United States cable news

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Cable news refers to television channels devoted to television news broadcasts, with the name deriving from the proliferation of such networks during the 1980s with the advent of cable television. In the United States, early networks included CNN in 1980, Financial News Network in 1981 and CNN2 (now HLN) in 1982. CNBC was created in 1989, taking control of FNN in 1991. Through the 1990s and beyond, the cable news industry continued to grow to incorporate several other networks, including MSNBC, Fox News Channel, and specialty channels including Bloomberg Television, Fox Business Network, and ESPN News. More recent additions to the cable news business are CBSN, Newsmax TV, TheBlaze, Al Jazeera America, Fusion and One America News Network.

As the highest rated and most widely available cable news channels, CNN, FNC, and MSNBC are sometimes referred to as the "big three". While the networks are usually referred to as 24-hour news networks, reruns of news programs and analysis or opinion programming are played throughout the night, with the exception of breaking news.

Regional 24-hour cable news television channels that are primarily concerned with local programming and cover some statewide interest are News 14 Carolina (which operates out of North Carolina), NY1 (which operates from New York City) and Northwest Cable News (NWCN) (which operates from Seattle). New England Cable News covers the six state region of New England, while the primary core of Time Warner Cable News covers the numerous regions of Upstate New York.

"Big Three" news channels[edit]

CNN[edit]

Main article: CNN
Cnn.svg

Cable News Network (CNN) launched on June 1, 1980, as the first cable channel devoted to news programming. The Persian Gulf War in 1991 catapulted CNN into the spotlight, largely because the channel was the only news outlet with the ability to communicate from inside Iraq during the initial hours of the American bombing campaign, with live reports from the al-Rashid Hotel in Baghdad by reporters Bernard Shaw, John Holliman and Peter Arnett. Throughout the 1990s, CNN (which was at the time the only major cable news channel) became very influential, an influence later coined as the CNN effect.

During the 1990s, CNN was criticized by former Republican House Majority Leader Tom DeLay and among other conservatives of liberal bias and have referred to CNN as the "Clinton News Network."[1] To this day, CNN is still considered by some to have a liberal bias.[2][3] and catering to a more liberal audience.[4] However, MSNBC has in recent years shifted to become the strongest liberal outlet of the big three.

CNN was the first cable news network to begin broadcasting in high definition in September 2007.[5] Today, CNN's television personalities include Wolf Blitzer, Erin Burnett, Anderson Cooper and Jake Tapper.

CNN spinoffs[edit]

HLN 2014 logo.svg

In 1982, the Turner Broadcasting System (which would merge with Time Warner in 1996) created a spin-off of CNN called CNN2, which was originally formatted to show the top news stories of the day on a 30-minute "wheel" schedule. The channel rebranded as CNN Headline News in 1983, before the network abandoned the CNN branding and changed its name to the orphaned initialism HLN in 2008, following a shift from news programming towards a mix of news during the day and discussion programs and documentary series at night that began two years earlier.

CNN en Español.svg

Turner founded CNN International in 1985, with a straight focus on international news stories compared to CNN, which featured an equal emphasis and U.S. and world news. CNN launched a special service on January 20, 1992 called CNN Airport Network which is available exclusively in United States airports; the service simulcasts programs from CNN and HLN, but with inserts of information of interest to air travelers. CNN also operates a Spanish language service, CNN en Español.

Turner Broadcasting also established two, now defunct networks. CNNfn, launched at the end of 1995, attempted to challenge CNBC. It ceased operations after nine years on the air in December 2004. CNNSI, a parnership between CNN and Sports Illustrated, attempted to counter the rising success of ESPNews in covering sports news. While the network was shut down, CNN and Sports Illustrated continue to maintain their partnership, with Sports Illustrated operating a sports section on CNN's website.

