|Town and nahiyah|
|Elevation||350 m (1,150 ft)|
|Population (2004 census)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
Tell Abyad (Arabic: تل أبيض, Kurdish: Girê Spî, literally White Hill) is a town and center of nahiya in Syria. It is the administrative center of the Tell Abyad District within the Ar-Raqqah Governorate. Located along the Balikh River, it constitutes a divided city with the bordering city of Akçakale in Turkey.
On 16 June 2015, the town was captured by the Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG) and the Tahrir Brigade in the course of their Tell Abyad offensive, and since then has remained under their control. As a preliminary result of the ongoing Syrian Civil War, Tell Abyad today is situated within the autonomous Federation of Northern Syria – Rojava.
In antiquity, Tell Abyad and the surrounding region was ruled by the Assyrian Empire and settled by Arameans. Tell Abyad could have been the site of the neo-Assyrian–era Aramean inhabited settlement of Baliḫu, mentioned in 814 BC. Later, various other empires ruled the area, such as the Romans, Byzantines, Sassanids, Umayyads, Abbasids and finally the Ottoman Empire. Tell Abyad remained Ottoman till the end of World War I, when it was incorporated in the French mandate of Syria.
The modern town was founded by Armenian refugees from Turkey and survivors of the deportations conducted during the Armenian Genocide, with around 250 Armenian families living in the city prior to the civil war.
Syrian Civil War
After the Syrian Civil War started in 2011, diverse islamist opposition groups controlled the town, some of them under the flag of the Free Syrian Army. On June 30, 2014, Tell Abyad was captured by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), who raised their flag at the border crossing with Turkey. After ISIL took control, they announced from the minarets of the local mosques that all Kurds had to leave Tel Abyad or else be killed. Thousands of civilians, including some Turkmen and Arab families, fled on 21 July. ISIL fighters systematically looted and destroyed the property of Kurds, and in some cases, resettled displaced Arab Sunni families from the Qalamoun area (Rif Damascus), Dayr Az-Zawr and Ar-Raqqah in abandoned Kurdish homes. According to a Turkish columnist of the news agency Al-Monitor, 30-45% of Tell Abyad's population Kurdish, and from July 19, 2013 to Aug. 5, 2013 Kurds were driven out of Tell Abyad by Turkish supported factions.
In the June 2015 Tell Abyad Campaign, the town was besieged and on June 2015 taken over by forces of the Federation of Northern Syria – Rojava, the YPG and Free Syrian Army allies. In the immediate aftermath, the Turkish military was accused of opening fire at Rojavan forces, which the Turkish Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoglu admitted.
After the capture of Tel Abyad district, some groups and authorities have accused Kurdish YPG fighters of deliberately displacing thousands of Arabs and Turkmens from the areas they captured from ISIL forces in northern Syria, including Tel Abyad district — a charge strongly denied by the Kurds. The accusation was not backed by any evidence of ethnic or sectarian killings. The head of Syrian Observatory for Human Rights said the people who had fled into Turkey were escaping fighting and there was no systematic effort to force people out. Kurdwatch, a Germany based internet portal, suggested displacements, no large-scale ethnically motivated expulsions, repressive measures against persons with ties to ISIL, ethnic discrimination based on the fact that only Kurds from Tall Abyad could act as a guarantor for refugees so that they can return to Tall Abyad from Turkey.
On 21 October 2015, a council including representatives of local Arab, Kurdish, Turkmen and Armenian communities declared Tell Abyad part of the de-facto autonomous Federation of Northern Syria – Rojava. As a community in Kobanê Canton, the town enjoys self-governance in the Democratic Confederalist system of Rojava. The 178-member higher council that governs Tel Abyad has elected mixed-gender co-mayors, as mandated under Rojava rules, initially ethnic Arab Mansour Seloum (later elected co-chairperson for the executive committee to organise a new constitution for Rojava, and replaced by ethnic Arab Hamdan al-Abad) and ethnic Kurd Layla Mohammed, the latter 27 years old and the first female mayor of Tell Abyad ever. While previously education was available only in Arabic language, now Arabic and Kurdish are taught in schools and there are plans to introduce Turkish in addition; one focus of the administration is to encourage women to seek higher education.
On February 27, 2016, Tell Abyad came under attack from ISIL militants. YPG militias and Asayish police forces repelled the attack and eliminated all of the ISIL attackers, but more than 40 security forces and around 20 civilians were left dead. A YPG spokesman claimed that some of the ISIL attackers had crossed from Turkey to attack the town. Turkey quickly denied this claim. According to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, there was not any infiltration from Turkish borders but dormant IS sleeper cells and others entered the town on the eve of the offensive dressed YPG uniforms. There have been multiple other instances of ISIL terror attacks in Tel Abyad, for example on 29 June and 8 July 2016 two bombings that each claimed ten civilian lives.
On 15 September, the flag of the United States was raised over several public institutional buildings in Tel Abyad. The United States Central Command confirmed that the flags were planted by US troops in the city and not the YPG. Notwithstanding, Peoples Protection Units (YPG) near Tel Abyad took artillery fire from Turkish military forces on 22 September.
Before the Syrian Civil War, Tell Abyad had a population of 14,825 according to the 2004 census. More recent (2015) sources reported that the majority of the inhabitants are Arabs, with a Kurdish, Turkmen and Armenian minority.
According to a human rights group Kurdwatch, which is based in Germany and advocates for the Kurdish population, Tell Abyad is mainly populated by Arabs, while in the environs of Tell Abyad 15% of the population is Turkmen, 10% Kurdish and the rest is ethnic Arab.
Differing sources claim that Kurds constitute a percentage less than 30% or might number up to 55% of the population. The governor of Şanlıurfa, Turkey has claimed that 98% of the region is made up of Arabs and Turkmens.
However, the real composition of the population remains unclear, since recent events in the Syrian Civil War like flows of refugees and displacements caused major changes which make it quite impossible to identify actual demographics. Another problem with demographic estimates of the area generally is that the tensions between Arabs and Kurds have produced biased assertions which only a valid census can put to rest.
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Media related to Tell Abyad at Wikimedia Commons