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431 Air Demonstration Squadron
No. 431 Squadron RCAF badge.jpg
Active25 June 1971 – present (as Snowbirds)
1 April 1978 – present (as 431 Air Demonstration Squadron)
CountryCanada Canada
BranchCanada Royal Canadian Air Force
RoleAerobatic flight demonstration team
Size80 Canadian Forces personnel full time
24 personnel in the show team
Part of15 Wing Moose Jaw
Garrison/HQCFB Moose Jaw
Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, Canada
Motto(s)The Hatiten Ronteriios (Warriors of the air)
ColorsWhite and red
Commanding OfficerLCol Mike French[1]
Snowbirds logo.png
Aircraft flown
Trainer11 CT-114 Tutors

The Snowbirds, officially known as 431 Air Demonstration Squadron (French: 431e escadron de démonstration aérienne), are the military aerobatics or air show flight demonstration team of the Royal Canadian Air Force. The team is based at 15 Wing Moose Jaw near Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan. The Snowbirds' official purpose is to "demonstrate the skill, professionalism, and teamwork of Canadian Forces personnel".[2] The Snowbirds are the first Canadian air demonstration team to be designated as a squadron.[3]

The show team flies 11 CT-114 Tutors—nine for aerobatic performances, including two solo aircraft, and two as spares, flown by the team coordinators. Approximately 80 Canadian Forces personnel work with the squadron full-time; 24 personnel are in the show team that travels during the show season. The Snowbirds are the only major military aerobatics team that operates without a support aircraft.[4]

The Snowbirds continue the flying demonstration tradition of previous Canadian air force aerobatic teams, which include the Siskins, the Blue Devils, the Golden Hawks, and the Golden Centennaires.

Squadron history[edit]

Second World War[edit]

Although 431 Air Demonstration Squadron was formed in 1978, its history truly begins during the Second World War when, as part of the Commonwealth contribution to aircrew for the war in Europe, 431 (Iroquois) Squadron Royal Canadian Air Force was created under the control of RAF Bomber Command.[5]

Number 431 Squadron formed on 11 November 1942, at RAF Burn (in North Yorkshire), flying Wellington B.X medium bombers with No. 4 Group RAF Bomber Command. The squadron moved to RAF Tholthorpe in mid-1943 as part of the move to bring all RCAF squadrons into one operational groupNo. 6 Group RCAF – and converted to Halifax B.V four-engined heavy bombers. In December 1943 the squadron moved to RAF Croft where it was re-equipped with Halifax IIIs and later, Lancaster B.X aircraft. The squadron moved to RCAF Station Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, after the war, disbanding there on 5 September 1945.

Battle honours[edit]

  • English Channel and North Sea, 1943–1944
  • Baltic, 1943–1944
  • Fortress Europe, 1943–1944
  • France and Germany, 1944–1945
  • Biscay Ports, 1943–1944
  • Ruhr, 1943–1945
  • Berlin, 1943–1944
  • German ports, 1943–1945
  • Normandy, 1944
  • Rhine
  • Biscay, 1943–1944


Squadron re-formed[edit]

No. 431 (Fighter) Squadron re-formed at RCAF Station Bagotville on 18 January 1954, using the new Canadair F-86 Sabre. The squadron was formed on a temporary basis until there were enough new CF-100s available to fulfill RCAF squadron needs. No. 431's duties included aerial combat training and displaying the capabilities of jet operations to the public at air shows, the largest being Operation Prairie Pacific: a 50-minute exhibition that travelled to selected locations across western Canada. The team consisted of four Sabres and a solo aircraft. This was the first Sabre team to be authorized to perform formation aerobatics in Canada.[6] The unit was disbanded on 1 October 1954.

Tutor prototype on display at Southport Aerospace, Manitoba in Golden Centennaires livery
CT-114 Tutor of the Snowbirds

2 Canadian Forces Flying Training School Formation Team[edit]

In 1969, Colonel O.B. Philp, base commander of CFB Moose Jaw and former leader of the defunct Golden Centennaires aerobatic team, considered using several of the leftover Golden Centennaire CT-114 Tutor aircraft for another team. These Tutors were still fitted for aerobatic flying and, because of some minor corrosion, had been painted with white anti-corrosive paint. Philp, at this point, did not receive approval to form the new team; however, approval had been given for single Tutors to provide simple flypasts at local football games. To further the cause of an aerobatic team, Philp began informal enhanced formation practice for the instructors at 2 Canadian Forces Flying Training School with the aim of providing multi-aircraft flypasts at special events. In 1970, four-aircraft formations began providing flypasts at fairs and festivals, as well as Armed Forces Day at CFB Moose Jaw. In July 1970, a white Tutor was introduced to the formation for flypasts. Four white Tutors were finally flown together at the Abbotsford Air Show, followed by a flypast in Winnipeg. Known as the "2 Canadian Forces Flying Training School Formation Team", or informally as the "Tutor Whites", the team grew in size to seven aircraft in 1971 using eleven pilots, and gradually gained recognition. Formation flypasts were replaced with more complicated manoeuvres, and more aircraft were added as the team matured.

