WeChat

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from WeChat Pay)
Jump to navigation Jump to search
WeChat
WeChat logo.svg
WeChat Running on Apple iOS 8
WeChat Running on Apple iOS 8
Developer(s)Tencent Holdings Limited
Initial release21 January 2011; 8 years ago (2011-01-21) (as Weixin)
Stable release(s) [±]
iOS7.0.4 / March 5, 2019; 6 months ago (2019-03-05)[1]
macOS2.3.25 / June 5, 2019; 3 months ago (2019-06-05)[2]
Android7.0.5 / July 15, 2019; 2 months ago (2019-07-15)[3]
Windows Phone 8.16.0.8 (discontinued)[4] / 2016; 3 years ago (2016)
Symbian V34.2 / February 4, 2013; 6 years ago (2013-02-04)[5]
Symbian V54.2 / January 17, 2013; 6 years ago (2013-01-17)[6]
Preview release(s)
Android7.0 / November 19, 2018; 10 months ago (2018-11-19)[7]
Operating systemCross-platform
Available inMultilingual (20)
TypeInstant messaging client
LicenseProprietary freeware
Websitewww.wechat.com (International)
weixin.qq.com (China)

WeChat (Chinese: 微信; pinyin: About this soundWēixìn; literally: 'micro-message') is a Chinese multi-purpose messaging, social media and mobile payment app developed by Tencent. It was first released in 2011, and became one of the world's largest standalone mobile apps in 2018,[8][9] with over 1 billion monthly active users.[10][11][12] WeChat has been described as China's "app for everything" and a "super app" because of its wide range of functions.[13][14][15] Due to its popularity, user activity on WeChat is used for mass surveillance in China.[16][17][18] WeChat has also engaged in censorship of politically sensitive topics in China.[19][20][21][22]

History[edit]

WeChat began as a project at Tencent Guangzhou Research and Project center in October 2010.[23] The original version of the app was created by Zhang Xiaolong and named "Weixin" by Ma Huateng, CEO of Tencent[24] and launched in 2011. The government has actively supported the development of the e-commerce market in China—for example in the 12th five-year plan (2011–2015).[25]

By 2012, when the number of users reached 100 million, Weixin was re-branded "WeChat" for the international market.[26]

WeChat had over 889 million monthly active users in 2016. As of 2019, WeChat's monthly active users have increased to an estimate of one billion. After the launch of WeChat payment in 2013, its users reached 400 million the next year,[27][28][29] 90 percent of whom were in China.[30] By comparison, Facebook Messenger and WhatsApp (two other competitive international messaging services better known in the West) had about one billion monthly active users in 2016 but did not offer most of the other services available on WeChat.[9][31] For example, in Q2 2017, WeChat's revenues from social media advertising were about US$0.9 billion (RMB6 billion) compared to Facebook's total revenues of US$9.3 billion, 98% of which were from social media advertising. WeChat's revenues from its value-added services were US$5.5 billion.[32]

According to SimilarWeb, WeChat was the most popular messaging app in China and Bhutan in 2016.[33]

Features[edit]

Messaging[edit]

WeChat provides text messaging, hold-to-talk voice messaging, broadcast (one-to-many) messaging, video calls and conferencing, video games, photograph and video sharing, as well as location sharing.[34] WeChat also allows users to exchange contacts with people nearby via Bluetooth, as well as providing various features for contacting people at random if desired (if people are open to it). It can also integrate with other social networking services such as Facebook and Tencent QQ.[35] Photographs may also be embellished with filters and captions, and automatic translation service is available.

WeChat supports different instant messaging methods, including text message, voice message, walkie talkie, and stickers. Users can send previously saved or live pictures and videos, profiles of other users, coupons, lucky money packages, or current GPS locations with friends either individually or in a group chat. WeChat's character stickers, such as Tuzki, resemble and compete with those of LINE, a Korean messaging application.[36]

Official accounts[edit]

WeChat users can register as an official account, which enables them to push feeds to subscribers, interact with subscribers and provide them with services. There are three types of official accounts: a service account, a subscription account and an enterprise account. Once users as individuals or organizations set up a type of account, they cannot change it to another type. By the end of 2014, the number of WeChat official accounts had reached 8 million.[37] Official accounts of organizations can apply to be verified (cost 300 RMB or about USD$45). Official accounts can be used as a platform for services such as hospital pre-registrations,[38] visa renewal[39] or credit card service.[40]

Moments[edit]

"Moments" is WeChat's brand name for its social feed of friends' updates. "Moments" is an interactive platform that allows users to post images, text, and short videos taken by users. It also allows users to share articles and music (associated with QQ Music or other web-based music services). Friends in the contact list can give thumbs up to the content and leave comments. Moments can be linked to Facebook and Twitter accounts, and can automatically post Moments content directly on these two platforms.[35]

In 2017 WeChat had a policy of a maximum of two advertisements per day per Moments user.[31]

Privacy in WeChat works by groups of friends: only the friends from the user's contact are able to view their Moments' contents and comments. The friends of the user will only be able to see the likes and comments from other users only if they are in a mutual friend group. For example, friends from high school are not able to see the comments and likes from friends from university. When users post their moments, they can separate their friends into a few groups, and they can decide whether this Moment can be seen by particular groups of people.[41] Contents posted can be set to "Private", and then only the user can view it.