Fox News Channel[edit]

Main article: Fox News Channel
Fox News Channel logo.png

Fox News Channel (FNC) was founded in 1996 under the ownership of News Corporation (founded by Australian-born media mogul Rupert Murdoch), the third largest media company in the United States behind Time Warner and The Walt Disney Company. The network is headed by chief executive officer Roger Ailes. The network began broadcasting its programming in high definition in May 2008.[6]

Since the network's launch, FNC has gradually grown to become the highest-rated cable network. FNC's prime time lineup includes programs such as The O'Reilly Factor, hosted by Bill O'Reilly, which has been a top rated program since the early 2000s when considered among major cable news channels. While the channel's longtime slogan are "Fair and Balanced" and "We Report. You Decide", the network has long been criticized for maintaining a conservative bias.

MSNBC[edit]

Main article: MSNBC
MSNBC 2008 logo.svg

MSNBC debuted in 1996, as a partnership between NBC News and Microsoft (Microsoft's stake in the channel was gradually bought out by NBC until the latter's parent NBCUniversal bought out the remaining minority stake held by Microsoft in 2011). When the network was launched, its leading hosts included Jodi Applegate, John Gibson, Tim Russert and Brian Williams. For over a decade, the network's ratings were consistently in last place among the cable news channels.

After Phil Griffin became president of MSNBC in mid-2008, the channel began shifting towards an increasingly politically liberal ideology in its analysis programming, particularly in its prime-time lineup.[7][8][9] MSNBC launched a high definition simulcast feed on June 29, 2009.[10]

Notable personalities on the network include Morning Joe co-hosts Joe Scarborough and Mika Brzezinski, daytime anchors Chuck Todd and Andrea Mitchell, and evening commentators Chris Matthews and Rachel Maddow. The network was noted in the mid-2000s for its harsh criticism of then President George W. Bush, most notably the 'special comment' segment of former anchor Keith Olbermann's show, Countdown. This, combined with accusations of support for current U.S. President Barack Obama, have led to MSNBC being criticized for a 'liberal bias' by conservatives, a reputation it has increasingly embraced with its "Lean Forward" slogan (which it adopted in 2011) and open promotion of progressive and liberal ideas.

The channel has a spin-off called Shift. Established in 2014, it is an online-only channel through its website MSNBC.com. The programming schedule is less focused on politics than the main channel, built to be a divergence from it and is more tailored to a younger audience. The channel also contains on demand content.

Ratings[edit]

Until the start of 2002, CNN was the number one cable news network in the ratings.[11] FNC has been number one among cable news audiences since that point.[12]

Since March 2009, MSNBC held second place in primetime viewership. For the first time in 2012, MSNBC finished second in total day ratings for the year, beating the previously top rated CNN. MSNBC president Phil Griffin attributed the success to the network's more 'progressive' commentary, with former anchor Keith Olbermann and current host Rachel Maddow taking advantage of on-air changes at CNN. MSNBC has also noted the consistent ratings growth enjoyed, especially while FNC and CNN have seen declining viewerships.[13][14] Since 2013, CNN has occasionally fallen below its sister network, HLN, in part due to struggles with its primetime schedule, and thus sometimes finishes in fourth place. However, breaking news coverage has led to CNN occasionally triumphing over both MSNBC and HLN.

As of March 2015, a major ratings decline at MSNBC has pushed that network to fourth place.[15]

Other cable news channels[edit]

General news[edit]

Al Jazeera America[edit]

Main article: Al Jazeera America

Based on Al Jazeera English, the Al Jazeera Media Network created Al Jazeera America (AJAM) in August 2013, launching it over the channel space formerly occupied by Current TV. The channel provides both domestic and international news and features with talent such as Tony Harris, John Seigenthaler, Ray Suarez, Joie Chen, Antonio Mora, Ali Velshi and Lisa Fletcher along with hosts from Al Jazeera English. While not as widely distributed as CNN, MSNBC and FNC, the channel is currently available in about 55 million homes. The channel is fully managed and operated in the United States and its president is Kate O'Brian, who formerly served as vice president of ABC News.

The channel produces its programs in high definition, but broadcasts (at least temporarily) in standard definition on most carriers due to the fact that the channel that Al Jazeera America replaced, Current TV had transmitted only in standard definition; the HD feed is currently only carried by Google Fiber, Verizon FIOS, Time Warner Cable, AT&T U-Verse and Bright House Networks.

