Bitter orange

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Citrus aurantium
Citrus aurantium.jpg
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Citrus
Species: C. × aurantium
Binomial name
Citrus × aurantium
L., 1753[1]
Synonyms[2]

Bitter orange, Seville orange, sour orange, bigarade orange, or marmalade orange refers to a citrus tree (Citrus × aurantium) and its fruit. It is native to southeast Asia, and has been spread by humans to many parts of the world.[3] Wild trees are found near small streams in generally secluded and wooded parts of Florida and The Bahamas after it was introduced to the area from Spain[3] where it had been introduced and cultivated heavily beginning in the 10th century by the Moors.[4][5]

It is a hybrid between Citrus maxima (pomelo) and Citrus reticulata (mandarin).[6] Many varieties of bitter orange are used for their essential oil, and are found in perfume, used as a flavoring or as a solvent. The Seville orange variety is used in the production of marmalade.

Bitter orange is also employed in herbal medicine as a stimulant and appetite suppressant, due to its active ingredient, synephrine.[7][8] Bitter orange supplements have been linked to a number of serious side effects and deaths, and consumer groups advocate that people avoid using the fruit medically.[9]

Varieties[edit]

Cooking[edit]

Seville orange (or bigarade) is a widely known, particularly tart orange which is now grown throughout the Mediterranean region. It has a thick, dimpled skin, and is prized for making marmalade, being higher in pectin than the sweet orange, and therefore giving a better set and a higher yield. It is also used in compotes and for orange-flavored liqueurs. Once a year, oranges of this variety are collected from trees in Seville and shipped to Britain to be used in marmalade.[12] However, the fruit is rarely consumed locally in Andalusia.[13]

The bitter orange, whole and sectioned.
English marmalade is traditionally homemade in the winter months

The Seville orange—when preserved in Caribbean sugar—is the principal ingredient in traditional British marmalade, reflecting the historic Atlantic trading relationship with Portugal and Spain: the earliest recipe for 'marmelat of oranges' dating from 1677.[14][page needed] The peel can be used in the production of bitters. The unripe fruit, called narthangai, is commonly used in Southern Indian cuisine, especially in Tamil cuisine. It is pickled by cutting it into spirals and stuffing it with salt. The pickle is usually consumed with yoghurt rice called thayir sadam. The fresh fruit is also used frequently in pachadis.

The Belgian Witbier (white beer) is made from wheat beer spiced with the peel of the bitter orange. The Finnish and Swedish use bitter orange peel in gingerbread (pepparkakor), some Christmas bread and in mämmi. It is also used in the Nordic mulled wine glögg. In Greece and Cyprus, the nerántzi or kitrómilon, respectively, is one of the most prized fruits used for spoon sweets, and the C. aurantium tree (nerantziá or kitromiliá) is a popular ornamental tree. In Albania as well, "nerënxa" or "portokalli i hidhur" is used commonly in spoon sweets. The blossoms are collected fresh to make a prized sweet-smelling aromatic jam ("Bitter orange blossom jam" Morabba Bahar-Narendj), or added to brewing tea.

In Turkey, juice of the ripe fruits can be used as salad dressing, especially in Çukurova region. However, in Iraqi cuisine, a bitter orange or "raranj" in Iraqi is used to compliment dishes like Charred Fish "samak/simach maskouf", tomato stew "morgat tamata", "Qeema", a dish that has the same ingredients as an Iraqi tomato stew, with the addition of minced meat, boiled chikpeas "lablabi", salads as a dressing and pretty much on every single dish you desire to accompany bitter orange with. Iraqis also consume it as a citrus fruit or juice it to make bitter orange juice "'aseer raranj". Throughout Iran (commonly known as narenj), the juice is popularly used as a salad dressing, souring agent in stews and pickles or as a marinade.

In the Americas, the juice from the ripe fruit is used as a marinade for meat in Nicaraguan, Cuban, Dominican and Haitian cooking, as it is in Peruvian ceviche. In Yucatán (Mexico), it is a main ingredient of the cochinita pibil.

Herbal stimulant[edit]

Bitter oranges

The extract of bitter orange (and bitter orange peel) has been marketed as dietary supplement purported to act as a weight-loss aid and appetite suppressant. Bitter orange contains the tyramine metabolites N-methyltyramine, octopamine and synephrine,[15] substances similar to epinephrine, which act on the α1 adrenergic receptor to constrict blood vessels and increase blood pressure and heart rate.[16][17] Several low-quality clinical trials have had results of p-Synephrine (alone or in combination with caffeine or some other substances) increasing weight loss slightly.[18]

Similarities to ephedra[edit]

Following bans on the herbal stimulant ephedra in the U.S., Canada, and elsewhere, bitter orange has been substituted into "ephedra-free" herbal weight-loss products by dietary supplement manufacturers.[19] Like most dietary supplement ingredients, bitter orange has not undergone formal safety testing, but it is believed to cause the same spectrum of adverse events (harmful side-effects) as ephedra.[20] The U.S. National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health found that "there is currently little evidence that bitter orange is safer to use than ephedra."[8]