WeChat Pay digital payment services[edit]

WeChat Pay

In China, users who have provided bank account information may use the app to pay bills, order goods and services, transfer money to other users, and pay in stores if the stores have WeChat payment option. Vetted third parties, known as "official accounts", offer these services by developing lightweight "apps within the app".[42] Users can link their Chinese bank accounts, as well as Visa, MasterCard and JCB.[43]

WeChat Pay is a digital wallet service incorporated into WeChat, which allows users to perform mobile payments and send money between contacts.[44]

Although users receive immediate notification of the transaction, the WeChat Pay system is not an instant payment instrument, because the funds transfer between counterparts is not immediate.[45] The settlement time depends on the payment method chosen by the customer.

Every WeChat user has their own WeChat Payment account. Users can acquire a balance by linking their WeChat account to their debit card, or by receiving money from other users. For non-Chinese users of WeChat Pay, an additional identity verification process of providing a photo of a valid ID as well as oneself is required before certain functions of WeChat Pay become available. Users who link their credit card can only make payments to vendors, and cannot use this to top up WeChat balance. WeChat Pay can be used for digital payments, as well as payments from participating vendors.[46] As of March 2016, WeChat Pay had over 300 million users.[47]

In 2014 for Chinese New Year, WeChat introduced a feature for distributing virtual red envelopes, modelled after the Chinese tradition of exchanging packets of money among friends and family members during holidays. The feature allows users to send money to contacts and groups as gifts. When sent to groups, the money is distributed equally, or in random shares ("Lucky Money"). The feature was launched through a promotion during China Central Television's heavily watched New Year's Gala, where viewers were instructed to shake their phones during the broadcast for a chance to win sponsored cash prizes from red envelopes. The red envelope feature significantly increased the adoption of WeChat Pay. According to the Wall Street Journal, 16 millions red envelopes were sent in the first 24 hours of this new feature's launch.[48] A month after its launch, WeChat Pay's user base expanded from 30 million to 100 million users, and 20 million red envelopes were distributed during the New Year holiday. In 2016, 3.2 billion red envelopes were sent over the holiday period, and 409,000 alone were sent at midnight on Chinese New Year.[46]

In 2016, WeChat started a service charge if users transferred cash from their WeChat wallet to their debit cards. On March 1, WeChat payment stopped collecting fees for the transfer function. Starting from the same day, fees will be charged for withdrawals. Each user had a 1,000 Yuan (about US$150) free withdrawal limit. Further withdrawals of more than 1,000 Yuan were charged a 0.1 per cent fee with a minimum of 0.1 Yuan per withdrawal. Other payment functions including red envelopes and transfers were still free.[49]

WeChat Pay's main competitor in China and the market leader in online payments is Alibaba Group's Alipay. Alibaba company founder Jack Ma considered the red envelope feature to be a "Pearl Harbor moment", as it began to erode Alipay's historic dominance in the online payments industry in China, especially in peer-to-peer money transfer. The success prompted Alibaba to launch its own version of virtual red envelopes in its competing Laiwang service. Other competitors, Baidu Wallet and Sina Weibo, also launched similar features.[46]

In 2019 it was reported that WeChat had overtaken Alibaba with 800 million active WeChat mobile payment users versus 520 million for Alibaba's Alipay.[50][31] However Alibaba had a 54 per cent share of the Chinese mobile online payments market in 2017 compared to WeChat's 37 per cent share.[51] In the same year, Tencent introduced "WeChat Pay HK", a payment service for users in Hong Kong. Transactions are carried out with Hong Kong dollar.[52] In 2019 it was reported that Chinese can use WeChat pay in 25 countries outside of China, including, Italy, South Africa and the UK.[50]

In the 2018 Berkshire Hathaway annual shareholders meeting, Charlie Munger identified WeChat as one of the few potential competitors to Visa, Mastercard and American Express.[53]

Enterprise WeChat[edit]

For work purposes, companies and business communication, a special version of WeChat called Enterprise WeChat (or Qiye Weixin) was launched in 2016. The app was meant to help employees separate work from private life.[54] In addition to the usual chat features, the program let companies and their employees keep track of annual leave days and expenses that need to be reimbursed, employees could ask for time off or clock in to show they were at work.[54][55][56][57]

WeChat Mini Program[edit]

In 2017, WeChat launched a feature called "Mini Programs".[58] A mini program is an app within an app. Business owners can create mini apps in the WeChat system, implemented using JavaScript plus a proprietary API.[59] Users may install these inside the WeChat app. In January 2018, WeChat announced a record of 580,000 mini-programs.[60] With one Mini Program, consumers could scan the Quick Response code using their mobile phone at a supermarket counter and pay the bill through the user's WeChat mobile wallet.[25] WeChat Games have received huge popularity, with its "Jump Jump" game attracting 400 million players in less than 3 days and attaining 100 million daily active users in just two weeks after its launch, as of January 2018.[61][62][63]

Mini Programs also allow businesses to sell on WeChat direct to consumers, using WeChat Pay as the payment mechanism.

