Century Association

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Century Association
Century 7 West 43 cloudy jeh.jpg
(2010)
Official name: Century Association Clubhouse
Designated July 15, 1982
Reference No. 82003369[1]
Location 7 West 43rd St, Manhattan, New York City
Coordinates 40°45′16″N 73°58′52″W / 40.75444°N 73.98111°W / 40.75444; -73.98111
Built 1889-1891[2]
Architect McKim, Mead & White
Architectural style Italian Renaissance Revival
Official name: Century Association Clubhouse
Designated January 11, 1967
Official name: Former Century Association Building
Designated January 5, 1993
Location 111 East 15th St, Manhattan, New York City
Coordinates 40°44′06″N 73°59′20″W / 40.73500°N 73.98889°W / 40.73500; -73.98889
Built 1847, 1857, 1867, 1869, 1878[2][3]
Architects Originally Joseph C. Wells
Later Charles Gambrill and
H. H. Richardson[3][4]
Architectural style Neo-Grec

The Century Association is a private club in New York City. It evolved out of an earlier organization – the Sketch Club, founded in 1829 by editor and poet William Cullen Bryant and his friends – and was established in 1847 by Bryant and others as a club to promote interest in the fine arts and literature[5] which was open to "Artists, Literary Men, Scientists, Physicians, Officers of the Army and Navy, members of the Bench and Bar, Engineers, Clergymen, Representatives of the Press, Merchants and men of leisure."[6] It was originally intended to have a limited membership of 100 men.[5] Its early members included Bryant, painters Asher Durand, Winslow Homer, Jervis McEntee, and John Frederick Kensett; architect Stanford White; judge Charles Patrick Daly;[7] author Lewis Gaylord Clark; [6] and architect Calvert Vaux,[8] the co-creator with Frederick Law Olmsted of Central Park. However, by the middle 1850s, the membership primarily consisted of merchants, businessmen, lawyers and doctors.[6]

The Century possesses a notable art collection, including important works by Asher Durand, Thomas Cole, Thomas Doughty, and other Hudson River School painters. It is also an important venue for the exhibition of contemporary art created by its members.

In 1989, after a strenuous legal battle, the club agreed to start admitting women members.[9][10]

Early history[edit]

The Century Association resulted from the merger of two earlier private clubs for men "of similar social standing or shared interests." The Sketch Club had focused on literature and the arts, while the Column Club had been a Columbia University alumni organization. The initial invitation for the combined club was sent to one hundred men, which became the basis for the name "The Century", later slightly altered to the Century Association.[11]

The club rented a variety of temporary locations in Manhattan, gravitating to the area around Union Square and Madison Square. Among these locations were over Del Vecchio's picture store at 495 Broadway, 435 Broome Street, over a millinery shop at 575 Broadway, and 24 Clinton Place (later redesignated 46 East 8th Street). Rapid growth in membership to 250 led the club to incorporate and purchase a permanent location in 1857.[4][11]

15th Street clubhouse[edit]

The Former Century Association Building on 15th Street in 2011, with Gambrill and Richardson's exterior restored

The club's first permanent headquarters was an existing two and one-half story residence located at 42 East 15th Street, later redesignated 109-111, between Union Square East and Irving Place. Built in about 1847 and purchased by the Century Association in 1857 for $24,000, the dwelling was extensively remodeled four times during its 34 years as a clubhouse. The first time was immediately upon purchase under the direction of New York architect Joseph C. Wells, a Centurion. At a cost of $11,000, the renovated building was more than twice the size of the original house and styled like an Italian palazzo with facing of ashlar or possibly stucco treated to resemble ashlar masonry.[4][11]

Continuing its growth in both membership and programs during and after the Civil War, the Century Association required larger facilities. Although it considered relocating, financial constraints led them in 1867 to ask member and architect Charles D. Gambrill (1832–1880) to enlarge the current structure. Gambrill's plans called for internal alterations, an expansion to the rear to accommodate an art gallery on the second floor and a billiard room on the main floor, a mansard roof, and a new unified, brick exterior trimmed with Lockport limestone. The rear extension was promptly completed, but for reasons no longer understood the rest of work was delayed until 1869.[3]

By the time construction began again, Gambrill had replaced his previous partner, George B. Post, with noted young architect Henry Hobson Richardson (1838–1886), who had recently returned from his architectural training in France and joined the Century Association. Although uncertain, it appears that Richardson was involved in changes to Gambrill's initial plans, making this one of his early works, before he became one of the most influential architects in the United States (Jeffrey Karl Ochsner calls it Richardson's eighth commission[4]). The 1869 remodeling cost $21,000, and included an upwards expansion into a mansard-covered third floor. Completely eliminating the prior palazzo feel, it featured a unified neo-Grec style. Although Richardson would later develop a highly personal Romanesque style, his training at the École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris equipped him to design in neo-Grec with its abstracted classical features that worked well in modern materials such as the brick employed here.[2][12] In 1878, Gambrill and Richardson dissolved their partnerhip, and in the same year Richardson made yet further modifications to the clubhouse.[4]

