Dynasty

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Charles I of England and his son, the future James II

A dynasty (UK: /ˈdɪnəsti/, US: /ˈdnəsti/) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,[1] usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system, but sometimes also appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a "noble house",[2] which may be styled as "royal", "princely", "ducal", "comital", etc., depending upon the chief or present title borne by its members. Historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the term "dynasty" may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends, and artifacts of that period ("a Ming-dynasty vase"). The word "dynasty" itself is often dropped from such adjectival references ("a Ming vase").

Until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty: that is, to increase the territory, wealth, and power of his family members.[3] The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, otherwise known as the Yamato dynasty, whose reign is traditionally dated to 660 BC.

Prior to the 20th century, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. In nations where it was permitted, succession through a daughter usually established a new dynasty in her husband's ruling house. This has changed in some places in Europe, where succession law and convention have maintained dynasties de jure through a female. For example, the House of Windsor is maintained through the children of Queen Elizabeth II, similarly with the monarchy of the Netherlands, whose dynasty remained the House of Orange-Nassau through three successive queens regnant. The earliest such example among the major European monarchies was in Russia in the 18th century, where the name of the House of Romanov was maintained through a non-ruling female.

In Limpopo Province of South Africa, Balobedu determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mother's dynasty when coming into her inheritance. Less frequently, a monarchy has alternated or been rotated, in a multidynastic (or polydynastic) system – that is, the most senior living members of parallel dynasties, at any point in time, constitute the line of succession.

Not all feudal states or monarchies were/are ruled by dynasties. Modern examples are the Vatican City State and Principality of Andorra. Throughout history, there were monarchs that did not belong to any dynasty. Non-dynastic rulers include King Ptolemy Keraunos of Macedon, King Arioald of the Lombards, and Emperor Phocas of the Byzantine Empire.

The word "dynasty" is sometimes used informally for people who are not rulers but are, for example, members of a family with influence and power in other areas, such as a series of successive owners of a major company. It is also extended to unrelated people, such as major poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team.[1]

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Etymology[edit]

The word "dynasty" derives from Latin dynastia, which comes from Greek dynastéia (δυναστεία), where it referred to "power", "dominion", and "rule" itself.[4] It was the abstract noun of dynástēs (δυνάστης),[5] the agent noun of dynamis (δύναμις), "power" or "ability",[6] from dýnamai (δύναμαι), "to be able".[7]

Dynasts[edit]

A ruler in a dynasty is sometimes referred to as a "dynast", but this term is also used to describe any member of a reigning family who retains a right to succeed to a throne. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a dynastic member of the House of Windsor.

A "dynastic marriage" is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, so that the descendants are eligible to inherit the throne or other royal privileges. The marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support and parliamentary approval. Thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.

In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a "dynast" is a family member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchy's rules still in force. For example, after the 1914 assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his morganatic wife Sophie von Hohenberg, their son Max was bypassed for the Austrian throne because he was not a Habsburg dynast. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy, Max and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position.

The term "dynast" is sometimes used only to refer to agnatic descendants of a realm's monarchs, and sometimes to include those who hold succession rights through cognatic royal descent. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people. For example, David Armstrong-Jones, 2nd Earl of Snowdon, a nephew of Queen Elizabeth II through her sister, Princess Margaret, is in the line of succession to the British crown: in that sense he is a British dynast. Yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor.

On the other hand, the German aristocrat Prince Ernst August of Hanover (born 1954), a male-line descendant of George III of the United Kingdom, possesses no legal British name, titles or styles (although he is entitled to re-claim the once-royal dukedom of Cumberland), was born in the line of succession to the British crown and was bound by Britain's Royal Marriages Act 1772 until it was repealed when the Succession to the Crown Act 2013 took effect on 26 March 2015.[8] Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained formal permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time, stipulating that dynasts who marry Roman Catholics are considered "dead" for the purpose of succession to the throne.[9] That exclusion, too, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic.[8]

List of dynasties by region[edit]

Some dynasties appear more than once in this list, because:

Africa[edit]

Chad[edit]

Egypt[edit]

Eswatini (Swaziland)[edit]

Ethiopia[edit]

Guinea[edit]

Lesotho[edit]

  • House of Moshoeshoe (1822–present)

Madagascar[edit]

Morocco[edit]

Nigeria[edit]

Senegambia[edit]

Somalia[edit]

South Africa[edit]

Sudan[edit]

Asia[edit]

Afghanistan[edit]

Armenia[edit]

Bahrain[edit]

Bhutan[edit]

  • House of Wangchuck (དབང་ཕྱུག་རྒྱལ་བརྒྱུད་) (1907–present)

Brunei[edit]

Cambodia[edit]

  • Varman dynasty (13th century–present)

Central Asia[edit]

Champa[edit]