Other[edit]

In 2015, WeChat offered a heat map feature that showed crowd density. Quartz columnist Josh Horwitz alleged the feature is being used by the Chinese government to track irregular assemblies of people to determine unlawful assembly.[64]

In January 2016, Tencent launched WeChat Out, a VOIP service allowing users to call mobile phones and landlines around the world. The feature allowed purchasing credit within the app using a credit card. WeChat Out was originally only available in the United States, India, and Hong Kong, but later coverage was expanded to Thailand, Macau, Laos, and Italy.[65][66]

In March 2017, Tencent released WeChat Index. By inserting a search term in the WeChat Index page, users could check the popularity of this term in past 7, 30, or 90 days.[67] The data were mined from data in official WeChat accounts and metrics such as social sharing, likes and reads were used in the evaluation.

In May 2017 Tencent started news feed and search functions for its WeChat app. The Financial Times reported this was a "direct challenge to Chinese search engine Baidu".[68]

WeChat allowed people to add friends by a variety of methods, including searching by username or phone number, adding from phone or email contacts, playing a "message in a bottle" game, or viewing nearby people who are also using the same service. In 2015 WeChat added a "friend radar" function.[69]

In 2017, WeChat was reported to be developing an augmented reality (AR) platform as part of its service offering. Its artificial intelligence team was working on a 3D rendering engine to create a realistic appearance of detailed objects in smartphone-based AR apps. They were also developing a simultaneous localization and mapping technology, which would help calculate the position of virtual objects relative to their environment, enabling AR interactions without the need for markers, such as Quick Response codes or special images.[70]

WeChat Business[edit]

WeChat Business (Chinese: 微商) is one of the latest mobile social network business model after e-commerce, which utilize business relationship and friendship to maintain customer relationship.[71] Comparing with the traditional E-business like JD.com and Alibaba, WeChat Business has large range of influence and profits with less input and lower threshold, which attracts loads of people to join in WeChat business.[72]

Marketing modes[edit]

B2C Mode[edit]

This is the main profit modes of WeChat Business. The first one is to launch advertisements and provide service through WeChat Official Account, which is a B2C mode. This mode has been used by many hospitals, banks, fashion brands, internet companies and personal blogs because the Official Account can access to online payment, location sharing, voice messages, mini-games and so on. It is like a 'mini App', so the company have to hire specific staff to manage the account. By 2015, there are more than 100 million WeChat Official Accounts in this platform.[73]

B2B Mode[edit]

WeChat salesperson in this mode is to agent and promote products by individual, which belongs to C2C mode. In this mode, individual sellers always post relevant photos and messages of their agent products on the WeChat Moments or WeChat groups and sell products to their WeChat friends. Besides, they develop friendship with their customers by sending messages in festival or write comments under their updates on WeChat moments to increase their trust. Also, keep communicating with the regular customers rise the 'WOF'(word-of-mouth) communications, which influences decisions making. Some of the WeChat businessman already have an online shop in Taobao, but use WeChat to maintain existing customers.[74]

Existing problems[edit]

As more and more people have joined WeChat Business, it has brought many problems. For example, some sellers have begun to sell fake luxury goods such as bags, clothes and watches. Some of them have special channels to obtain high-quality fake luxury products and sell them at a low price. Moreover, some sellers have even disguised themselves as international flight attendants or overseas students to post fake stylish photos on WeChat Moments. They then claim that they can provide overseas purchasing services but sell fake luxury goods at the same price as the true one.[75] Another hot product selling on WeChat is facial masks, Its marketing mode is like that of Amway but most goods are unbranded products which came from illegal factories making excess hormones with could have serious effects customer's health.[76] However, it is difficult for customers to defend their rights because a large number of sellers' identities are uncertified. Additionally, the lack of any supervision mechanism in WeChat business also provides chances for criminals to continue this illegal behavior.[77][78]

Marketing[edit]

Campaigns[edit]

In a 2016 campaign, users could upload a paid photo on "Moments" and other users who could pay to see the photo and comment on it. The photos were taken down each night.[79]

Collaborations[edit]

In 2014, Burberry partnered with WeChat to create its own WeChat apps around its fall 2014 runway show, giving users live streams from the shows.[80] Another brand, Michael Kors used WeChat to give live updates from their runway show, and later to run a photo contest "Chic Together WeChat campaign".[81]

In 2016, L'Oréal China cooperated with Papi Jiang to promote their products. Over one million people watched her first video promoting L'Oreal's beauty brand MG.[82][83]