CBSN[edit]

Main article: CBSN
CBSN channel Logo.png

CBSN is the new carrier of CBS News. It broadcasts completely free, 24/7 non-stop online, and is available on their website or various streaming setup boxes such as the Apple TV.

Fusion[edit]

Main article: Fusion (TV channel)
Fusion TV 2013 logo.png

Fusion is a joint venture between the Disney-ABC Television Group subsidiary of The Walt Disney Company and Univision Communications, and relies in part on the resources of their respective news divisions, ABC News and Noticias Univision. The channel launched in October 2013. The network's content features news, lifestyle, pop culture, satire and entertainment aimed at English-speaking millennials, including those of a Hispanic background; the channel is Univision's first major push into English-language programming. The channel features talent such as Alicia Menendez, Mariana Atencio and Jorge Ramos.

It is distributed on both Dish Network and DirecTV along with Verizon FIOS, AT&T U-Verse, Google Fiber and Cablevision/Optimum and is being provided on upcoming Disney/ESPN carriage deals with other providers. Fusion is ABC's third attempt at a cable news channel after Satellite News Channel and ABC News Now.

Newsmax TV[edit]

Main article: Newsmax TV
Newsmax TV Logo.png

Newsmax TV debuted June 15, 2014 as a television arm of Newsmax, a Republican-leaning media company better known for its magazine and Web site. As of 2014, it is distributed on both Dish Network and DirecTV through a time-buy arrangement.[16]

One America News Network[edit]

One America News Network (OAN) was launched in the summer of 2013 by Herring Networks, initially under the cooperation of The Washington Times. The channel's content consists of rolling news coverage and political talk shows from a conservative viewpoint. Currently it is the least widely distributed of the cable news outlets and distributed by Verizon FiOS, CenturyLink Prism, Consolidated Communications, and AT&T U-verse. It formerly streamed online but no longer does so as of December 2014.

As of 2015, OAN is said to have viewership that “outperforms Fusion, Bloomberg and Al Jazeera combined, according to first quarter ratings on total hours viewed,” despite its much narrower distribution.[17]

Russia Today[edit]

Main article: RT America
Russia-today-logo.svg

Russia Today America (branded on air as RT) is the official arm of the Russian Federation's media organ, Russia Today. The American channel launched in 2010. Its content is generally progressive in character.[18] Talent on the network includes Thom Hartmann and Larry King.

TheBlaze[edit]

Main article: TheBlaze

TheBlaze TV is the television arm of TheBlaze, a multimedia network founded and operated by radio host Glenn Beck. Beck, who previously hosted a daily hourlong television show on Headline News and FNC, formed TheBlaze TV (originally known as GBTV) on September 12, 2011, shortly after leaving FNC. TheBlaze is available via Dish Network, various smaller cable providers, and through subscription Internet television.

Financial news[edit]

The Big Three:[19]

CNBC Bloomberg TV FBN
Headquarters Englewood Cliffs, N.J. New York City New York City
Number of Households in 2012 97 million 57 million 68 million
Profits in 2008 $350 million $15.6 million not reported*
Management Mark Hoffman (President) Michael Clancy (Executive Editor) Roger Ailes (CEO)
  • FBN is operated as a division of the Fox Entertainment Group – which had $1.85 billion in net income in 2004. No information reported for the profits or losses which the FBN division represents.

CNBC[edit]

Main article: CNBC
CNBC logo.svg

CNBC (originally an abbreviation for the Consumer News and Business Channel) was launched by NBC in 1989 after the purchase of Satellite Program Network, and merged with competitor Financial News Network that same year. It is owned by the NBCUniversal News Group, a unit of the NBCUniversal Television Group division of NBCUniversal. CNBC is the widest distributed of the business channels with about 84.27% of carriage. The channel has many international spin-offs.

