Erlangen

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Erlangen
View over Erlangen, 2012
View over Erlangen, 2012
Coat of arms of Erlangen
Coat of arms
Erlangen   is located in Germany
Erlangen
Erlangen
Coordinates: 49°35′N 11°1′E / 49.583°N 11.017°E / 49.583; 11.017Coordinates: 49°35′N 11°1′E / 49.583°N 11.017°E / 49.583; 11.017
Country Germany
State Bavaria
Admin. region Mittelfranken
District Urban district
Government
 • Lord Mayor Florian Janik (SPD)
Area
 • Total 76.90 km2 (29.69 sq mi)
Population (2015-12-31)[1]
 • Total 108,336
 • Density 1,400/km2 (3,600/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes 91001–91058
Dialling codes 09131,
0911 (OT Hüttendorf),
09132 (OT Neuses),
09135 (OT Dechsendorf)
Vehicle registration ER
Website www.erlangen.de
Erlangen around 1915
Erlangen palace

Erlangen (German pronunciation: [ˈɛrlaŋən]; East Franconian: Erlang) is a Middle Franconian city in Bavaria, Germany. It is located north-west of Nuremberg at the confluence of the river Regnitz and its large tributary, the Schwabach. Erlangen has more than 100,000 inhabitants.

As of 2015 Erlangen is dominated by the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg and the numerous branch offices of Siemens AG, as well as a large research Institute of the Fraunhofer Society and the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light. An event that left its mark on the city was the settlement of Huguenots after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685.

Felix Klein's Erlangen program of 1872, considering the future of research in mathematics, is so called because Klein then taught at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg.

History[edit]

Erlangen was first mentioned in official records in 1002 under the name of Villa Erlangon. In 1361, the village was sold to Emperor Karl IV. Three years later, a city was built close to the village, which in 1374 was given its own mint. In 1398, the municipal rights were confirmed. In 1402, the city came into the possession of the House of Hohenzollern as part of the Principality of Brandenburg-Kulmbach (from 1603 on Brandenburg-Bayreuth), remaining under their rule until 1806. During the four year Napoleonic occupation, Erlangen was the capital of the so-called "Low County" (Unterland) of the principality, encompassing the area until Neustadt an der Aisch and separated from the "High County" (Oberland) by a land corridor. In 1810 it became part of the Kingdom of Bavaria, together with the rest of former Brandenburg-Bayreuth.

While it was still part of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, the first French Huguenot refugees arrived in Erlangen in 1686. Margrave Christian Ernst of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, built a "new town" (Neustadt) for them. In 1706, the old town (just below the site of the annual Bergkirchweih) was almost completely destroyed by a fire, but soon rebuilt. In 1812, the old and new towns were merged into one.

In 1742, Frederick, Margrave of Brandenburg-Bayreuth, founded a university for his royal seat of Bayreuth, but due to the rebelliousness of the local students, the university was transferred to Erlangen. Only later did it obtain the name of "Friedrich-Alexander-University" and become a Prussian state university. Famous students of these times were Johann Ludwig Tieck and Wilhelm Heinrich Wackenroder and Emmy Noether.

Already during the Bavarian municipal reform of 1818, the city was endowed with its own administration. In 1862, the canton administration Erlangen was founded, from which later arose the administrative district of Erlangen. In 1972, this district was merged with the administrative district of Höchstadt. Erlangen became the capital of this newly founded district Erlangen-Höchstadt. During this municipal reform, Erlangen was effectively enlarged considerably, thus in 1974 it had more than 100,000 inhabitants.

Points of interest[edit]

Bergkirchweih[edit]

The Bergkirchweih is an annual beer festival, similar to the Oktoberfest in Munich but smaller in scale. It takes place during the twelve days before and after Pentecost (that is, 49 days after Easter); this period is called the "fifth season" by the locals. The beer is served at wooden tables in one-litre stoneware jugs under the trees of the "Berg", a small, craggy, and wooded hill with old caves (beer cellars) owned by local breweries. The cellars extend for 21 km (14 miles)[2] throughout the hill (the "Berg") and maintain a constant cool underground temperature. Until Carl von Linde invented the electric refrigerator in 1871, this was considered to be the largest refrigerator in Southern Germany.[3]

The beer festival draws more than one million visitors annually. It features carnival rides of high tech quality, food stalls of most Franconian dishes, including bratwurst, suckling pig, roasted almonds, and giant pretzels.

It is commonly known by local residents as the "Berchkärwa" (pronounced "bairch'-care-va") or simply the "Berch", like in "Gehma auf'n Berch!" ("Let's go up the mountain!").

This is an outdoor event frequented and enjoyed by Franconians. Despite a relatively high number of visitors, it is not commonly known by tourists, or people living outside Bavaria.