  • 1st dynasty (192–336)
  • 2nd dynasty (336–420)
  • 3rd dynasty (420–529)
  • 4th dynasty (529–758)
  • 5th dynasty (758–854)
  • 6th dynasty (854–989)
  • 7th dynasty (989–1044)
  • 8th dynasty (1044–1074)
  • 9th dynasty (1074–1139)
  • 10th dynasty (1139–1145)
  • 11th dynasty (1145–1190)
  • 12th dynasty (1190–1318)
  • 13th dynasty (1318–1390)
  • 14th dynasty (1390–1458)
  • 15th dynasty (1458–1471)
  • vacant (1471–1695)
  • Dynasty of Po Saktiraidaputih (1695–1822)

China[edit]

  • Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors (三皇五帝) (c. 2852–2070 BC) – Mythical
  • Xia dynasty (夏朝) (c. 2070–1600 BC) – Legendary; Ruled by the House of Si (姒)
    • Qi (杞) (c. 2000–445 BC)
  • Shang dynasty (商朝) (c. 1600–1046 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zi (子)
  • Zhou dynasty (周朝) (c. 1046–256 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬)
  • Spring and Autumn period (春秋时代/春秋時代) (c. 771–476 BC)
  • Warring States period (战国时代/戰國時代) (c. 445–221 BC)
    • Yue (越) (c. 2032–334 BC) – Ruled by the House of Si (姒)
    • Ba (巴) (c. 1122–316 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬)
    • Song (宋) (c. 1114–286 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zi (子)
    • Cai (蔡) (c. 1046–447 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬)
    • Teng (滕) (c. 1046–297 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬)
    • Qi (齐/齊) (c. 1046–221 BC)
    • Shu (蜀) (c. 1045–316 BC)
    • Yan (燕) (c. 1044–222 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬)
    • Lu (鲁/魯) (c. 1042–249 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬)
    • Wey (卫/衛) (c. 1040–209 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬)
    • Chu (楚) (c. 1030–223 BC) – Ruled by the House of Mi (芈)
    • Qin (秦) (c. 897–207 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ying (贏)
    • Zheng (郑/鄭) (c. 806–375 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬)
    • Yiqu (义渠/義渠) (c. 720–272 BC)
    • Zhongshan (中山) (c. 414–296 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬)
    • Han (韩/韓) (c. 403–230 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬)
    • Wei (魏) (c. 403–225 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ji (姬)
    • Zhao (赵/趙) (c. 403–222 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ying (贏)
    • Dai (代) (c. 228–222 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ying (贏)
  • Minyue (闽越/閩越) (c. 334–111 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zou (驺/騶)
  • Dian Kingdom (滇国/滇國) (c. 278–109 BC)
  • Qin dynasty (秦朝) (c. 221–206 BC) – Ruled by the House of Ying (贏)
  • Eighteen Kingdoms (十八国/十八國) (c. 206 BC)
  • Nanyue (南越) (c. 204–111 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zhao (赵/趙)
  • Han dynasty (汉朝/漢朝) (c. 202 BC–9 AD, c. 23–220 AD) – Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Han Chinese descent
  • Shule Kingdom (疏勒) (c. 200 BC–790 AD)
  • Dong'ou (东瓯/東甌) (c. 191–138 BC) – Ruled by the House of Zou (驺/騶)
  • Loulan Kingdom (楼兰/樓蘭) (c. 176–77 BC)
  • Kucha (龟兹/龜茲) (c. 72 BC–788 AD)
  • Goguryeo (高句丽/高句麗) (c. 37 BC–668 AD) – Ruled by the House of Go (高) of Yemaek descent
  • Xin dynasty (新朝) (c. 9–23 AD) – Interrupted the Han dynasty; Ruled by the House of Wang (王) of Han Chinese descent
  • Chengjia (成家) (c. 25–36 AD) – Ruled by the House of Gongsun (公孙/公孫) of Han Chinese descent
  • Kingdom of Khotan (于阗/于闐) (c. 56–1006 AD) – Ruled by the House of Yuchi (尉迟/尉遲) of Saka descent
  • Zhongjia (仲家) (c. 197–199 AD) – Ruled by the House of Yuan (袁) of Han Chinese descent
  • Three Kingdoms (三国/三國) (c. 220–280 AD)