Bloomberg Television[edit]

Main article: Bloomberg Television
Bloomberg Television logo.svg

CNBC gained a competitor in the financial news genre with Bloomberg Television, which was created in 1994 by Bloomberg L.P., led by former New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg. It is distributed worldwide through cable, satellite and internet providers, and is headquartered in New York.

Fox Business Network[edit]

Main article: Fox Business Network

FBN is the sister business network to Fox News Channel. In October 2007, News Corporation launched its own financial news network called Fox Business Network (FBN); News Corporation CEO Rupert Murdoch stated his reason for launching the channel was that CNBC is too "negative towards business", and had promised to make FBN more "business friendly".

Ratings[edit]

FBN's ratings are generally too low to be registered beyond Nielsen's margin of error;[20] its highest viewership was estimated to be 202,000 viewers, during the 7:00 a.m. Eastern Time hour of Imus in the Morning's debut broadcast on the network in 2009.[21] Bloomberg also does not subscribe to Nielsen and its ratings are assumed to be very low (however, its viewership was higher than CNBC's when Bloomberg's programming was simulcast on E! in the early morning hours, an arrangement that began in 2004 after USA Network ended its simulcast of the channel after ten years, and was discontinued altogether under E! in 2007).[22] Currently, CNBC usually has between 200,000-400,000 viewers during the day.[23] In 2000, CNBC had higher ratings then CNN during market hours.[24] The viewership of business newscasts may be underestimated in part because much of its viewership comes from communal areas, most of which cannot be accurately measured by Nielsen and are thus not counted.

Professional Sports news[edit]

ESPNews[edit]

Main article: ESPNews
ESPN ews.svg

ESPN launched a 24-hour sports news channel named ESPNews on November 1, 1996, which is carried by most cable and satellite providers, although usually only on dedicated sports and information tiers. It airs news, highlights, press conferences and commentary by analysts all in relation to sports. ESPNews was also syndicated to regional sports networks as daytime filler programming and also often appears as blackout filler on ESPN or ESPN2 when those channels air a program unavailable in a certain geographic area.

ESPNews scaled back its news-only format in 2013, after several years of ESPN expanding its flagship newscast, SportsCenter, throughout the daytime hours on the main channel. ESPNews newscasts are now branded under the SportsCenter brand, while replays of ESPN2 talk programs typically air when SportsCenter airs on ESPN's main channel.

At least one of the ESPN networks is usually carrying a SportsCenter broadcast at any given time, with the lone exceptions being particularly busy sports days in which all three networks (ESPN, ESPN2 and ESPNEWS) are carrying sporting events.

Fox Sports 1[edit]

Main article: Fox Sports 1

Fox Sports Media Group rebranded Speed Network as Fox Sports 1, a sports channel carrying both analysis shows and live sports events, on August 13, 2013. The studio programs are usually pushed to its sister station, Fox Sports 2, when live sports are occurring during the broadcast.

Fox Sports 2[edit]

Main article: Fox Sports 2

Launched as Fuel TV on July 1, 2003 and relaunched on August 17, 2013, Fox Sports 2 acts primarily as an overflow network for Fox Sports 1, airing their studio programs when they cannot air on Fox Sports 1 due to schedule conflicts, and also airs reruns of Fox Sports 1 programming. However, Fox Sports 2 does air live sports as well.

MLB Network[edit]

Main article: MLB Network

MLB Network is the official sports channel of the MLB, and is owned by MLB as well. From former msnbc studios in Secaucus, New Jersey, MLB carries a host of original programming, and some shows are hosted by former baseball players such as Kevin Millar. Their show Quick Pitch has a similar format to ESPN's SportsCenter. The station also carries several baseball games a week.

NBCSN[edit]

Main article: NBCSN

Originally launched as the Outdoor Life Network in 1995, rebranded in '06 as Versus and rebranded yet again in 2012 as NBC Sports Network, the name was finally abbreviated to NBCSN. The network often airs live sports events. NBCSN is most known for their coverage of the Olympics hosted by Bob Costas. Unlike NBC, which airs reruns of the most anticipated Olympic events of the day, NBCSN airs Olympic events live. NBCSN also air news & analysis programming.

