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Vietnamese clothing refers to the traditional clothes worn in Vietnam. During the Nguyễn dynasty, the Vietnamese were forced to wear Chinese style clothing. But now from the twentieth century onward Vietnamese people wear clothing that is popular internationally.
It was up to the 1920s in Vietnam's north area in isolated hamlets wear skirts were worn. The Chinese Ming dynasty, Tang dynasty, and Han dynasty clothing was ordered to be adopted by Vietnamese military and bureaucrats by the Nguyen Lord Nguyễn Phúc Khoát (Nguyen The Tong).
Examples of garments
- Áo dài - the typical Vietnamese formal girl's dress
- Áo giao lĩnh - cross-collared robe worn before the Nguyen dynasty.
- Áo tứ thân - a four-piece woman's dress, áo ngũ thân in 5-piece form.
- Yếm - woman's undergarment.
- Áo bà ba - two-piece ensemble for men and women
- áo gấm - formal brocade tunic for government receptions, or áo the for the man in weddings.
- Đinh Tự, Phốc Đầu, the standard conical nón lá and lampshade nón quai thao (Headware)
- Áo tràng Phật tử - typically shortened to "áo tràng" it is a robe worn by Upāsaka and Upāsikā in Vietnamese Buddhist temples.[a]
- "black pyjamas", dép lốp (rubber sandals), the rural khăn rằn scarf. (Clothing associated with the Vietnam war)
From the twentieth century onward Vietnamese people have also worn clothing that is popular internationally. The Áo dài was briefly banned after the fall of Saigon but made a resurgence. Now it is worn in white by high school girls in Vietnam. It is also worn by receptionists and secretaries. Styles differ in northern and southern Vietnam. The current formal national dress is the áo dài for women, suits or áo the for men.
Trần dynasty clothings as depicted in The Great Monk of Bamboo Forest descending the mountain[b]
Court dress of Lê Dynasty
Mandarin boots and shoes. Gilded metal, Nguyễn dynasty, 19th-early 20th century[c]
Court attires of Nguyễn Dynasty
Ceremonial dress of Marshall Nguyen Tri Phuong[d]
Official hat, Nguyen dynasty, 19th to early 20th century, gilded metal[e]
- Typically light blue but can be found in brown and is similar to the ones worn by Vietnamese Buddhist monastics in regards to the trademark collar similar to the áo dài but without the sleeves with hidden pockets. While there are matching pants they are not a required part of the outfit for laity. A similar version can be found in Cao Đài temples.
- Trúc Lâm Đại Sĩ Xuất Sơn, a 14th-century scroll at the Liaoning museum.
- Objects for worship, at the National Museum Vietnamese History
- The dress was taken as a trophy by Garnier in the capture of Hanoi in 1873
- At the National Museum of Vietnamese History in Hanoi, Vietnam
- A. Terry Rambo (2005). Searching for Vietnam: Selected Writings on Vietnamese Culture and Society. Kyoto University Press. p. 64. ISBN 978-1-920901-05-9.
- Jayne Werner; John K. Whitmore; George Dutton (August 21, 2012). Sources of Vietnamese Tradition. Columbia University Press. pp. 295–. ISBN 978-0-231-51110-0.
- Harms, Erik (2011). Saigon's Edge: On the Margins of Ho Chi Minh City. University of Minnesota Press. p. 56. ISBN 9780816656059.
She then left the room to change out of her áo Ba Ba into her everyday home clothes, which did not look like peasant clothes at all. In Hóc Môn, traders who sell goods in the city don “peasant clothing” for their trips to the city and change back
- Vo, Nghia M. (2011). Saigon: A History. McFarland. p. 202. ISBN 9780786464661.
The new government banned the wearing of the traditional áo dài. Their income from sewing áo dài suddenly plummeted, forcing them to sell everything to survive: refrigerator, radio, food and clothing. Only after the ban was lifted ten years later
- Taylor, Philip (2007). Modernity and Re-enchantment: Religion in Post-revolutionary Vietnam. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 157. ISBN 9789812304407.
The contemporary versions of Áo dài are of considerable sociological interest as they represent regional variations, as well as age and gender arrangements (men rarely wear them nowadays and usually dress in Western-style suits
- Leshkowich, Ann Marie. "History of Ao Dai".
- Ay-leen (October 20, 2010). "The Ao Dai and I: A Personal Essay on Cultural Identity and Steampunk".