In 2016, WeChat partnered with 60 Italian companies (WeChat had an office in Milan) who were able to sell their products and services on the Chinese market without having to get a license to operate a business in China.[84] In 2017, Andrea Ghizzoni, European director of Tencent, said that 95 per cent of global luxury brands used WeChat.[84]

Platforms[edit]

Currently Supported Mobile Platforms
Android iPhone Windows Phone BlackBerry Symbian
Support Yes Yes Windows 10 Mobile only No No

Currently, WeChat's mobile phone app is available only for Android and iPhone.[85] BlackBerry, Windows Phone, and Symbian phones were supported before. However, as of September 22, 2017, WeChat is no longer working on Windows Phones.[86][87] The company ceased the development of the app for Windows Phones before the end of 2017. Although Web-based OS X[88] and Windows[89] clients exist, this requires the user to have the app installed on a supported mobile phone for authentication, and neither message roaming nor 'Moments' are provided.[90] Thus, without the app on a supported phone, it is not possible to use the web-based WeChat clients on the computer.

The company also provides WeChat for Web, a web-based client with messaging and file transfer capabilities. Other functions cannot be used on it, such as the detection of nearby people, or interacting with Moments or Official Accounts. To use the Web-based client, it is necessary to first scan a QR code using the phone app. This means it is not possible to get onto the WeChat network if you do not possess a suitable smartphone with the app installed.[91]

WeChat could be accessed on Windows using BlueStacks until December 2014. Beginning then, WeChat blocks Android emulators and accounts that have signed in from emulators may be frozen.[92]

There have been some reported issues with the Web client.[93] Specifically when using English, some users have experienced autocorrect, autocomplete, auto-capitalization, and auto-delete behavior as they type messages and even after the message was sent. For example, "gonna" was autocorrected to "go", the E's were auto-deleted in "need", "wechat" was auto-capitalized to "Wechat" but not "WeChat", and after the message was sent, "don't" got auto-corrected to "do not". However, the auto-corrected word(s) after the message was sent appeared on the phone app as the user had originally typed it ("don't" was seen on the phone app whereas "do not" was seen on the Web client). Users could translate a foreign language during a conversation and the words were posted on Moments.[94]

Security concerns[edit]

State surveillance[edit]

WeChat operates from China under Chinese law, which includes strong censorship provisions and interception protocols.[95] WeChat can access and expose the text messages, contact books, and location histories of its users.[95] Due to WeChat's popularity, the Chinese government uses WeChat as a data source to conduct mass surveillance in China.[16][17][18]

States such as India,[95][96][97] Australia[98] the United States,[99] and Taiwan fear that the app poses a threat to national or regional security for various reasons.[95][100] In June 2013, the Indian Intelligence Bureau flagged WeChat for security concerns. India has debated whether or not they should ban WeChat for its possibility in collecting too much personal information and data from its users.[96][101][102] In Taiwan, legislators were concerned that the potential exposure of private communications was a threat to regional security.

In 2016 Tencent was awarded a score of zero out of 100 in an Amnesty International report ranking technology companies on the way they implement encryption to protect the human rights of their users.[103] The report placed Tencent last out of a total of 11 companies, including Facebook, Apple, and Google, for the lack of privacy protections built into WeChat and QQ. The report found that Tencent did not make use of end-to-end encryption, which is a system that allows only the communicating users to read the messages.[104] It also found that Tencent did not recognize online threats to human rights, did not disclose government requests for data, and did not publish specific data about its use of encryption.[105]

A September 2017 update to the platform's privacy policy detailed that log data collected by WeChat included search terms, profiles visited, and content that had been viewed within the app. Additionally, metadata related to the communications between WeChat users—including call times, duration, and location information—was also collected. This information, which was used by Tencent for targeted advertising and marketing purposes, might be disclosed to representatives of the Chinese government:[106][107]

  1. To comply with applicable law or regulations.
  2. To comply with a court order, subpoena, or other legal process.
  3. In response to a request by a government authority, law enforcement agency, or similar body.

Privacy issues[edit]

Users in China also have expressed concern for the privacy issues of the app. Human rights activist Hu Jia was jailed for three years for sedition. He speculated that the officials of the Internal Security Bureau of the Ministry of Public Security listened to his voicemail messages that were directed to his friends, repeating the words displayed within the voice mail messages to Hu Jia. Chinese authorities have further accused the WeChat app of threatening individual safety. China Central Television (CCTV), a state run broadcaster, featured a piece in which WeChat was described as an app that helped criminals due to its location-reporting features. CCTV gave an example of such accusations through reporting the murder of a single woman who, after he attempted to rob her, was murdered by a man she met on WeChat. The location-reporting feature, according to reports, was the reason for the man knowing the victim's whereabouts. Authorities within China have linked WeChat to numerous crimes. The city of Hangzhou, for example, reported over twenty crimes related to WeChat in the span of three months.[95][108]

XcodeGhost malware[edit]

