Suffrage

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Enfranchise)
Jump to: navigation, search
Suffrage universel dédié à Ledru-Rollin, Frédéric Sorrieu, 1850

Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise, distinct from other rights to vote, is the right to vote gained through the democratic process. The right to run for office is sometimes called candidate eligibility, and the combination of both rights is sometimes called full suffrage.[1] In many languages, the right to vote is called the active right to vote and the right to run for office is called the passive right to vote. In English, these are sometimes called active suffrage and passive suffrage.[2]

Suffrage is often conceived in terms of elections for representatives. However, suffrage applies equally to initiatives and referenda. Suffrage describes not only the legal right to vote, but also the practical question of whether a question will be put to a vote. The utility of suffrage is reduced when important questions are decided unilaterally by elected or non-elected representatives.

In most democracies, eligible voters can vote in elections of representatives. Voting on issues by initiative may be available in some jurisdictions but not others. For example, while some U.S. states such as California and Washington have exercised their shared sovereignty to offer citizens the opportunity to write, propose, and vote on referendums and initiatives, other states have not. Meanwhile, the United States federal government does not offer any initiatives at all. On the other hand, many countries, such as Switzerland, permit initiatives at all levels of government.

Suffrage is granted to qualifying citizens once they have reached the voting age. What constitutes a qualifying citizen depends on the government's decision, but most democracies no longer extend different rights to vote on the basis of sex or race. Resident aliens can vote in some countries, and other countries make exceptions for citizens of countries they have close links to (e.g., some members of the Commonwealth of Nations and members of the European Union).

Etymology[edit]

The word suffrage comes from Latin suffragium, meaning "vote", "political support", and the right to vote.[3][4][5] The etymology of the Latin word is uncertain, with some sources citing Latin suffragari "lend support, vote for someone", from sub "under" + fragor "crash, din, shouts (as of approval)", related to frangere "to break" (related to fraction). Other sources say that attempts to connect suffragium with fragor cannot be taken seriously.[6] Some etymologists think that it may be related to suffrago and may have originally meant an ankle bone or knuckle bone.[6]

Types of suffrage[edit]

Universal suffrage[edit]

Main article: Universal suffrage

Where universal suffrage exists, the right to vote is not restricted by sex, race, social status, or wealth. It typically does not extend a right to vote to all residents of a region; distinctions are frequently made in regard to citizenship, age, and occasionally mental capacity or criminal convictions.

The short-lived Corsican Republic (1755–1769) was the first country to grant limited universal suffrage for all inhabitants over the age of 25. This was followed by other experiments in the Paris Commune of 1871 and the island republic of Franceville (1889). In 1893, New Zealand became the first major nation to achieve universal suffrage, and the Freedom in the World index lists New Zealand as the only free country in the world in 1893.[7][8] In 1906, Finland became the second country in the world, and the first in Europe, to grant universal suffrage to its citizens.[9]

Women's suffrage[edit]

German election poster from 1919: Equal rights - equal duties!
Main article: Women's suffrage

Women's suffrage is the right of women to vote on the same terms as men. This was the goal of the suffragists and the suffragettes. Limited voting rights were gained by some women in Sweden, Britain, and some western U.S. states in the 1860s. In 1893, the British colony of New Zealand became the first self-governing nation to extend the right to vote to all adult women. In 1894 the women of South Australia achieved the right to both vote and stand for Parliament. The autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland in the Russian Empire was the first European nation to allow all women to both vote and run for parliament.[10]

Equal suffrage[edit]

Equal suffrage is sometimes confused with Universal suffrage, although its meaning is the removal of graded votes, where a voter could possess a number of votes in accordance with income, wealth or social status.[11]

Census suffrage[edit]

Also known as "censitary suffrage", the opposite of Equal suffrage, meaning that the votes cast by those eligible to vote are not equal, but are weighed differently according to the person's rank in the census (e.g., people with high income have more votes than those with a small income, or a stockholder in a company with more shares has more votes than someone with fewer shares). Suffrage may therefore be limited, usually to the propertied classes, but can still be universal, including, for instance, women or ethnic minorities, if they meet the census.

Compulsory suffrage[edit]

Main article: Compulsory suffrage

Where compulsory suffrage exists, those who are eligible to vote are required by law to do so. Thirty-two countries currently practice this form of suffrage.[12]

Forms of exclusion from suffrage[edit]

Religion[edit]

In the aftermath of the Reformation it was common in European countries for people of disfavored religious denominations to be denied civil and political rights, often including the right to vote, to stand for election or to sit in parliament. In the Great Britain and Ireland, Roman Catholics were denied the right to vote from 1728 to 1793, and the right to sit in parliament until 1829. The anti-Catholic policy was justified on the grounds that the loyalty of Catholics supposedly lay with the Pope rather than the national monarch.