    • Cao Wei (曹魏) (c. 220–266 AD) – Ruled by the House of Cao (曹) of Han Chinese descent
    • Shu Han (蜀汉/蜀漢) (c. 221–263 AD) – Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Han Chinese descent
    • Eastern Wu (东吴/東吳) (c. 222–280 AD) – Ruled by the House of Sun (孙/孫) of Han Chinese descent
  • Jin dynasty (晋朝/晉朝) (c. 265–420 AD) – Ruled by the House of Sima (司马/司馬) of Han Chinese descent
    • Western Jin (西晋/西晉) (c. 266–316 AD)
    • Eastern Jin (东晋/東晉) (c. 317–420 AD)
  • Tuyuhun (吐谷浑/吐谷渾) (c. 284–670 AD) – Ruled by the House of Murong (慕容) of Xianbei descent
  • Chouchi (仇池) (c. 296–371 AD, c. 385–442 AD, c. 443–477 AD, c. 478–580 AD) – Ruled by the House of Yang (杨/楊) of Di descent
    • Former Chouchi (前仇池) (c. 296–371 AD)
    • Later Chouchi (后仇池/後仇池) (c. 385–442 AD)
    • Wudu Kingdom (武都国/武都國) (c. 443–477 AD)
    • Wuxing Kingdom (武兴国/武興國) (c. 478–506 AD, c. 529–553 AD)
    • Yinping Kingdom (阴平国/陰平國) (c. 479–580 AD)
  • Sixteen Kingdoms (十六国/十六國) (c. 304–439 AD)
    • Han Zhao (汉赵/漢趙) (c. 304–329 AD) – Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Xiongnu descent
      • Northern Han (北汉/北漢) (c. 304–319 AD)
      • Former Zhao (前赵/前趙) (c. 319–329 AD)
    • Cheng Han (成汉/成漢) (c. 304–347 AD) – Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Ba descent
      • Cheng (成) (c. 304–338 AD)
      • Han (汉/漢) (c. 338–347 AD)
    • Later Zhao (后赵/後趙) (c. 319–351 AD) – Ruled by the House of Shi (石) of Jie descent
    • Former Liang (前凉/前涼) (c. 320–376 AD) – Ruled by the House of Zhang (张/張) of Han Chinese descent
    • Former Yan (前燕) (c. 337–370 AD) – Ruled by the House of Murong (慕容) of Xianbei descent
    • Former Qin (前秦) (c. 351–394 AD) – Ruled by the House of Fu (苻) of Di descent
    • Later Yan (后燕/後燕) (c. 384–409 AD) – Ruled by the House of Murong (慕容) of Xianbei descent
    • Later Qin (后秦/後秦) (c. 384–417 AD) – Ruled by the House of Yao (姚) of Qiang descent
    • Western Qin (西秦) (c. 385–400 AD, c. 409–431 AD) – Ruled by the House of Qifu (乞伏) of Xianbei descent
    • Later Liang (后凉/後涼) (c. 386–403 AD) – Ruled by the House of Lü (吕/呂) of Di descent
    • Southern Liang (南凉/南涼) (c. 397–414 AD) – Ruled by the House of Tufa (秃发/禿髮) of Xianbei descent
    • Northern Liang (北凉/北涼) (c. 397–460 AD) – Ruled by the House of Juqu (沮渠) of Xiongnu descent
    • Southern Yan (南燕) (c. 398–410 AD) – Ruled by the House of Murong (慕容) of Xianbei descent
    • Western Liang (西凉/西涼) (c. 400–421 AD) – Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Han Chinese descent
    • Xia (夏) (c. 407–431 AD) – Ruled by the House of Helian (赫连/赫連) of Xiongnu descent
    • Northern Yan (北燕) (c. 407–436 AD) – Ruled by the House of Feng (冯/馮) of Han Chinese descent
  • Dai (代) (c. 310–376 AD) – Ruled by the House of Tuoba (拓拔) of Xianbei descent
  • Rouran Khaganate (柔然) (c. 330–555 AD) – Ruled by the House of Yujiulü (郁久闾/鬱久閭)
  • Ran Wei (冉魏) (c. 350–352 AD) – Ruled by the House of Ran (冉) of Han Chinese descent
  • Duan Qi (段齐/段齊) (c. 350–356 AD) – Ruled by the House of Duan (段) of Xianbei descent
  • Western Yan (西燕) (c. 384–394 AD) – Ruled by the House of Murong (慕容) of Xianbei descent
  • Zhai Wei (翟魏) (c. 388–392 AD) – Ruled by the House of Zhai (翟) of Dingling descent
  • Huan Chu (桓楚) (c. 401–404 AD) – Ruled by the House of Huan (桓) of Han Chinese descent
  • Western Shu (西蜀) (c. 405–413 AD) – Ruled by the House of Qiao (谯/譙) of Han Chinese descent
  • Northern and Southern dynasties (南北朝) (c. 420–589 AD)
    • Northern dynasties (北朝)
      • Northern Wei (北魏) (c. 386–535 AD) – Ruled by the House of Tuoba (拓拔) of Xianbei descent
      • Eastern Wei (东魏/東魏) (c. 534–550 AD) – Ruled by the House of Yuan (元) of Xianbei descent