In 2015, Apple published a list of the top 25 most popular apps infected with the XcodeGhost malware, confirming earlier reports that version 6.2.5 of WeChat for iOS was infected with it.[109][110][111] The malware originated in a counterfeit version of Xcode (dubbed "XcodeGhost"), Apple's software development tools, and made its way into the compiled app through a modified framework.[112] Despite Apple's review process, WeChat and other infected apps were approved and distributed through the App Store. Even though some sources claimed that the malware was capable of prompting the user for their account credentials, opening URLs and reading the device's clipboard,[113] Apple responded that the malware was not capable of doing "anything malicious" or transmitting any personally identifiable information beyond "apps and general system information" and that it had no information that suggested that this had happened.[109] Some commentators considered this to be the largest security breach in the App Store's history.[112]

Censorship[edit]

Global censorship[edit]

Starting in 2013 reports arose that Chinese language searches even outside China were being keyword filtered and then blocked.[19][20] This occurred both on incoming traffic to China from foreign countries but also exclusively between foreign parties (the service had already censored its communications within China). In the international example of blocking, a message was displayed on users' screens: "The message "南方周末" your message contains restricted words. Please check it again." These are the Chinese characters for a Guangzhou-based paper called Southern Weekly (or, alternatively, Southern Weekend). The next day Tencent released a statement addressing the issue saying "A small number of WeChat international users were not able to send certain messages due to a technical glitch this Thursday. Immediate actions have been taken to rectify it. We apologize for any inconvenience it has caused to our users. We will continue to improve the product features and technological support to provide a better user experience." WeChat planned to build two different platforms to avoid this problem in the future; one for the Chinese mainland and one for the rest of the world. The problem existed because WeChat's servers were all located in China and thus subjected to its censorship rules.[21][114][22]

Two censorship systems[edit]

In 2016, the Citizen Lab published a report saying that WeChat was using different censorship policies in mainland China and other areas. They found that:[115]

  1. Keyword filtering was only enabled for users who registered via phone numbers from mainland China;
  2. Users did not get notices any more when messages are blocked;
  3. Filtering was more strict on group chat;
  4. Keywords were not static. Some newfound censored keywords were in response to current news events;
  5. The Internal browser in WeChat blocked Chinese accounts from accessing some websites such as gambling, Falun Gong and critical reports on China. International users were not blocked except accessing some gambling and pornography websites.

Restricting sharing websites in "Moments"[edit]

In 2014, WeChat announced that according to "related regulations", domains of the web pages that want to get shared in WeChat Moments need to get an Internet Content Provider (ICP) license by December 31, 2014 to avoid being restricted by WeChat.[116]

Iran[edit]

In September 2013 WeChat was blocked in Iran. Authorities cited WeChat Nearby (Friend Radar) and the spread of pornographic content as the reason of censorship.

The Committee for Determining Instances of Criminal Content (a working group under the supervision of the attorney general) website FAQ says:[117][118]

Because WeChat collects phone data and monitors member activity and because app developers are outside of the country and not cooperating, this software has been blocked, so you can use domestic applications for cheap voice calls, video calls and messaging.