New name and squadron reactivation[edit]

A contest to give the air demonstration team a formal name was held at the CFB Moose Jaw base elementary school (Bushell Park Elementary) and resulted in the name "Snowbirds".[7] The name reflected the aircraft's distinctive mostly-white paint scheme used at the time, connoted grace and beauty and was clearly linked to its Canadian origins. Also, "Snowbird" was the name of an Anne Murray song that was popular at the time.[8] The name was formally adopted on 25 June 1971. The Snowbirds were officially authorized to be designated the "Canadian Forces Air Demonstration Team" on 15 January 1975. The team was formed into its own squadron by reactivating 431 Squadron (renamed 431 Air Demonstration Squadron) on 1 April 1978.

Snowbird solos performing head on cross manoeuver at National Capital Air Show, Ottawa, 1994

Show routine[edit]

Formations and manoeuvres are designed each season by the team, and must be approved by the Canadian Forces, Transport Canada and the United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to ensure safety guidelines are complied with. FAA approval is necessary since the team performs in the United States.

Three aerobatic shows are designed: a high show flown when weather is ideal, a low show and a flat show. The latter two are flown where some manoeuvres are not permitted because of cloud. A non-aerobatic show, or flypast, is also flown. Manoeuvres are arranged from those selected from the Standard Manoeuvre Manual.[9] Some elements of the show are passed down from one season to the next. These include the Canada burst, heart, downward bomb burst, solo head on crosses, and their signature nine-abreast exit. Training occurs over several months. Once manoeuvres are mastered and the team is comfortable with the routine, the Snowbirds deploy to CFB Comox for specialized training. After approvals are obtained, an "acceptance show" is performed at Moose Jaw to allow representatives from the three approving agencies to see a live performance. The team will go on to perform shows throughout North America from May to October. The last show is performed at Moose Jaw.

Pilots typically stay with the Snowbirds for a maximum of three years, and one third of the pilots are replaced each year. Replacing pilots this way allows experienced members to train the new team members, which ensures that the Snowbirds' routines are consistent.[10]

The Snowbirds were the first aerobatic team in the world to use music in their show, and music is often used with live commentary from the performing pilots.[11]

The Snowbirds fly at speeds between 100 knots (190 km/h) and 320 knots (590 km/h), with a separation between aircraft of 1.8 metres (5.9 ft) in many of the formations. When two aircraft perform head-on passes, they aim to be about 10 metres (33 ft) apart.[12]

Awards, honours, and ambassadorships[edit]

In 1982, Canada Post released a 17¢ stamp of an inverted Snowbird No. 5 with the airframe number 114155.

On 8 June 1994, the Snowbirds were awarded the 1994 Belt of Orion Award for Excellence by Canada's Aviation Hall of Fame.

The Snowbirds flying their 1000th official show at CFB Edmonton (Namao), 20 May 1990. Coloured smoke was used during major performances that year.

On 16 October 1999, the squadron was presented their squadron colour for 25 years of service. During the same ceremony the team was presented the 1999 Golden Hawks Award by the Air Force Association of Canada for outstanding performance in the field of Canadian military aviation.

In 2002, the Snowbirds were named ambassadors of the Ch.i.l.d. Foundation (Children with Intestinal and Liver Disorders Foundation).

On 28 June 2006, Canada Post released two domestic rate (51¢) stamps to commemorate the 35th anniversary of the team. The Royal Canadian Mint jointly released a $5 silver commemorative coin.