      • Western Wei (西魏) (c. 535–557 AD) – Ruled by the House of Yuan (元) of Xianbei descent
      • Northern Qi (北齐/北齊) (c. 550–577 AD) – Ruled by the House of Gao (高) of Han Chinese descent
      • Northern Zhou (北周) (c. 557–581 AD) – Ruled by the House of Yuwen (宇文) of Xianbei descent
    • Southern dynasties (南朝)
      • Liu Song (刘宋/劉宋) (c. 420–479 AD) – Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Han Chinese descent
      • Southern Qi (南齐/南齊) (c. 479–502 AD) – Ruled by the House of Xiao (萧/蕭) of Han Chinese descent
      • Liang dynasty (梁朝) (c. 502–557 AD) – Ruled by the House of Xiao (萧/蕭) of Han Chinese descent
      • Chen dynasty (陈朝/陳朝) (c. 557–589 AD) – Ruled by the House of Chen (陈/陳) of Han Chinese descent
  • Hou Han (侯汉/侯漢) (c. 551–552 AD) – Ruled by the House of Hou (侯) of Jie descent
  • Turkic Khaganate (突厥汗国/突厥汗國) (c. 552–630 AD) – Ruled by the House of Ashina (阿史那) of Göktürk descent
  • Sui dynasty (隋朝) (c. 581–618 AD) – Ruled by the House of Yang (杨/楊) of Han Chinese descent
  • Xia (夏) (c. 617–621 AD) – Ruled by the House of Dou (窦/竇) of Han Chinese descent
  • Liang (梁) (c. 617–628 AD) – Ruled by the House of Liang (梁) of Han Chinese descent
  • Liang (凉/涼) (c. 618–619 AD) – Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Han Chinese descent
  • Xu (许/許) (c. 618–619 AD) – Ruled by the House of Yuwen (宇文) of Xianbei descent
  • Tang dynasty (唐朝) (c. 618–690 AD, c. 705–907 AD) – Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Han Chinese descent
    • Second Zhou dynasty (武周) (c. 690–705 AD) – Interrupted the Tang dynasty; Ruled by the House of Wu (武) of Han Chinese descent
  • Zheng (郑/鄭) (c. 619–621 AD) – Ruled by the House of Wang (王)
  • Balhae (渤海) (c. 698–926 AD) – Ruled by the House of Dae (大) of Mohe descent
  • Nanzhao (南诏/南詔) (c. 738–937 AD) – Ruled by the House of Meng (蒙) of Bai descent
  • Uyghur Khaganate (回鹘汗国/回鶻汗國) (c. 744–840 AD) – Ruled by the House of Yaglakar (药罗葛/藥羅葛) of Uyghur descent
  • Yan (燕) (c. 756–763 AD) – Ruled by the House of An (安) of Sogdian descent and House of Shi (史) of Göktürk descent
  • Qocho (高昌回鹘/高昌回鶻) (c. 843–1370 AD)
  • Qi (齐/齊) (c. 881–884 AD) – Ruled by the House of Huang (黄/黃) of Han Chinese descent
  • Dachanghe (大长和/大長和) (c. 902–928 AD) – Ruled by the House of Zheng (郑/鄭) of Han Chinese descent
  • Qi (岐) (c. 907–924 AD) – Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Han Chinese descent
  • Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms (五代十国/五代十國) (c. 907–960 AD)
    • Five Dynasties (五代)
      • Later Liang (后梁/後梁) (c. 907–923 AD) – Ruled by the House of Zhu (朱) of Han Chinese descent
      • Later Tang (后唐/後唐) (c. 923–937 AD) – Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Shatuo descent
        • Jin (晋/晉) (c. 907–923 AD)
      • Later Jin (后晋/後晉) (c. 936–947 AD) – Ruled by the House of Shi (石) of Shatuo descent
      • Later Han (后汉/後漢) (c. 947–951 AD) – Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Shatuo descent
      • Later Zhou (后周/後周) (c. 951–960 AD) – Ruled by the House of Guo (郭) of Han Chinese descent
    • Ten Kingdoms (十国/十國)
      • Former Shu (前蜀) (c. 907–925 AD) – Ruled by the House of Wang (王) of Han Chinese descent
      • Yang Wu (杨吴/楊吳) (c. 907–937 AD) – Ruled by the House of Yang (杨/楊) of Han Chinese descent
      • Ma Chu (马楚/馬楚) (c. 907–951 AD) – Ruled by the House of Ma (马/馬) of Han Chinese descent
      • Wuyue (吴越/吳越) (c. 907–978 AD) – Ruled by the House of Qian (钱/錢) of Han Chinese descent
      • Min (闽/閩) (c. 909–945 AD) – Ruled by the House of Wang (王) of Han Chinese descent
