Halal Lamb Burgers contained samples of Pork DNA, affected schools 19 schools in Leicester, UK.
- 2013, July – Bihar school meal poisoning incident, India.
- 2013, October – 2013 Taiwan food scandal
- 2014, May – CRF Frozen Foods recall
- 2014, September – 2014 Taiwan food scandal
- 2015, April – Contaminated milk tea resulted in the deaths of two individuals and affected another in Sampaloc, Manila, the cause of which was determined to have been oxalic acid being deliberately laced at more than the lethal oral dose. Murder charges were filed against Lloyd Abrigo, son of the milk tea shop owner who was among those killed in the incident; Abrigo denied the allegations, and the charges were later dropped.
- 2015, July – 2015 Caraga candy poisonings in the Philippines
- 2015, November–December – 2015 United States E. coli outbreak
- 2016, February–March – Mars Chocolates contamination incident, in which plastic found in candy bars lead to a recall affecting 55 countries.
- 2016, April–May - 2016 Punjab sweet poisoning
- 2017, 2017 Fipronil eggs contamination in Europe
- List of foodborne illness outbreaks by death toll
- List of foodborne illness outbreaks
- Gutter oil
- List of medicine contamination incidents
- List of man-made mass chronic poisoning incidents
- Identity preservation
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An industry source in Rome said he doubts that any of the polluted wine has reached the United States. The Italian Wine and Food Institute, which represents Italian wine exporters in New York, was quoted here as saying that all Italian wine shipped to the United States is subjected to strict quality control in order to win the Italian government's seal of approval. Italy ships more wine to the United States than any other wine-producing nation, but most of its wine exports go to France and Germany, in that order, much of it in bulk for use in cutting domestic wines with higher-alcohol Italian varieties. It is far worse in scale than the scandal that virtually eliminated Austrian wines from the market last year. Some Austrian wine makers were found to have added ethylene glycol, a toxic, sweetening element, to their wines, and the discovery wiped out export sales. Ethylene glycol is also used in antifreeze. There were no known fatalities from the tainted Austrian wine.
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It is well within the reach of most white-collar criminals to assume an air of irreproachable virtue, especially when they're about to be sentenced. But there was something unusually compelling about the bearing of Niels L. Hoyvald and John F. Lavery as they stood before Judge Thomas C. Platt of the United States District Court in Brooklyn last month – especially in light of what they were being sentenced for. As president and vice president of the Beech-Nut Nutrition Corporation, Hoyvald and Lavery had sold millions of bottles of apple juice that they knew to contain little or no apple juice at all – only sugars, water, flavoring and coloring. The consumers of this bogus product were babies.
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