Notable performances[edit]

  • The first performance of the team with the new name of "Snowbirds" was on 11 July 1971 at their home base of CFB Moose Jaw during the Homecoming '71 Air Show.[13]
  • The first performance of the Snowbirds in the United States occurred on 27 November 1971 at Williams Air Force Base near Phoenix, Arizona.[8]
  • The first formal public performance that included opposing solos was flown at Yellowknife on 13 May 1972.[14]
  • The air show at Inuvik, North West Territories, in 1974 was the first time that an aerobatic team had performed at midnight (daylight conditions north of the Arctic Circle).[15]
  • The first official air show performed by the Snowbirds as 431 (Air Demonstration) Squadron was on 28 April 1978 at Royal Roads Military College, Victoria, British Columbia.[2]
  • The opening ceremonies at the Calgary 1988 Winter Olympics was the first time the Snowbirds used coloured smoke. The colours represented the five colours of the Olympic rings.[16]
  • In 1990 red smoke was incorporated into the Snowbirds' routine at major performances to commemorate the team's 20th anniversary and the silver anniversary of the Canadian flag.[17]
  • The Snowbirds' 1000th official air show was performed on 20 May 1990 at CFB Edmonton (Namao).[2]
  • The team performed for the first time outside of Canada and the United States in October 1993 at Zapopan Military Air Base near Guadalajara, Mexico.[18]

Notable staff[edit]

  • Lois Boyle (1932 – 2012): in her role as a civilian senior administrative assistant to several base commanders of CFB Moose Jaw, Boyle was closely involved in the birth of the Snowbirds and also helping them mature into the 1980s. For her years of dedication and support to the team she earned the title 'Mother of the Snowbirds', and her funeral ceremony was marked with an honorary flyover by seven Snowbird jets.[19]

Notable accidents and incidents[edit]

Snowbirds perform a line abreast pitch-over at Wings 'n Wheels Air Show 2007, St. Thomas, Ontario
A Snowbird CT-114 on display at the Canadian National Exhibition, 2008

Snowbird aircraft have been involved in several accidents resulting in the deaths of seven pilots and one passenger and the loss of several aircraft. One pilot, Captain Wes Mackay, was killed in a non-flying accident after a performance in Latrobe, Pennsylvania in 1988. The RCAF commented: "...there is risk associated with formation flying. Flying by its very nature has an inherent element of risk. Eight Snowbird pilots have lost their lives in the performance of their duty. We remember them." [20]

  • 10 June 1972: Solo Captain Lloyd Waterer died after a wingtip collision with the other solo aircraft while performing an opposing solo manoeuvre at the Trenton Air Show at CFB Trenton, Ontario.[21]
  • 3 May 1978: Captain Gordon de Jong died at an air show in Grande Prairie, Alberta. The horizontal stabilizer failed, rendering the aircraft uncontrollable. Although pilot ejection was initiated, it was not successful.[22]
  • 3 September 1989: Captain Shane Antaya died after a midair collision during a demonstration at the Canadian International Air Show during the CNE in Toronto, Ontario when his Tutor crashed into Lake Ontario. During the same accident, team commander Major Dan Dempsey safely ejected from his aircraft.[23]
  • 10 December 1998: Captain Michael VandenBos died in a midair collision during training near Moose Jaw.[24]
  • 21 June 2001: Major Robert Painchaud and his passenger ejected after a midair collision between aircraft No. 1 and No. 5 as they attempted to rejoin the "Concord" nine-jet formation for a media shoot over Lake Erie near London, Ontario. The passenger sustained serious injury, but Major Painchaud suffered only bruising and the other aircraft was safely flown back to base.[25]
  • 10 December 2004: Captain Miles Selby died in a midair collision during training near Mossbank, Saskatchewan while practising the co-loop manoeuvre. The other pilot, Captain Chuck Mallett, was thrown from his destroyed aircraft while still strapped into his seat. While tumbling towards the ground, he was able to unstrap, deploy his parachute and land with only minor injuries.[26]
  • 18 May 2007: Snowbird 2, Captain Shawn McCaughey fatally crashed during practice at Malmstrom Air Force Base near Great Falls, Montana due to a restraining strap malfunction.[27]
  • 9 October 2008: A Snowbird Tutor piloted by newly recruited team member Captain Bryan Mitchell with military photographer Sergeant Charles Senecal crashed, killing both, near the Snowbirds' home base of 15 Wing Moose Jaw while on a non-exhibition flight.[28][29]

Aircraft replacement[edit]

The Government of Canada plans to replace the Tutors with new aircraft between 2026 and 2035, with a preliminary estimated cost of $500 million to $1.5 billion. Official sources were quoted: "The chosen platform must be configurable to the 431 (AD) Squadron standard, including a smoke system, luggage capability and a unique paint scheme. The platform must also be interchangeable with the training fleet to ensure the hard demands of show performances can be distributed throughout the aircraft fleet." [30] The objective of the Snowbird Aircraft Replacement Project is "to satisfy the operational requirement to provide the mandated Government of Canada aerobatic air demonstration capability to Canadian and North American audiences."[30]