        • Yin (殷) (c. 943–945 AD)
      • Southern Han (南汉/南漢) (c. 917–971 AD) – Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Han Chinese descent
      • Jingnan (荊南) (c. 924–963 AD) – Ruled by the House of Gao (高) of Han Chinese descent
      • Later Shu (后蜀/後蜀) (c. 934–965 AD) – Ruled by the House of Meng (孟) of Han Chinese descent
      • Southern Tang (南唐) (c. 937–976 AD) – Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Han Chinese descent
      • Northern Han (北汉/北漢) (c. 951–979 AD) – Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Shatuo descent
  • Liao dynasty (辽朝/遼朝) (c. 907–1125 AD) – Ruled by the House of Yelü (耶律) of Khitan descent
    • Northern Liao (北辽/北遼) (c. 1122–1123 AD)
    • Western Liao (西辽/西遼) (c. 1124–1218 AD)
    • Eastern Liao (东辽/東遼) (c. 1213–1269 AD)
    • Later Liao (后辽/後遼) (c. 1216–1219 AD)
  • Zhao (赵/趙) (c. 910–921 AD) – Ruled by the House of Wang (王) of Han Chinese descent
  • Yan (燕) (c. 911–914 AD) – Ruled by the House of Liu (刘/劉) of Han Chinese descent
  • Dongdan Kingdom (东丹/東丹) (c. 926–936 AD) – Ruled by the House of Yelü (耶律) of Khitan descent
  • Datianxing (大天兴/大天興) (c. 928–929 AD) – Ruled by the House of Zhao (赵/趙)
  • Dayining (大义宁/大義寧) (c. 929–937 AD) – Ruled by the House of Yang (杨/楊) of Han Chinese descent
  • Dali Kingdom (大理国/大理國) (c. 937–1094 AD, c. 1096–1253 AD) – Ruled by the House of Duan (段) of Bai descent
    • Later Dali (后理/後理) (c. 1096–1253 AD)
  • Song dynasty (宋朝) (c. 960–1279 AD) – Ruled by the House of Zhao (赵/趙) of Han Chinese descent
  • Western Xia (西夏) (c. 1038–1227 AD) – Ruled by the House of Tuoba (拓跋) of Tangut descent
  • Dazhong Kingdom (大中) (c. 1094–1096 AD) – Interrupted the Dali Kingdom; Ruled by the House of Gao (高) of Bai descent
  • Jin dynasty (金朝) (c. 1115–1234 AD) – Ruled by the House of Wanyan (完颜/完顏) of Jurchen descent
  • Chu (楚) (1127 AD) – Ruled by the House of Zhang (张/張) of Han Chinese descent
  • Eastern Xia (东夏/東夏) (c. 1215–1233 AD) – Ruled by the House of Puxian (蒲鲜/蒲鮮) of Jurchen descent
  • Yuan dynasty (元朝) (c. 1271–1368 AD) – Ruled by the House of Borjigin (孛儿只斤/孛兒只斤) of Mongol descent
  • Tianwan (天完) (c. 1351–1360 AD) – Ruled by the House of Xu (徐) of Han Chinese descent
  • Zhou (周) (c. 1354–1367 AD) – Ruled by the House of Zhang (张/張) of Han Chinese descent
  • Han Song (韩宋/韓宋) (c. 1355–1366 AD) – Ruled by the House of Han (韩/韓) of Han Chinese descent
  • Chen Han (陈汉/陳漢) (c. 1360–1364 AD) – Ruled by the House of Chen (陈/陳) of Han Chinese descent
  • Ming Xia (明夏) (c. 1362–1371 AD) – Ruled by the House of Ming (明) of Han Chinese descent
  • Ming dynasty (明朝) (c. 1368–1644 AD) – Ruled by the House of Zhu (朱) of Han Chinese descent
    • Western Wu (西吴/西吳) (c. 1364–1368 AD)
    • Southern Ming (南明) (c. 1644–1662 AD)
  • Dzungar Khanate (准噶尔汗国/準噶爾汗國) (c. 1634–1758 AD) – Ruled by the House of Choros (绰罗斯/綽羅斯) of Oirat descent
  • Qing dynasty (清朝) (c. 1636–1912 AD, c. 1917 AD) – Ruled by the House of Aisin Gioro (爱新觉罗/愛新覺羅) of Manchu descent
    • Later Jin (后金/後金) (c. 1616–1636 AD)
  • Shun dynasty (顺朝/順朝) (c. 1644–1645 AD) – Ruled by the House of Li (李) of Han Chinese descent
  • Xi (西) (c. 1644–1646 AD) – Ruled by the House of Zhang (张/張) of Han Chinese descent
  • Kingdom of Tungning (东宁王国/東寧王國) (c. 1661–1683 AD) – Ruled by the House of Zheng (郑/鄭) of Han Chinese descent
  • Zhou (吴周/吳周) (c. 1678–1681 AD) – Ruled by the House of Wu (吴/吳) of Han Chinese descent
  • Taiping Heavenly Kingdom (太平天国/太平天國) (c. 1851–1864 AD) – Ruled by the House of Hong (洪) of Han Chinese descent
  • Empire of China (中华帝国/中華帝國) (c. 1915–1916 AD) – Ruled by the House of Yuan (袁) of Han Chinese descent