In England and Ireland, several Acts practically disenfranchised non-Anglicans or non-Protestants by imposing an oath before admission to vote or to run for office. The 1672 and 1678 Test Acts forbade non-Anglicans to hold public offices, the 1727 Disenfranchising Act took away Catholics' (Papists') voting rights in Ireland, which were restored only in 1788. Jews could not even be naturalized. An attempt was made to change this situation, but the Jewish Naturalization Act 1753 provoked such reactions that it was repealed the next year. Nonconformists (Methodists and Presbyterians) were only allowed to run for elections to the British House of Commons in 1828, Catholics in 1829 (following the Catholic Relief Act 1829), and Jews in 1858 (with the Emancipation of the Jews in England). Benjamin Disraeli could only begin his political career in 1837 because he had been converted to Anglicanism at the age of 12.

In several states in the U.S. after the Declaration of Independence, Jews, Quakers or Catholics were denied voting rights and/or forbidden to run for office.[13] The Delaware Constitution of 1776 stated that "Every person who shall be chosen a member of either house, or appointed to any office or place of trust, before taking his seat, or entering upon the execution of his office, shall (…) also make and subscribe the following declaration, to wit: I, A B. do profess faith in God the Father, and in Jesus Christ His only Son, and in the Holy Ghost, one God, blessed for evermore; and I do acknowledge the holy scriptures of the Old and New Testament to be given by divine inspiration.".[14] This was repealed by article I, section 2 of the 1792 Constitution: "No religious test shall be required as a qualification to any office, or public trust, under this State.".[15] The 1778 Constitution of the State of South Carolina stated that "No person shall be eligible to sit in the house of representatives unless he be of the Protestant religion",[16] the 1777 Constitution of the State of Georgia (art. VI) that "The representatives shall be chosen out of the residents in each county (…) and they shall be of the Protestent (sic) religion".[17] In Maryland, voting rights and eligibility were extended to Jews in 1828.[18]

In Canada, several religious groups (Mennonites, Hutterites, Doukhobors) were disenfranchised by the wartime Elections Act of 1917, mainly because they opposed military service. This disenfranchisement ended with the end of the First World War, but was renewed for Doukhobors from 1934 (Dominion Elections Act) to 1955.[19]

The first Constitution of modern Romania in 1866 provided in article 7 that only Christians could become Romanian citizens. Jews native to Romania were declared stateless persons. In 1879, under pressure of the Berlin Peace Conference, this article was amended granting non-Christians the right to become Romanian citizens, but naturalization was granted on a case-by-case basis and was subject to Parliamentary approval. An application took over ten years to process. Only in 1923 was a new constitution adopted, whose article 133 extended Romanian citizenship to all Jewish residents and equality of rights to all Romanian citizens.[20]

In the Republic of Maldives, only Muslim citizens have voting rights and are eligible for parliamentary elections.[21] On 25 November 2011, the UN human rights chief called on Maldivian authorities to remove the discriminatory constitutional provision that requires that every citizen be a Muslim.[22]

Wealth, tax class, social class[edit]

Until the nineteenth century, many Western democracies had property qualifications in their electoral laws; e.g. only landowners could vote (because the only tax for such countries was the property tax), or the voting rights were weighed according to the amount of taxes paid (as in the Prussian three-class franchise). Most countries abolished the property qualification for national elections in the late nineteenth century, but retained it for local government elections for several decades. Today these laws have largely been abolished, although the homeless may not be able to register because they lack regular addresses.

In the United Kingdom, until the House of Lords Act 1999, peers who were members of the House of Lords were excluded from voting for the House of Commons because they were not commoners. In Britain and some other monarchies, the sovereign is ineligible to vote in parliamentary elections.[23]

Knowledge[edit]

Sometimes the right to vote has been limited to people who had achieved a certain level of education or passed a certain test, e.g. "literacy tests" in some states of the US.[24]

Race[edit]

Various countries, usually countries with a dominant race within a wider population, have historically denied the vote to people of particular races, or to all but the dominant race. This has been achieved in a number of ways:

  • Official - laws and regulations passed specifically disenfranchising people of particular races (for example, the United States of America in the 19th and most of the 20th centuries, or South Africa under apartheid).
  • Indirect - nothing in law specifically prevents anyone from voting on account of their race, but other laws or regulations are used to exclude people of a particular race. In southern states of the United States of America before the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, poll taxes, literacy and other tests were used to disenfranchise African-Americans.[24][25] Property qualifications have tended to disenfranchise a minority race, particularly if tribally-owned land is not allowed to be taken into consideration. In some cases this was an unintended (but usually welcome) consequence.
  • Unofficial - nothing in law prevents anyone from voting on account of their race, but people of particular races are intimidated or otherwise prevented from exercising this right.
  • In New Zealand the Maori have been enfranchised effectively since 1865 at the conclusion of the Maori War. Maori still have the choice of voting in a general (all race) electorate or a solely Maori electorate.