On January 4, 2018, WeChat was unblocked in Iran.[119]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tencent Inc. (June 25, 2014). "WeChat". App Store. Apple. Retrieved January 22, 2019.
  2. ^ Tencent Inc. (March 17, 2014). "WeChat". Mac App Store. Apple. Retrieved January 2, 2018.
  3. ^ Tencent Inc. (November 16, 2017). "WeChat". Google Play. Google. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  4. ^ Mayank Parmar (September 22, 2017). "WeChat is not working on Windows Phone anymore". www.windowslatest.com. Retrieved Jan 28, 2019.
  5. ^ Tencent Inc. "WeChat 4.2 for S60v3 Release". WeChat. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  6. ^ Tencent Inc. "WeChat 4.2 for S60v5 Release". WeChat. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
  7. ^ "WeChat APKs". APKMirror. Android Police. November 19, 2018. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  8. ^ It's time for messaging apps to quit the bullshit numbers and tell us how many users are active. techinasia.com. January 23, 2014. Steven Millward.
  9. ^ a b "WeChat's world". The Economist. 2016-08-16. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
  10. ^ "WeChat now has over 1 billion active monthly users worldwide · TechNode". TechNode. 5 March 2018.
  11. ^ "Tencent's Profit Is Better Than Expected". Bloomberg.com. 15 November 2017.
  12. ^ "WeChat users pass 900 million as app becomes integral part of Chinese lifestyle". The Drum.
  13. ^ "Huge Rounds, Heated Competition: How Tencent & Alibaba Are Defining VC In China - Crunchbase News". Crunchbase News.
  14. ^ "WeChat touts success of 580,000 'mini-programs' now in use". CGTN America. 16 January 2018.
  15. ^ "How WeChat Became China's App For Everything". Fast Company. 2 January 2017.
  16. ^ a b Cockerell, Isobel (9 May 2019). "Inside China's Massive Surveillance Operation". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved 2019-06-22.
  17. ^ a b Dou, Eva (Dec 8, 2017). "Jailed for a Text: China's Censors Are Spying on Mobile Chat Groups". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2019-06-22.
  18. ^ a b McDonell, Stephen (7 June 2019). "WeChat and the Surveillance State". BBC. Retrieved 2019-06-22.
  19. ^ a b "China: World Leader of Internet Censorship". Human Rights Watch. June 3, 2011.
  20. ^ a b Sonnad, Nikki (April 17, 2017). "What happens when you try to send politically sensitive messages on WeChat". Quartz (publication).
  21. ^ a b Millward, Steven (January 10, 2013). "Now China's WeChat App is Censoring Its Users Globally". Tech in Asia. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  22. ^ a b Muncaster, Phil (January 11, 2013). "China censors chat users outside China". The Register. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  23. ^ Loretta Chao, Paul Mozur (Nov 19, 2012). "Zhang Xiaolong, Wechat founder". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2012-12-02.
  24. ^ 微信进行时:厚积薄发的力量. 环球企业家. 2012-01-13. Retrieved 2012-12-03. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |newspaper= (help)
  25. ^ a b "E-commerce in China; Industry Report" (PDF). ECOVIS R&G Consulting Ltd. (Beijing) and Advantage Austria. 2015. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  26. ^ Chen, Xiaomeng (陈小蒙) (2012-11-07). 微信:走出中国,走向世界?. 36氪. Retrieved 2012-12-03.
  27. ^ Millward, Steven (March 18, 2015). "WeChat now has 500 million monthly active users". Tech in Asia. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  28. ^ Millward, Steven (August 12, 2015). "WeChat rockets to 600M monthly users". Tech in Asia. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  29. ^ Custer, C. (April 18, 2016). "WeChat blasts past 700 million monthly active users, tops China's most popular apps". Tech in Asia. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  30. ^ "WeChat breaks 700 million monthly active users". BI Intellegence. Business Insider. 2016-04-20. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
  31. ^ a b c Yang, Yuan (2017-05-18). "Tencent scores with domination of mobile gaming". FinancialTimes. p. 15. Retrieved 2017-05-18.
  32. ^ Liu, Yujing (2017-10-03). "Tencent eyes US for new growth in social media ad business". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 2017-11-11.
  33. ^ "The Most Popular Messaging App in Every Country". 24 May 2016.
  34. ^ How China Is Changing Your Internet - The New York Times on YouTube Published on Aug 9, 2016
  35. ^ a b "Welcome to WeChat". WeChat. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  36. ^ "The Sticker Wars: WeChat's creatives go up against Line (updated)". 5 February 2014. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  37. ^ Fang, Yu (方雨) (2014-11-04). 微信公众号已经进入标配期.
  38. ^ 3139. 北京8家医院年内推出微信挂号服务 可挂专家号. people.com.cn. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  39. ^ 港澳通行证续签新"技能":微信续签送红包!. tongyue.com. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  40. ^ 信用卡智能"微客服". Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  41. ^ 你不知道的微信朋友圈分组权限真相 - 人人都是产品经理. www.woshipm.com (in Chinese). Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  42. ^ Chan, Connie (August 6, 2015). "When One App Rules Them All: The Case of WeChat and Mobile in China". Andreessen Horowitz.