Cyprus[edit]

Georgia[edit]

India[edit]

Indonesia[edit]

Iran (Persia)[edit]

Israel[edit]

Japan[edit]

  • Imperial House of Japan (皇室) (660 BC (legendary) – present) – Also called "Yamato dynasty"
    • Northern Court (北朝) (1331–1392) – Also called "Jimyōin line" (持明院統)
    • Southern Court (南朝) (1336–1392) – Also called "Daikakuji line" (大覚寺統)

Jordan[edit]

Korea[edit]

  • Gojoseon (고조선/古朝鮮) (2333 BC (legendary)–108 BC)
  • Jin (진/辰) (c. 4th century BC–2nd century BC)
  • Dongye (동예/東濊) (c. 3rd century BC–5th century AD)
  • Buyeo (부여/夫餘) (c. 2nd century BC–494 AD)
  • Okjeo (옥저/沃沮) (c. 2nd century BC–5th century AD)
  • Han dynasty (한나라/漢朝) (c. 108 BC–9 AD, 23–220 AD) – Ruled by the House of Liu (유/劉); Chinese rule over the Korean Peninsula as far south as the Han River under the Four Commanderies of Han (한사군/漢四郡)
  • Samhan (삼한/三韓) (c. 1st century BC–5th century AD)
    • Jinhan (진한/辰韓) (c. 1st century BC–4th century AD)
    • Mahan (마한/馬韓) (c. 1st century BC–5th century AD)
    • Byeonhan (변한/弁韓) (c. 1st century AD–4th century AD)
  • Three Kingdoms of Korea (삼국/三國) (57 BC–668 AD)
    • Silla (신라/新羅) (57 BC–935 AD) – Ruled by the House of Kim (김/金)
    • Goguryeo (고구려/高句麗) (37 BC–668 AD) – Ruled by the House of Go (고/高)
    • Baekje (백제/百濟) (18 BC–660 AD) – Ruled by the House of Buyeo (부여/扶餘)
  • Xin dynasty (신나라/新朝) (9–23 AD) – Interrupted the Han dynasty; Ruled by the House of Wang (왕/王)
  • Gaya (가야/伽倻) (42–562 AD)
  • Cao Wei (조위/曹魏) (c. 236–265 AD) – Ruled by the House of Cao (조/曹); Chinese rule over the Korean Peninsula under the Daifang Commandery (대방군/帶方郡)
  • Jin dynasty (진(위진)/晉朝) (c. 265–314 AD) – Ruled by the House of Sima (사마/司馬); Chinese rule over the Korean Peninsula under the Daifang Commandery
  • Tang dynasty (당나라/唐朝) (668–690, 705–761 AD) – Ruled by the House of Li (이/李); Chinese rule over the Korean Peninsula under the Protectorate General to Pacify the East (안동도호부/安東都護府)
    • Second Zhou dynasty (무주/武周) (690–705 AD) – Interrupted the Tang dynasty; Ruled by the House of Wu (무/武)
  • North-South States (남북국/南北國) (698–892 AD)
    • Later Silla (후신라/後新羅) (668–935 AD) – Ruled by the House of Kim (김/金); Also called "Unified Silla" (통일신라/統一新羅)
    • Balhae (발해/渤海) (698–926 AD) – Ruled by the House of Dae (대/大)
  • Later Three Kingdoms (후삼국/後三國) (892–936 AD)
    • Later Silla (후신라/後新羅) (668–935 AD) – Ruled by the House of Kim (김/金); Also called "Unified Silla" (통일신라/統一新羅)
    • Taebong (태봉/泰封) (901–918 AD) – Ruled by the House of Gung (궁/弓)
    • Later Baekje (후백제/後百濟) (892–936 AD) – Ruled by the House of Gyeon (견/甄)
  • Goryeo (고려/高麗) (918–392 AD) – Ruled by the House of Wang (왕/王)
  • Jeongan (정안/定安) (938–986 AD)
  • Heungyo (흥요/興遼) (1029–1030 AD) – Ruled by the House of Dae (대/大)
  • Yuan dynasty (원나라/元朝) (1270–1356 AD) – Ruled by the House of Borjigin (보르지긴/孛兒只斤); Goryeo ruled as the Zhengdong Province (정동등처행중서성/征東等處行中書省) of the Yuan dynasty
  • Joseon (조선/朝鮮) (1392–1897 AD) – Ruled by the House of Yi (이/李)

Kuwait[edit]

Malaysia[edit]

Maldives[edit]

Mesopotamia[edit]

Mongolia[edit]

Myanmar (Burma)[edit]

Nepal[edit]

Oman[edit]

The Philippines[edit]

Royal families

Qatar[edit]

Ryūkyū[edit]

Saudi Arabia[edit]

Siberia[edit]

Singapore[edit]

Sri Lanka (Ceylon)[edit]

Thailand (Siam)[edit]

  • Lavachakkaraj dynasty (638–1292)
  • Phra Ruang dynasty (1238–1438) – Sukhothai Kingdom (อาณาจักรสุโขทัย)
  • Mangrai dynasty (1296–1558)
  • Uthong dynasty (1350–1370, 1388–1409) – Ayutthaya Kingdom (อาณาจักรอยุธยา)
  • Suphannaphum dynasty (1370–1388, 1409–1569) – Ayutthaya Kingdom
  • Sukhothai dynasty (1569–1629) – Ayutthaya Kingdom
  • Prasart Thong dynasty (1629–1688) – Ayutthaya Kingdom
  • Baan Plu Luang dynasty (1688–1767) – Ayutthaya Kingdom
  • Tipchakratiwong dynasty (1732–1932)
  • Thonburi dynasty (1767–1782) – Thonburi Kingdom (กรุงธนบุรี)
  • Chakri dynasty (ราชวงศ์จักรี) (1782–present) – Rattanakosin Kingdom (อาณาจักรรัตนโกสินทร์) and Kingdom of Thailand (ราชอาณาจักรไทย)

Tibet[edit]

Turkey[edit]

United Arab Emirates[edit]

Vietnam[edit]

Yemen[edit]

Europe[edit]

Albania[edit]

Austria[edit]

Barbarians[edit]

Bavarii[edit]
Franks[edit]
Huns[edit]