The building is the oldest surviving clubhouse in Manhattan, and has been a New York City landmark since 1993.[2] The exterior was restored and the interior converted in 1996-1997[2] by Beyer Blinder Belle,[13] and in recent years it has been the Century Center for the Performing Arts, which had a 248-seat theatre, a ballroom and a studio. As of 2006 it is the New York production facility for Trinity Broadcasting Network, a religious television company.[14]

43rd Street clubhouse[edit]

The Century Association, which at the time had about 800 members,[5] left 15th Street in 1891 for a McKim, Mead & White-designed Italian Renaissance-style palazzo at 7 West 43rd Street, which is also a New York City landmark, designated in 1967,[2] as well as on the National Register of Historic Places since 1982. McKim, Mead & White's design established a preferred style for private clubhouse buildings all over the United States in the following decades.[2] The building was restored by Jan Hird Pokorny in 1992.[2]

Controversy[edit]

In late 2010 members of the Century Association – which had only begun admitting female members in 1989, and then by court order[9][10] – were embroiled in a hotly contested internal debate and "unusual vote of the entire membership" over whether it "should sever ties with a prestigious, all-male club in London, called the Garrick Club, that allows women to enter only in the company of men. ... As of March 1 [2011] the reciprocity agreement will end."[15] London's Daily Telegraph interviewed a Garrick Club member who "would not be mourning the loss of his colonial cousins — or access to their facilities. 'The Century's a crap club anyway,' he said."[16] Giving up infrequent visits to the Garrick "versus condoning the discrimination of women -- it seems like a pretty easy trade-off", a male Century member told the New York Observer."[17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes

  1. ^ "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2009-03-13. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; Postal, Matthew A. (ed. and text); Dolkart, Andrew S. (text). (2009) Guide to New York City Landmarks (4th ed.) New York: John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-28963-1, pp.85, 103
  3. ^ a b c Breiner, David (January 5, 1993). "(Former) Century Association Building". New York: New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. pp. 2–3. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Ochsner, Jeffrey Karl (1982). H.H. Richardson: Complete Architectural Works. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-262-65015-1. 
  5. ^ a b c Mooney, James E. "Century Association" in Jackson, Kenneth T., ed. (1995). The Encyclopedia of New York City. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0300055366. , p.200
  6. ^ a b c Burrows, Edwin G. & Wallace, Mike (1999). Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195116348. , p.713
  7. ^ Fitch, Charles E (1916). Encyclopedia of biography of New York, a life record of men and women whose sterling character and energy and industry have made them preëminent in their own and many other states. Boston: American historical society. OCLC 3548810. 
  8. ^ Burrows, Edwin G. & Wallace, Mike (1999). Gotham: A History of New York City to 1898. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195116348. , p.793
  9. ^ a b Brozan, Nadine. "Century Club Tradition Nears Its End". New York Times (November 27, 1988)
  10. ^ a b Lee, Felicia R. "121 Years of Men Only Ends at Club". New York Times (July 28, 1989)
  11. ^ a b c Breiner, David (January 5, 1993). "(Former) Century Association Building". New York: New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. p. 2. 
  12. ^ Breiner, David (January 5, 1993). "(Former) Century Association Building". New York: New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. pp. 3–4. 
  13. ^ White, Norval & Willensky, Elliot (2000). AIA Guide to New York City (4th ed.). New York: Three Rivers Press. ISBN 978-0-8129-3107-5. 
  14. ^ World's largest religious TV network buys performing arts center at the Cushman & Wakefield website (August 6, 2006)
  15. ^ Barbaro, Michael (February 9, 2011). "At Elite Club, Debate Over More Exclusive One". The New York Times. 
  16. ^ Swaine, Jon (10 February 2011). "New York's Century Association severs ties with London's Garrick Club". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 2011-02-16. 
  17. ^ Freeman, Nate (March 2, 2011). "Clash of the Centurions: Gender Spat Splits a Venerable Redoubt". New York Observer. 

Bibliography

  • Century Association. The Century, 1847-1946. (1947)
  • Duffy, James (ed.) The Century at 150: Excerpts from the Archives. (1997)
  • Gourlie, John Hamilton. The Origin and History of the Century. (1856)
  • Mayor, A. Hyatt & Davis, Mark. American Art at the Century. (1977)
  • Nathan, Frederic S. Centurions In Public Service. (2010)

External links[edit]