  43. ^ "You Can Now Add a Foreign Credit Card on WeChat". 25 January 2018.
  44. ^ "WeChat now supports payments between users and one-click payments | Finance Magnates". Fin Tech | Finance Magnates. Retrieved 2015-12-13.
  45. ^ European Central Bank (24 February 2018). "Definition of instant payment system".
  46. ^ a b c "How Social Cash Made WeChat The App For Everything". Fast Company. Retrieved 4 January 2017.
  47. ^ Sun, Eric (April 22, 2016). "WeChat Pay invests USD 15 M to support its service providers". AllChinaTech. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  48. ^ Jacobs, Harrison. "One photo shows that China is already in a cashless future". Business Insider. Retrieved 2019-05-05.
  49. ^ "The Truth About The New WeChat Service Charge". 18 February 2017.
  50. ^ a b Jason (2019-04-14). "WeChat Pay UK - What's The Future Of WeChat Payments". QPSoftware. Retrieved 2019-09-18.
  51. ^ Chandler, Clay (2017-05-13). "Tencent and Alibaba Are Engaged in a Massive Battle in China". Fortune. Retrieved 2017-11-11.
  52. ^ Yeung, Raymond. "Contactless competition: WeChat Pay is coming to the MTR". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 13 October 2018.
  53. ^ Munger, Charlie. "Berkshire Hathaway 2018 Annual shareholders meeting - 11 May 2018 Afternoon session". Warren Buffett Archive. CNBC/Berkshire Hathway. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
  54. ^ a b Lopez, Napier (2016-04-18). "WeChat just launched a Slack competitor, but there's a catch". The Next Web. Retrieved 2016-05-05.
  55. ^ "WeChat Enterprise could be the app to take down Slack". Digital Trends. 2016-04-18. Retrieved 2016-05-05.
  56. ^ Hook, Leslie. "Tencent's WeChat uses its muscle to appeal to business users". Financial Times. ISSN 0307-1766. Retrieved 2016-05-05.
  57. ^ Osawa, Juro (2016-04-18). "Tencent Targets Corporate Clients With Enterprise We Chat Launch". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2017-01-01.
  58. ^ Russell, Jon. "China's Tencent takes on the App Store with launch of 'mini programs' for WeChat". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2017-02-05.
  59. ^ "Brief Tutorial - WeChat Open Platform". open.wechat.com.
  60. ^ "WeChat touts success of 580,000 'mini-programs' now in use". CGTN America. 16 January 2018.
  61. ^ "Chinese company takes aim at Apple & Google app stores with WeChat app". www.thenews.com.pk.
  62. ^ "This addictive mobile game hooked 100 million users in just two weeks". South China Morning Post.
  63. ^ "How WeChat became the primary news source in China". Columbia Journalism Review.
  64. ^ Horwitz, Josh. "WeChat's new heat map feature lets users—and Chinese authorities—see where crowds are forming". Quartz. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
  65. ^ "In direct challenge to Skype, WeChat now lets users call mobile phones and landlines | VentureBeat". venturebeat.com. Retrieved 2017-09-22.
  66. ^ Tencent, IBG. ""WeChat Out" VOIP Feature Now Rapidly Expanding Around the World | WeChat Blog: Chatterbox". WeChat Blog: Chatterbox. Retrieved 2017-09-22.
  67. ^ Liping, Zhang (March 24, 2017). "'WeChat Index' Opens Opaque Social Network Up to Marketers". Sixth Tone. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  68. ^ Yang, Yuang; Yang, Yingzhi (May 18, 2017). "Tencent pushes into news feed and search in challenge to Baidu". Financial Times. United Kingdom. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
  69. ^ Iyer, Maitrayee. "WeChat introduces Friends Radar to add friends to your list with a tap - Latest Tech News, Video & Photo Reviews at BGR India". Retrieved 30 June 2017.
  70. ^ "Tech in Asia - Connecting Asia's startup ecosystem". www.techinasia.com.
  71. ^ Yang, Shuai; Chen, Sixing; Li, Bin (15 July 2016). "The Role of Business and Friendships on WeChat Business: An Emerging Business Model in China". Journal of Global Marketing. 29 (4): 174–187. doi:10.1080/08911762.2016.1184363. ISSN 0891-1762.
  72. ^ Zhixiao, Wang. 浅谈移动互联时代的微商创业-【维普网】-仓储式在线作品出版平台-www.cqvip.com. www.cqvip.com. cqvip.com. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  73. ^ Chan, Connie (6 August 2015). "When One App Rules Them All: The Case of WeChat and Mobile in China". Andreessen Horowitz. Andreessen Horowitz. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
  74. ^ Peng, Yubing (彭雨冰) (2014). 论微商的定义和现状-【维普网】-仓储式在线作品出版平台-www.cqvip.com. www.cqvip.com. 12X (智富时代): 29. Retrieved 6 March 2018.
  75. ^ Jasmine, Lu (15 January 2014). "From Handbags To Wine, China's Luxury Counterfeiters Flee To WeChat | Jing Daily". Jing Daily. Jing Daily. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  76. ^ C, Custer (13 April 2015). "Tech in Asia - Connecting Asia's startup ecosystem". www.techinasia.com (techinasia.com). techinasia.com. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  77. ^ 关于"微商"购物维权难引发的思考——以微信平台为例. 现代商业. 0 (2): 29–30. 2015. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  78. ^ Weng, Chuzhe (翁矗哲) (2015). 基于微商的发展现状管窥微商未来的发展-【维普网】-仓储式在线作品出版平台-www.cqvip.com. www.cqvip.com. 3 (商场现代化): 79–80. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  79. ^ 微信朋友圈新功能真会玩:发红包才能看照片 | 雷锋网. 2016-01-26. Retrieved 2017-05-11.
