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(also called hát vè , literally " singing") is a Vietnamese poetic and song form, most typical of northern Vietnam. It is used primarily in satirical poems, and is also performed with the accompaniment of percussion instruments. It is often used to make humorous observations about a certain topic, as a form of social criticism.

A poem or song consists of rhyming couplets, in which the final syllable of every other row rhymes with the final syllable in the next row. The rhyme scheme is therefore:

  1. xxxa
  2. xxxb
  3. xxxb
  4. xxxc
  5. xxxc
  6. xxxd

The following is an example of , in which the words that rhyme are highlighted.

Lại truyền ra khắp hết bốn phương,
Đem bảng dán chư châu thiên hạ.
Gái nào đành dạ,
Mà giết đặng chồng.
Chém lấy đầu đem nạp bệ rồng,
Vua phong chức Hoàng Tôn quận chúa.


  • Dương Quảng Hàm (1980?). Văn-học Việt-Nam. Glendale, Ca.: Dainam.