An April 2018 air force document mentioned that until a decision is made on replacement, the Snowbird Tutors will receive modernized avionics to comply with regulations. Upgrading work will begin in 2022. The new avionics will permit the team to continue flying in North America and allow the Tutors to fly until 2030.[31]



  1. ^ Force, Government of Canada, National Defence, Royal Canadian Air. "Members - Snowbirds - Demo Teams - Royal Canadian Air Force". Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  2. ^ a b c Dempsey 2002, p. 567.
  3. ^ Dempsey 2002, p. 718.
  4. ^ Dempsey 2002, p. 659.
  5. ^ "Air of Authority – A History of RAF Organisation." Archived 2009-08-23 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved: 20 May 2011.
  6. ^ Dempsey 2002, p. 95.
  7. ^ "Snowbirds - Full History." Archived 2013-05-22 at the Wayback Machine RCAF. Retrieved: 15 March 2013.
  8. ^ a b Dempsey 2002, p. 538.
  9. ^ "Snowbirds safety incident a factor behind air show cancellations". The Star, 18 May 2017 Retrieved: August 28, 2017
  10. ^ "FAQ: Snowbirds." Government of Canada, Royal Canadian Air Force, Retrieved: 4 September 2017
  11. ^ Dempsey 2002, p. 643.
  12. ^ "FAQ: Snowbirds." Government of Canada, Royal Canadian Air Force, 20 July 2015. Retrieved: 12 August 2015.
  13. ^ Dempsey 2002, p. 540.
  14. ^ Dempsey 2002, p. 545.
  15. ^ Dempsey 2002, p. 552.
  16. ^ Dempsey 2002, p. 597.
  17. ^ Dempsey 2002, pp. 605, 606.
  18. ^ Dempsey 2002, p. 615.
  19. ^ Ewing-Weisz (2012).
  20. ^ "Snowbirds - Tributes." Royal Canadian Air Force, Government of Canada, 9 February 2015. Retrieved: 12 August 2015.
  21. ^ Dempsey 2002, p. 546.
  22. ^ Dempsey 2002, p. 569.
  23. ^ Dempsey 2002, p. 602.
  24. ^ "Snowbird crash, December 10, 1998 – investigation update." Archived June 9, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, 7 June 2010. Retrieved: 16 June 2010.
  25. ^ "Canadian Forces Flight Safety Report:CT114006 and CT114081 Tutor.", 21 June 2001. Retrieved: 7 April 2010.
  26. ^ "Canadian Forces Flight Safety Report: CT114173 / CT114064 Tutor.", 10 December 2004. Retrieved: 7 January 2017.
  27. ^ "Canadian Forces Flight Safety Report: CT114159 Tutor.", 18 May 2007. Retrieved: 17 March 2014.
  28. ^ "CBC News Story." CBC, 10 October 2008. Retrieved: 13 October 2008.
  29. ^ "Canadian Forces Flight Safety Report." Retrieved: 7 January 2017.
  30. ^ a b "Snowbird Aircraft Replacement Project." Government of Canada, 12 August 2015. Retrieved: 12 March 2015.
  31. ^ Aircraft used by Snowbirds aerobatic team, on the go since 1963, will be kept flying until 2030. Saskatoon StarPhoenix. May 13, 2018. Retrieved 14 May 2018


  • Dempsey, Daniel V. A Tradition of Excellence: Canada's Airshow Team Heritage. Victoria, British Columbia, Canada: High Flight Enterprises, 2002. ISBN 0-9687817-0-5.
  • Ewing-Weisz, Chris. "Lois Boyle was the ‘Mother of the Snowbirds’." The Globe and Mail, 17 January 2012, p. S8. Published online: 16 January 2012. Retrieved: 23 January 2012.
  • Fast, Beverley G. Snowbirds: Flying High, Canada's Snowbirds Celebrate 25 Years. Saskatoon, SK: Lapel Marketing & Associates Inc., 1995. ISBN 0969932707.
  • Milberry, Larry. Canada's Air Force At War And Peace, Volume 3. Toronto, ON: CANAV Books, 2000. ISBN 0-921022-12-3.
  • Mummery, Robert. Snowbirds: Canada's Ambassadors of the Sky. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada: Reidmore Books, 1984. ISBN 0-919091-37-7.
  • Rycquart, Barbara. The Snowbirds Story. London, Ontario, Canada: Third Eye, 1987. ISBN 0-919581-41-2.
  • Sroka, Mike. Snowbirds: Behind The Scenes With Canada's Air Demonstration Team. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Fifth House Publishers, 2006. ISBN 1-894856-86-4.

External links[edit]