  80. ^ Mau, Dhani (10 August 2015). "HOW WESTERN FASHION BRANDS ARE USING SOCIAL MEDIA IN CHINA". Fashionista. Retrieved 5 May 2016.
  81. ^ "Michael Kors' WeChat Selfie Competition Shows New York Heritage". Jing Daily. 2016-05-04. Retrieved 2016-05-05.
  82. ^ 美即抢先一步"勾搭"papi酱 欧莱雅破得了中国品牌收购即毁灭的魔咒吗_聚美丽. www.jumeili.cn (in Chinese). Retrieved 2017-05-11.
  83. ^ Doland, Angela (2017). "Papi Jiang, Video Blogger, Comedian". AdAge. Retrieved 2017-05-18.
  84. ^ a b Murgia, Madhumita (2017-03-31). "WeChat offers UK groups platform to sell goods in China". Financial Times. p. 18. Retrieved 2017-03-31.
  85. ^ "WeChat App". Retrieved 28 Jan 2019.
  86. ^ "WeChat is not working on Windows Phone anymore". Retrieved 28 Jan 2019.
  87. ^ "WeChat is dropping its Windows Phone app". Retrieved 28 Jan 2019.
  88. ^ Mittal Mandalia (2014-02-28). "WeChat announces native Mac client; Windows version may follow soon". techienews.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-03-06.
  89. ^ "WeChat for Windows".
  90. ^ 登陆依然需要手机扫描二维码 (in Chinese). Sohu IT. 2014-02-27.
  91. ^ "Web WeChat". qq.com. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  92. ^ 安卓模拟器被全面封杀 微信开放性再引质疑.
  93. ^ Zhang, Xin; Dai, Si (2015-11-29). "The Functionalities of Mobile Applications, Case Study: WeChat (Thesis)" (PDF). Lahti University of Applied Sciences. Lahti, Finland: Faculty of Business Studies' Degree programme in Business Information Technology. p. 39.
  94. ^ Nay, Josh Robert (2015-05-27). "WeChat Version 6.2 for iOS and Android Brings Moments Translation, Chat Log Migration, and More". TruTower. Retrieved 2017-05-18.
  95. ^ a b c d e Nicola Davison. "WeChat: the Chinese social media app that has dissidents worried". the Guardian. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  96. ^ a b "WeChat is a threat to national security claim researchers - ParityNews". ParityNews. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  97. ^ Lyer, Maitrayee (2014-06-09). "WeChat introduces Friends Radar to add friends to your list with a tap". Latest Tech News, Video & Photo Reviews. BGR India. Retrieved 2016-08-08.
  98. ^ "Australia's Defence Department bans WeChat". 11 March 2018.
  99. ^ "China's tech giants struggle with data privacy amid push into US".
  100. ^ "The WeChat revolution: China's 'killer app' for mass communication". NDTV Gadgets. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  101. ^ "Chinese Mobile Messaging App WeChat Still A Big Worry For The Indian Government". lighthouseinsights.in. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  102. ^ Parker, Emily. "The popularity of WeChat in China raises the question: why not in the U.S.?".
  103. ^ Grigg, Angus (22 February 2018). "WeChat's privacy issues mean you should delete China's No. 1 messaging app". The Australian Financial Review. Retrieved 2018-12-09.
  104. ^ Greenburg, Andy. "Hacker Lexicon: What Is End-to-End Encryption?". Wired.com. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  105. ^ "Document". www.amnesty.org. Retrieved 2017-09-21.
  106. ^ Mukherjee, Riddhi. "It's official, WeChat shares private user data with the Chinese government". www.medianama.com. Retrieved 2017-09-20.
  107. ^ "WeChat - Privacy Policy". WeChat. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  108. ^ "Tencent's WeChat is a Threat to Everyone". Tech in Asia. Retrieved 28 March 2015.
  109. ^ a b "XcodeGhost Q&A". Apple. September 23, 2015. Retrieved September 24, 2015.
  110. ^ Claud, Xiao (September 17, 2015). "Novel Malware XcodeGhost Modifies Xcode, Infects Apple iOS Apps and Hits App Store". Palo Alto Networks. Retrieved September 24, 2015.
  111. ^ Claud, Xiao (September 18, 2015). "Malware XcodeGhost Infects 39 iOS Apps, Including WeChat, Affecting Hundreds of Millions of Users". Palo Alto Networks. Retrieved September 24, 2015.
  112. ^ a b Reed, Thomas (September 21, 2015). "XcodeGhost malware infiltrates App Store". Malwarebytes. Retrieved September 24, 2015.
  113. ^ Claud, Xiao (September 18, 2015). "Update: XcodeGhost Attacker Can Phish Passwords and Open URLs through Infected Apps". Palo Alto Networks. Retrieved September 24, 2015.
  114. ^ Millward, Steven (January 11, 2013). "Tencent Responds in Case of Apparent WeChat Censorship". Tech in Asia. Retrieved December 12, 2017.
  115. ^ "One App, Two Systems: How WeChat uses one censorship policy in China and another internationally". Citizen Lab. 2016-11-30. Retrieved 2016-12-03.
  116. ^ "WeChat: Domains Need ICP License Before Being Shared (Chinese)". QQ.com. 12 December 2014. Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
  117. ^ "Iran bans another social network, blocks WeChat messaging app". Retrieved 2017-07-10.
  118. ^ کارگروه تعیین مصادیق محتوای مجرمانه - Internet.ir (in Persian). 2013-12-24. Retrieved 2017-07-10.
  119. ^ فیلتر پیام‌رسان 'وی‌چت' در ایران برداشته شد. BBC Persian (in Persian). 2018. Retrieved 2018-01-07.

External links[edit]