Comcast SportsNet[edit]

Main article: Comcast SportsNet

A completely reigonal network, Comcast SportsNet broadcasts completely local programming. Both analysis and sporting events are local, and programming is usually exclusive to the local network.

The Golf Channel[edit]

Main article: Golf Channel
Golf Channel Logo.png

Also owned by NBC, Golf Channel airs continual exclusive coverage of golf, airing both live golf events and a plethora of golf news shows.

CBS Sports Network[edit]

Main article: CBS Sports Network
CBS Sports Network Logo.png

Originally launched as a college sports network, CBS Sports Network airs a vast array of NCAA games. The CBS Sports Network has also aired over 1,000 hours of sports talk programs.

NESN[edit]

Stylized on-screen as NESN, the New England Sports Network, is the flagship station of both the Boston Red Sox and the Boston Bruins. NESN airs many live sports events, but also broadcasts sports talk shows regularly.

YES[edit]

Main article: YES Network

The Yankees Entertainment & Sports Network, also known as YES, and the YES Network, airs New York Yankees baseball games and Brooklyn Nets basketball games and also features extensive coverage of New York sports teams.

MASN[edit]

Main article: MASN

The Mid-Atlantic Sports Network, often shortened to MASN, is the flagship station for the Baltimore Orioles. MASN offers various sports talk shows, although occasionally will simulcast ESPNews. MASN is owned 90% by the Orioles and 10% by the Nationals.

MASN2[edit]

Main article: MASN § MASN2

MASN2, MASN's sister station, is the flagship station of the Washington Nationals. Unlike MASN, which will switch to an SD simulcast of ESPNews sparingly, MASN2 simulcasts ESPNews more often, due to a lack of original programming.

Tennis Channel[edit]

Main article: Tennis Channel

The Tennis Channel, similar to the Golf Channel, is a sport-specific network. However, not only does The Tennis Channel broadcast tennis matches from all across the globe as well as game analysis, they also broadcast tennis lessons.

College Sports news[edit]

ESPNU[edit]

Main article: ESPNU
ESPN U logo.svg

ESPNU is a 24-hour sports news network dedicated to college sports. ESPN airs a customized version of SportsCenter, College SportsCenter, covering college sports, as well as documentaries about college teams and players.

Big Ten Network[edit]

Main article: Big Ten Network

The Big Ten Network, whose origins can be traced back to '03, airs a large amount of origianal sports programming, including a program similar to SportsCenter called Big Ten Tonight, as well as live sports. Unlike other college sports channels, such as ESPNU or BTN's sister station Fox College Sports, BTN covers the Big Ten Conference exclusively.

Fox College Sports[edit]

Main article: Fox College Sports

Fox College Sports airs an extremely large amount of live sports. Because Fox Sports has so many rights to so many college sporting events, FCS networks are split by reigon, similar to Fox Sports.

Longhorn Network[edit]

Main article: Longhorn Network

Launched in 2011 as a joint venture between ESPN & the Texas Longhorns, the Longhorn Network airs over 20 different live sports, as well as sports news & analysis.

SEC Network[edit]

Main article: SEC Network

Three years after the launch of the Longhorn Network, ESPN entered a similard joint venture with the Southeastern Conference, also known as the SEC. While it does broadcast over 20 different SEC sports, it also airs analysis of upcoming games as well as a sports talk show. Some SEC Network football games are simulcast on WDCW.

PAC 12 Network[edit]

Main article: Pac-12 Network

The Pac-12 Network covers every sport in the PAC-12 as well as every team in the conference, airing nearly 900 live events a year. With the vast amount of events in the PAC-12, the Pac-12 Network has been split into 6 separate regional channels.