Case reports have linked bitter orange supplements to strokes,[21][22] angina,[15] and ischemic colitis.[23] Following an incident in which a healthy young man suffered a myocardial infarction (heart attack) linked to bitter orange, a case study found that dietary supplement manufacturers had replaced ephedra with its analogs from bitter orange.[24]

Drug interactions[edit]

Bitter orange may have serious drug interactions with drugs such as statins in a similar way to the long list of grapefruit–drug interactions.[25]

Other uses[edit]

This orange is used as a rootstock in groves of sweet orange.[3] The fruit and leaves make lather and can be used as soap.[3] The hard white or light yellow wood is used in woodworking and made into baseball bats in Cuba.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Citrus × aurantium L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 1999-12-17. Retrieved 2010-01-05. 
  2. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 29 September 2015. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f C. aurantium. Purdue Horticulture.
  4. ^ Morton, Julia (1987). Fruits of warm climates. Miami: Morton, J. 1987. Sour Orange. p. 130–133. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL. pp. 130–133. ISBN 0-9610184-1-0. 
  5. ^ TRILLO SAN JOSE, CARMEN (2004). AGUA Y PAISAJE EN GRANADA: UNA HERENCIA DE AL-ANDALUS. Granada, Spain: DIP. PROV. DE GRANADA. ISBN 9788478073528. 
  6. ^ "Plant Profile for Citrus ×aurantium L. (pro sp.), http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=CIAU8
  7. ^ Sharpe PA, Granner ML, Conway JM, Ainsworth BE, Dobre M (December 2006). "Availability of weight-loss supplements: Results of an audit of retail outlets in a southeastern city". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 106 (12): 2045–51. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2006.09.014. PMID 17126636. 
  8. ^ a b "Bitter Orange". National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health. April 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  9. ^ "Dangerous Supplements: Twelve Supplements You Should Avoid". Consumer Reports Magazine. September 2010. 
  10. ^ Roger M. Grace. "Cadbury Schweppes Reigns Supreme Over Orange Soda Market". metnews.com. 
  11. ^ "Citrus bergamia Risso & Poit.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. 
  12. ^ Campaña de recogida de la naranja amarga.[permanent dead link] sevilla.org.
  13. ^ Apenas se aprovechará la naranja que se recoja en la capital este año. 20minutos.es.
  14. ^ Henry, Diana (2012). Salt sugar smoke : how to preserve fruit, vegetables, meat and fish. London: Mitchell Beazley. ISBN 978-1845336752. 
  15. ^ a b Gange CA, Madias C, Felix-Getzik EM, Weintraub AR, Estes NA (April 2006). "Variant angina associated with bitter orange in a dietary supplement". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 81 (4): 545–8. doi:10.4065/81.4.545. PMID 16610576. 
  16. ^ Bui LT, Nguyen DT, Ambrose PJ (January 2006). "Blood pressure and heart rate effects following a single dose of bitter orange". The Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 40 (1): 53–7. doi:10.1345/aph.1G488. PMID 16317106. 
  17. ^ Hess AM, Sullivan DL (March 2005). "Potential for toxicity with use of bitter orange extract and guarana for weight loss". The Annals of pharmacotherapy. 39 (3): 574–5. doi:10.1345/aph.1E249. PMID 15657116. 
  18. ^ Stohs SJ, Preuss HG, Shara M (August 2012). "A review of the human clinical studies involving Citrus aurantium (bitter orange) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine.". Int J Med Sci. 9 (7): 527–538. doi:10.7150/ijms.4446. PMC 3444973Freely accessible. PMID 22991491. 
  19. ^ Duenwald, Mary (2005-10-11). "Bitter Orange Under Scrutiny as New Ephedra". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  20. ^ Jordan S, Murty M, Pilon K (October 2004). "Products containing bitter orange or synephrine: suspected cardiovascular adverse reactions" (pdf). Canadian Medical Association Journal. 171 (8): 993–4. PMID 15497209. 
  21. ^ Bouchard NC, Howland MA, Greller HA, Hoffman RS, Nelson LS (April 2005). "Ischemic stroke associated with use of an ephedra-free dietary supplement containing synephrine". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 80 (4): 541–5. doi:10.4065/80.4.541. PMID 15819293. 
  22. ^ Holmes RO, Tavee J (July 2008). "Vasospasm and stroke attributable to ephedra-free xenadrine: case report". Military Medicine. 173 (7): 708–10. PMID 18700609. 
  23. ^ Sultan S, Spector J, Mitchell RM (December 2006). "Ischemic colitis associated with use of a bitter orange-containing dietary weight-loss supplement". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 81 (12): 1630–1. doi:10.4065/81.12.1630. PMID 17165643. 
  24. ^ Thomas JE, Munir JA, McIntyre PZ, Ferguson MA (2009). "STEMI in a 24-Year-Old Man after Use of a Synephrine-Containing Dietary Supplement: A Case Report and Review of the Literature". Tex Heart Inst J. 36 (6): 586–90. PMC 2801940Freely accessible. PMID 20069086. 
  25. ^ Mayo clinic: article on interference between grapefruit and medication

External links[edit]