1809 in the United Kingdom
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Events from the year 1809 in the United Kingdom.
- Monarch - King George III
- Prime Minister - William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, Tory (until 4 October), Spencer Perceval, Tory
- 5 January - The Treaty of the Dardanelles between the United Kingdom and the Ottoman Empire is concluded.
- 16 January - Peninsular War: Battle of Corunna in Galicia (Spain): The British (under General Sir John Moore, who is killed) resist an attempt by the French (under Marshal Soult) to prevent them embarking.
- 1 March - The literary and political periodical The Quarterly Review is first published by John Murray.
- 18 April - First running of the 2,000 Guineas Stakes horse race at Newmarket, won by Wizard.
- 22 April - General Sir Arthur Wellesley arrives at Lisbon onboard HMS Surveillante to take command of the British troops in Portugal.
- 10–11 May - Peninsular War: Battle of Grijó: the Anglo-Portuguese Army commanded by Sir Arthur Wellesley defeats the French army commanded by Marshal Soult in Portugal.
- 12 May - Peninsular War: Second Battle of Porto: the Anglo-Portuguese Army commanded by Wellesley crosses the Douro, drives the French army commanded by Marshal Soult out of Porto and forces them to retreat into Spain.
- 24 May - Dartmoor Prison opens, to house French prisoners of war.
- 19 June - Law passed to prevent blatant sale of seats in the House of Commons to supporters.
- 7 June - Shoja Shah of Afghanistan signs a treaty with the British. Only weeks later, he is succeeded by Mahmud Shah.
- 27–28 July - Wellesley's British, Portuguese, and Spanish army defeats a much larger French force at the Battle of Talavera in Spain.
- 30 July - British invasion army lands in Walcheren.
- 4 September - Wellesley is appointed Baron Douro and Viscount Wellington in the peerage of the United Kingdom.
- 18 September - A new theatre to hold the Royal Opera House opens in London to replace the first burnt down in a fire in 1808 (pictured). The price increases lead to the Old Price Riots which last for 64 days.
- 4 October - Portland resigns due to ill health; Spencer Perceval takes over as Prime Minister.
- 25 October - Statue of Horatio Nelson by Richard Westmacott, erected by public subscription, is unveiled in Birmingham, the first statue of Admiral Lord Nelson in the country.
- 10 November - The Berners Street Hoax: Theodore Hook manages to attract dozens of people to 54 Berners Street in London.
- 25 November - Benjamin Bathurst, a British diplomat, mysteriously disappears (having possibly been murdered) in Perleberg, west of Berlin.
- 26 December - British invasion force leaves Vlissingen.
- "Preventive Water Guard", forerunner of Her Majesty's Coastguard, formed.
- Jenny Pipes becomes the last woman in England to suffer punishment in the ducking stool for being a common scold, in Leominster.
- William Combe begins publication of the verse Tour of Dr Syntax in search of the Picturesque in Ackermann's Political Magazine, illustrated by Thomas Rowlandson.
- 12 February - Charles Darwin, naturalist (died 1882)
- 7 April - James Glaisher, meteorologist and aeronaut (died 1903)
- 4 June - John Henry Pratt, clergyman and mathematician (died 1871)
- 6 August - Alfred Lord Tennyson, poet (died 1892)
- 27 November - Fanny Kemble, British-born American actress and writer (died 1893)
- 29 December - William Ewart Gladstone, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (died 1898)
- date unknown - Evan James, lyricist of the Welsh national anthem
- 16 January - John Moore, British general (killed in battle) (born 1761)
- 20 February - Richard Gough, antiquary (born 1735)
- 25 February - John Murray, 4th Earl of Dunmore (born 1730)
- 11 March - Hannah Cowley, dramatist, poet and social reformer (born 1743)
- 25 March - Anna Seward, writer (born 1747)
- April - Charles Francis Greville, founder of Milford Haven, 59 (born 1749)
- 13 May - Beilby Porteus, bishop and abolitionist (born 1731)
- 21 June - Daniel Lambert, the fattest man in Britain, weighing 52 stones 11 pounds, died in Stamford, Lincolnshire (born 1770)
- 18 August - Matthew Boulton, manufacturer and engineer (born 1728)
- 8 October - James Elphinston, philologist (born 1721)
- 30 October - William Cavendish-Bentinck, 3rd Duke of Portland, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (born 1738)
- 9 November - Paul Sandby, cartographer and painter (born 1725)
- Courier (London newspaper), 1 March 1809, "Published this day". The first issue, however, carries a title page date of February.
- Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 243–244. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
- Longford, Elizabeth (1969). Wellington: The Years of The Sword (1971 ed.). London: HarperCollins. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-586-03548-1.
- Longford, Elizabeth (1992). Wellington (2012 ed.). London: Weidenfeld & Nicholson. p. 118. ISBN 978-0-349-12350-9.
- Penguin Pocket On This Day. Penguin Reference Library. 2006. ISBN 0-14-102715-0.
- Gash, Norman (2004). "Wellesley, Arthur, first duke of Wellington (1769–1852)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/29001. Retrieved 2012-10-12. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Paxman, Jeremy (1998). The English: a portrait of a people. London: Michael Joseph. p. 217.