Districts[edit]

  • Am Anger
  • Alterlangen
  • Bruck, pop. 20,000
  • Büchenbach
  • Burgberg
  • Dechsendorf
  • Eltersdorf, pop. around 3,200
  • Frauenaurach
  • Häusling
  • Hüttendorf
  • Innenstadt
  • Kosbach
  • Kriegenbrunn
  • Neusses
  • Röthelheim
  • Schallershof/Sonnenblick
  • Sieglitzhof/Buckenhofer Siedlung
  • Steudach
  • Tennenlohe[4]

Historical population[edit]

Year Population
1495 292
1630 550
1752 7,939
1830 9,800
December 1, 1871¹ 12,500
December 1, 1890¹ 17,559
December 1, 1900¹ 22,953
December 1, 1910¹ 24,877
June 16, 1925¹ 29,597
June 16, 1933¹ 32,348
May 17, 1939¹ 35,964
September 13, 1950¹ 50,690
June 16, 1961¹ 69,552
May 27, 1970¹ 84,110
June 20, 1975 100,700
June 30, 1980 100,900
June 30, 1985 100,000
May 27, 1987¹ 99,808
June 30, 1997 100,700
December 31, 1997 100,330
December 31, 1998 100,775
December 31, 1999 100,750
December 31, 2000 100,778
December 31, 2001 101,912
December 31, 2002 102,198
December 31, 2003 102,449
December 31, 2004 102,627
December 31, 2005 103,426
Largest groups of foreign residents[5]
Nationality Population (2013)
 Turkey 1,711
 Italy 972
 Austria 792
 China 748
 Greece 742
 India 660

Mayors of Erlangen[edit]

International relations[edit]

Erlangen is twinned with several cities:

Further partnerships[edit]

Famous residents[edit]

Though a small village for much of its history and now only a small city of only 100k inhabitants, Erlangen has made significant contributions to the world, primarily through its many Lutheran theologians, to its University of Erlangen-Nuremberg scholars, and the Siemens AG pioneers in science and technology.

Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius
Johann von Kalb
Georg Simon Ohm
Karl Daniel Heinrich Rau 1862

Among its noted residents are:

  • Johann de Kalb (1721-1780), - Soldier, War of Austrian Succession, Seven Years' War, Major General in the American Revolutionary War, namesake of many American towns
  • Philipp Ludwig Statius Müller (1725-1776), - zoologist, known to the classification of several new species, especially birds
  • Eugenius Johann Christoph Esper (1742-1810), - scientist, botanist, first to begin research into Paleopathology
  • Johann Schweigger - (1779-1857), chemist, physicist, mathematician, named "Chlorine", and invented the Galvanometer
  • August Friedrich Schweigger (1783-1921), - botanist, zoologist, known for taxonomy including the discovery of several turtle species
  • Georg Ohm - (1789-1854), German scientist, famous for Ohm's Law regarding electric current, and the measurement unit Ohm
  • Karl Heinrich Rau - (1792-1870), economist, published an influential encyclopedia of all "relevant" economic knowledge of his time
  • Carl Friedrich Philipp von Martius - (1794-1868), botanist, explorer, famous expedition into Brazil (1817-1820)
  • Adolph Wagner - (1835-1917), economist, founding proponent of Academic Socialism and State Socialism
  • Paul Zweifel (1848-1927), - gynecologist, proved that the fetus was metabolically active, paving the way for new fetal research
  • Emmy Noether - (1882-1935), mathematician, groundbreaking work on abstract algebra and theoretical physics
  • Fritz Noether (1884-1941), - mathematician, political prisoner, younger brother of Emmy Noether, imprisoned in Soviet Russia
  • Ernst Penzoldt - (1892-1955), artist, famous German author, painter, and sculptor
  • Eduard Hauser (soldier) (1895-1961), - German officer, general in World War II,
  • Heinrich Welker - (1912-1981), theoretical physicist, made numerous inventions in the early electrical engineering fields
  • Rudolf Fleischmann (1903-2002), - scientist, nuclear physicist, member of the Uranium Club, theorist on isotope separation
  • Bernhard Plettner - (1914-1997), electrical engineer and Business Administration, CEO for Siemens AG (1971-1981)
  • Helmut Zahn (1916-2004), - scientist, chemist, one of the first to discover the properties of Insulin
  • Walter Krauß (1917-1943), - Luftwaffe officer
  • Hans Lotter (1917-2008), - officer in World War II, escaped from POW camp and wrote memoirs about it
  • Georg Nees - (1926-2016), Graphic Artist, expanded ALGOL computer language, pioneer in digital art and sculptures
  • Elke Sommer - (born 1940), entertainer, Golden Globe Award winning actress from television and film, early Playboy playmate
  • Heinrich von Pierer - (born 1941), Business Administration, CEO for Siemens AG (1992-2005), advisor to numerous governmental figures
  • Gerhard Frey - (born 1944), mathematician, worked on Elliptic Curve and helped prove Fermat's Last Theorem
  • Karl Meiler - (1949-2014), tennis player, moderately successful in Doubles Tennis in the 1970s.
  • Karlheinz Brandenburg - (born 1954), sound engineer, contributor to the invention of the format MPEG Audio Layer III, or MP3
  • Klaus Täuber - (born 1958), footballer, played for several Bundesliga teams from the mid 1970s-1980s, managed at lower levels
  • Lothar Matthäus - (born 1961), German Football legend, World Cup Winning Captain, Bayern Captain, first FIFA World Player of the Year
  • Willi Kalender - medical physicist, pioneer in CT Scan technology and research into numerous diseases
  • Jürgen Teller - (born 1964), fine art and fashion photography, worked for numerous magazines and designers, often with Björk
  • Hisham Zreiq - (born 1968), award-winning Palestinian Christian Independent filmmaker, poet and visual artist.
  • Peter Wackel - (born 1977), singer, with 6 albums and over 25 singles, he has a niche singing Schlager musik
  • Flula Borg - (born 1982), entertainer, DJ, hip-hop artist, internet sensation, film critic

For a more complete list, please check out Category:People from Erlangen

References[edit]

External links[edit]