This is a list of rulers of the Huns. Period Ruler

  • Vund c. 360
  • Balamber 360–378
  • Baltazár (Alypbi) 378–390
  • Uldin (Khan of the Western Huns) 390–410
  • Donatus (Khan of the Eastern Black Sea Huns & beyond) 410–412
  • Charaton (Aksungur) 412–422
  • Octar[1] 422–432
  • Rugila 432–434
  • Bleda with Attila c. 434 – c. 445
  • Attila "the Hun" c. 434–453
  • Ellac 453 – c. 455
  • Tuldila fl. c. 457
  • Dengizich (Sabirs attack c. 460–463) ?-469 with Hernach/BelkErmak
  • Hernach/BelkErmak[2] 469–503
  • House of Dulo Bulgaria (390–503) A Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans genealogy claims that the Dulo clan is descended from Attila the Hun.
Scirii[edit]
  • Edeko
  • Odoacer (435–493), was the 5th-century King of Italy
Avars[edit]
Lombards[edit]
Ostrogoths[edit]
Suebi[edit]
Vandals[edit]
Visigoths[edit]

Belgium[edit]

Medieval feudal states[10][edit]
Kingdom of Belgium (1831)[edit]

Bohemia/Czechia[edit]

Great Moravia[edit]
Duchy of Bohemia[edit]
Kingdom of Bohemia[edit]

Bosnia[edit]

Bulgaria[edit]

Croatia[edit]

Denmark[edit]

England[edit]

Finland[edit]

France[edit]

Germany[edit]

Bavaria[edit]
Saxony[edit]

Greece[edit]

  • Erechtheid dynasty (1556–1127 BC) – Ruled over Athens
  • Melanthid dynasty (1126–1068 BC) – Ruled over Athens
  • Agiad dynasty (930–215 BC) – Ruled over Sparta (Σπάρτη)
  • Eurypontid dynasty (930–206 BC) – Ruled over Sparta
  • Argead dynasty (Ἀργεάδαι) (700–305 BC) – Ruled over Macedonia (Μακεδονία)
  • Paeonia Kingdom (Παιονία) (?–511 BC)
  • Achaemenid Empire (Αχαιμενιδική Αυτοκρατορία) (511–499, 492–479 BC)
  • Antigonid dynasty (Ἀντιγονίδαι) (306–286, 276–168 BC) – Ruled over Macedonia
  • Antipatrid dynasty (Ἀντιπατρίδαι) (305–294, 279–276 BC) – Ruled over Macedonia
  • Mithridatic dynasty (281–37 BC) – Ruled over Pontus (Βασίλειο του Πόντου)
  • Julio–Claudian dynasty (Ιουλιο-Κλαυδιανή δυναστεία) (27 BC–68 AD) – Greece under Roman rule
  • Flavian dynasty (68–96 AD) – Greece under Roman rule
  • Nerva–Antonine dynasty (96–192 AD) – Greece under Roman rule
  • Severan dynasty (193–235 AD) – Greece under Roman rule
  • Gordian dynasty (238–244 AD) – Greece under Roman rule
  • Decian dynasty (249–253 AD) – Greece under Roman rule
  • Valerian dynasty (253–268 AD) – Greece under Roman rule
  • Illyrian emperors (268–284 AD) – Greece under Roman rule
  • Caran dynasty (282–285 AD) – Greece under Roman rule
  • Constantinian dynasty (Δυναστεία του Κωνσταντίνου) (305–363 AD) – Greece under Roman/Byzantine rule
  • Valentinian dynasty (Δυναστεία του Βαλεντινιανού) (364–392 AD) – Greece under Byzantine rule
  • Theodosian dynasty (Δυναστεία του Θεοδοσίου) (379–457 AD) – Greece under Byzantine rule
  • House of Leo (Δυναστεία του Λέοντος) (457–518 AD) – Greece under Byzantine rule
  • Justinian dynasty (518–602 AD) – Greece under Byzantine rule
  • Heraclian dynasty (610–711 AD) – Greece under Byzantine rule
  • Isaurian dynasty (Δυναστεία των Ισαύρων) (717–802 AD) – Greece under Byzantine rule
  • Nikephorian dynasty (Δυναστεία του Νικηφόρου) (802–813 AD) – Greece under Byzantine rule
  • Amorian dynasty (820–867 AD) – Greece under Byzantine rule
  • Macedonian dynasty (Δυναστεία των Μακεδόνων) (867–1056 AD) – Greece under Byzantine rule
  • Doukid dynasty (Δυναστεία των Δουκών) (1059–1081 AD) – Greece under Byzantine rule
  • Komnenos dynasty (Δυναστεία των Κομνηνών) (1081–1185 AD) – Greece under Byzantine rule
  • Angelos dynasty (Οίκος των Αγγέλων) (1185–1204 AD) – Greece under Byzantine rule
  • House of Flanders (Οίκος της Φλάνδρας) (1204–1216 AD) – Greece within the Latin Empire (Λατινική Αυτοκρατορία)
  • Capetian House of Courtenay (1216–1261 AD) – Greece within the Latin Empire
  • Palaiologos dynasty (Δυναστεία των Παλαιολόγων) (1261–1453 AD) – Byzantine rule in Greece restored
  • House of Barcelona (Οίκος της Βαρκελώνης) (1319–1387 AD) – Ruled over the Duchy of Neopatras
  • Ottoman dynasty (Οθωμανική Δυναστεία) (1458–1830 AD) – Greece under Ottoman rule
  • House of Wittelsbach (Οίκος του Βίττελσμπαχ) (1832–1862 AD) – Kingdom of Greece (Βασίλειο της Ελλάδας)
  • House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg (Οίκος του Σλέσβιχ-Χόλσταϊν-Σόντερμπουργκ-Γκλύξμπουργκ) (1863–1924, 1935–1973 AD) – Kingdom of Greece