Weather news[edit]

The Weather Channel[edit]

Main article: The Weather Channel
The Weather Channel logo 2005-present.svg

The Weather Channel is the market leader in news regarding weather forecasting and the most widely distributed cable network in the United States. It was launched in August 1982, under the ownership of Landmark Communications (which sold the network to a joint venture of NBCUniversal, Blackstone Group and Bain Capital in 2008). Originally, the channel was devoted entirely to weather forecasts and news coverage (with computer-generated local forecasts inserted through each individual cable provider every ten minutes, and previously at randomized time intervals, ten times an hour), but since 2001, the network has increasingly cut back its weather coverage in favor of reality television and documentary series (this reliance on such programs has led to carriage disputes between Dish Network and DirecTV in the early 2010s, the latter resulting in the channel's first provider defection, citing subscriber complaints regarding The Weather Channel's shift away from forecast programs). Most of the channel's morning and at least part of its afternoon lineup remains devoted to weather news coverage and national forecasts. As of 2013, it is operated under the same corporate structure as MSNBC.

Since the 2000s, there have been several other attempts to launch weather-centric television channels.

The Local AccuWeather Channel[edit]

Main article: AccuWeather Channel

The Local AccuWeather Channel is distributed mainly as a digital subchannel on various terrestrial television outlets.

WeatherNation TV[edit]

Main article: WeatherNation TV

WeatherNation TV, originally known as The Weather Cast, also uses this model (having taken the place of The Local AccuWeather Channel as the affiliation of certain stations' weather channels since 2013), although it also provides a feed directly to cable providers.

NBC Weather Plus[edit]

Main article: NBC Weather Plus

Before NBC and its partners acquired The Weather Channel, NBCUniversal operated NBC Weather Plus, a digital multicast service that operated from 2004 to 2008 (continuing thereafter as a locally programmed service using Weather Plus' graphics system called NBC Plus).

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Media Research Center Press Release February 21, 2003
  2. ^ Jeffrey N. Weatherly, et al, “Perceptions of Political Bias in the Headlines of Two Major News Organizations,” The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics (2007; 12), 91 at p. 97
  3. ^ 2007 State of the News Media
  4. ^ "PEJ Press Release (PEJ)". Pew Research Center's Project for Excellence in Journalism. 2007-03-12. Retrieved 2009-02-27. 
  5. ^ TV Week September 6, 2007 CNN HD launches.
  6. ^ Multichannel News April 29, 2008 FOX News to make HD bow with Time Warner
  7. ^ Cable Channel Nods to Ratings and Leans Left. New York Times. Published November 6, 2007. Accessed August 24, 2008.
  8. ^ Kurtz, Howard (2008-09-08). "MSNBC Drops Olbermann, Matthews as News Anchors". Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-09-30. 
  9. ^ Stelter, Brian (2008-09-07). "MSNBC Takes Incendiary Hosts From Anchor Seat". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-09-30. 
  10. ^ MSNBC To Go HD in June
  11. ^ "State of the News Media 2004". Journalism.org. 2004. Retrieved 28 January 2009. 
  12. ^ "State of the News Media 2008". Journalism.org. 2008. Retrieved 28 January 2009. 
  13. ^ Associated Press March 28, 2009 CNN in third place in prime time for first time
  14. ^ Jesse Holcomb, Amy Mitchell and Tom Rosenstiel (2012). "Cable: By the Numbers". The State of the News Media 2012. The Pew Research Center. Retrieved 29 August 2012. 
  15. ^ http://www.politico.com/story/2015/03/as-ratings-plunge-msnbc-faces-shakeup-116207.html
  16. ^ [1]
  17. ^ Roller, Emma. How one TV channel is positioning itself to be the next Fox News. National Journal. Retrieved March 18, 2015.
  18. ^ http://freebeacon.com/politics/rt-or-msnbc/
  19. ^ State of the Media 2009 Ratings Chart
  20. ^ Fox Business Network Flop
  21. ^ Krakauer, Steve (2009-10-06). Has Fox Business Found Its Star? Imus Premiere Gets Strong Ratings. Retrieved 2009-10-08.
  22. ^ New York Times September 3, 2007 Picking Up the Pace in Business TV
  23. ^ TV By the Numbers O’Reilly vs. Olbermann Through Thursday, March 19
  24. ^ Fastcompany.com December 17, 2007 The Revolution Will Be Televised (on CNBC)