Ptolemy XI Alexander II
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|Predecessor||Ptolemy X Alexander I|
|Father||Ptolemy X Alexander I|
|Mother||either Cleopatra Selene I or Berenice III|
His uncle Ptolemy IX Lathryos died in 81 BC or 80 BC, leaving only his sole legitimate daughter as his heir, and so Cleopatra Berenice (= Berenice III) ruled alone for a time. However, Rome's Sulla wanted a pro-Roman ruler on the throne, and sent the young son of Ptolemy X to Egypt, displaying Ptolemy Alexander's will in Rome as supposed justification for this obvious interference.
The will also apparently required Ptolemy XI to marry Cleopatra Berenice, who was his stepmother and half-sister (or possibly his natural mother – the ancient sources are unclear). However, nineteen days after the marriage, Ptolemy murdered his bride for unknown reasons, an unwise move since Berenice was very popular; Ptolemy was soon lynched by the citizens of Alexandria.
He was succeeded by his cousin Ptolemy XII.
- Numbering the Ptolemies is a modern invention; the Greeks distinguished them by epithet (e.g. "Philopator") or nickname (e.g. "Auletes"). The number given here is the present consensus, but there has been some disagreement in the 19th century about which of the later Ptolemies should be counted as reigning. Since older sources may give a number one higher or lower, epithets are the most reliable way of determining which Ptolemy is being referred to in any given case.
- Peter Green, Alexander to Actium (University of California Press, 1990), pp. 553–554 ISBN 0-520-05611-6
- Ptolemy XI Alexander II entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith
Ptolemy XI Alexander IIBorn: ? Died: 80 BC
|Pharaoh of Egypt
with Berenice III