Hungary[edit]

Iceland[edit]

Ireland[edit]

Italy[edit]

Liechtenstein[edit]

Luxembourg[edit]

Malta[edit]

Monaco[edit]

Montenegro[edit]

Netherlands[edit]

Norway[edit]

Poland[edit]

Portugal[edit]

County of Portugal[edit]
Kingdom of Portugal[edit]

Roman Empire[edit]

Romania[edit]

Before the Unification[edit]
Moldavia[edit]
Wallachia[edit]
After the Unification[edit]

Russia[edit]

Scotland[edit]

Serbia[edit]

Spain[edit]

Before the Unification[edit]
Aragon[edit]
Asturias[edit]
Barcelona[edit]
Castile[edit]
León[edit]
Navarre[edit]
After the Unification (1516)[edit]

Sweden[edit]

Ukraine[edit]

Wales[edit]

North America[edit]

Alaska[edit]

Antigua and Barbuda[edit]

  • House of Stuart (1632–1649, 1660–1714) – Antigua and Barbuda under English rule (1632–1649, 1660–1707) and Antigua and Barbuda under British rule (1707–1714)
  • House of Hanover (1714–1901) – Antigua and Barbuda under British rule
  • House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (1901–1917) – Antigua and Barbuda under British rule

The Bahamas[edit]

Barbados[edit]

Belize[edit]

Bermuda[edit]

Canada[edit]

Cuba[edit]

El Salvador[edit]

Greenland[edit]

Grenada[edit]

Haiti[edit]

Jamaica[edit]

Maya[edit]

Mexico[edit]

Conterminous United States[edit]

South America[edit]

Argentina[edit]

  • House of Habsburg (Casa de Habsburgo) (1534–1700) – Argentina under Spanish rule
  • House of Bourbon (Casa de Borbón) (1700–1808, 1813–1816) – Argentina under Spanish rule
  • House of Bonaparte (Casa de Bonaparte) (1808–1813) – Argentina under Spanish rule

Brazil[edit]

Chile[edit]

Peru[edit]

Oceania[edit]

Australia[edit]

Cook Islands[edit]

Fiji[edit]

Hawaii[edit]

New Zealand[edit]

Papua New Guinea[edit]

Solomon Islands[edit]

Tahiti[edit]

Tonga[edit]

Tuvalu[edit]

Antarctica[edit]

Political families in republics[edit]

Though in elected governments, rule does not pass automatically by inheritance, political power often accrues to generations of related individuals in republics. Eminence, influence, tradition, genetics, and nepotism may contribute to the phenomenon.

Family dictatorships are a different concept in which political power passes within a family because of the overwhelming authority of the leader, rather than informal power accrued to the family.

Some political dynasties:

Influential/wealthy families[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Oxford English Dictionary, 1st ed. "dynasty, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897.
  2. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. "house, n.¹ and int, 10. b." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 2011.
  3. ^ Thomson, David (1961). "The Institutions of Monarchy". Europe Since Napoleon. New York: Knopf. pp. 79–80. The basic idea of monarchy was the idea that hereditary right gave the best title to political power...The dangers of disputed succession were best avoided by hereditary succession: ruling families had a natural interest in passing on to their descendants enhanced power and prestige...Frederick the Great of Prussia, Catherine the Great of Russia, Maria Theresa of Austria, were alike infatuated with the idea of strengthening their power, centralizing government in their own hands as against local and feudal privileges, and so acquiring more absolute authority in the state. Moreover, the very dynastic rivalries and conflicts between these eighteenth-century monarchs drove them to look for ever more efficient methods of government
  4. ^ Liddell, Henry George & al. A Greek–English Lexicon: "δυναστεία". Hosted by Tufts University's Perseus Project.
  5. ^ Liddell & al. A Greek–English Lexicon: "δυνάστης".
  6. ^ Liddell & al. A Greek–English Lexicon: "δύναμις".
  7. ^ Liddell & al. "δύναμαι".
  8. ^ a b Statement by Nick Clegg MP, UK parliament website, 26 March 2015 (retrieved on same date).
  9. ^ "Monaco royal taken seriously ill". BBC News. London. 8 April 2005. Retrieved January 27, 2013.
  10. ^ including County of Flanders, Marquisate of Namur, Duchy of Brabant, County of Hainaut, Duchy of Limburg, County of Luxembourg