Age[edit]

Main articles: Voting age and Age of candidacy

All modern democracies require voters to meet age qualifications to vote. Worldwide voting ages are not consistent, differing between countries and even within counties, usually between 16 and 21 years. Demeny voting would extend voting rights to everyone including children regardless of age.

Criminality[edit]

Many countries restrict the voting rights of convicted criminals.[clarification needed] Some countries, and some U.S. states, also deny the right to vote to those convicted of serious crimes after they are released from prison. In some cases (e.g. the felony disenfranchisement laws found in many U.S. states) the denial of the right to vote is automatic on a felony conviction; in other cases (e.g. France and Germany) deprivation of the vote is meted out separately, often limited to certain crimes such as those against the electoral system. In the Republic of Ireland, prisoners are allowed the right to vote, following the Hirst v UK (No2) ruling, and this was granted in 2006. Canada allowed only prisoners serving a term of less than 2 years the right to vote, but this was found unconstitutional in 2002 by the Supreme Court of Canada in Sauvé v. Canada (Chief Electoral Officer), and all prisoners were allowed to vote as of the 2004 Canadian federal election.

Residency[edit]

Under certain electoral systems elections are held within subnational jurisdictions, preventing persons who would otherwise be eligible from voting because they do not reside within such a jurisdiction, or because they live in an area that cannot participate. In the United States, residents of Washington, DC receive no voting representation in Congress, although they have (de facto) full representation in presidential elections. Residents of Puerto Rico have neither.

Sometimes citizens become ineligible to vote because they are no longer resident in their country of citizenship. For example, Australian citizens who have been outside Australia more than one and less than six years may excuse themselves from the requirement to vote in Australian elections while they remain outside Australia (voting in Australia is compulsory for resident citizens).[26]

In some cases, a certain period of residence in a locality may required for the right to vote in that location. For example, in the United Kingdom up to 2001, each 15 February a new electoral register came into effect, based on registration as of the previous 10 October, with the effect of limiting voting to those resident five to seventeen months earlier depending on the timing of the election.

Nationality[edit]

In most countries, suffrage is limited to citizens and, in many cases, permanent residents of that country. However, some members of supra-national organisations such as the Commonwealth of Nations and the European Union have given voting rights to citizens of all countries within that organisation. Until the mid-twentieth century, many Commonwealth countries gave the vote to all British citizens in the country, regardless of whether they were normally resident there. In most cases this was because there was no distinction between British and local citizenship. Several countries qualified this with restrictions preventing non-white British citizens such as Indians and British Africans from voting. Under European Union law, citizens of European Union countries can vote in each other's local and European Parliament elections on the same basis as citizens of the country in question.

Naturalization[edit]

In some countries, naturalized citizens do not have the right to vote or to be candidate, either permanently or for a determined period.

Article 5 of the 1831 Belgian Constitution made a difference between ordinary naturalization, and grande naturalisation. Only (former) foreigners who had been granted grande naturalisation were entitled to vote, be a candidate for parliamentary elections, or be appointed minister. However, ordinary naturalized citizens could vote for municipal elections.[27] Ordinary naturalized citizens and citizens who had acquired Belgian nationality through marriage could vote, but not be candidates for parliamentary elections in 1976. The concepts of ordinary and grande naturalization were suppressed from the Constitution in 1991.[28]

In France, the 1889 Nationality Law barred those who had acquired the French nationality by naturalization or marriage from voting, eligibility and access to several public jobs. In 1938 the delay was reduced to 5 years.[29] These discriminations, as well as others against naturalized citizens, were gradually abolished in 1973 (9 January 1973 law) and 1983.

In Morocco, a former French protectorate, and in Guinea, a former French colony, naturalized citizens are prohibited from voting for 5 years after their naturalization.[30][31]

In the Federated States of Micronesia, citizes must be a Micronesian citizen for at least 15 years to run for parliament.[32]

In Nicaragua, Peru and the Philippines, only citizens by birth are eligible for being elected to the national legislature; naturalized citizens enjoy only voting rights.[33][34][35]

In Uruguay, naturalized citizens have the right of eligibility to the parliament after 5 years.[36]

In the United States, the President and Vice President must be natural-born citizens. All other governmental offices may be held by any citizen, although citizens may only run for Congress after an extended period of citizenship (seven years for the House of Representatives and nine for the Senate).

Function[edit]

In France, an 1872 law, rescinded only by a 1945 decree, prohibited all army personnel from voting.[37]

In the United Kingdom, public servants have to resign before running for an election.[38]

The 1876 Constitution of Texas (article VI, section 1) stated that "The following classes of persons shall not be allowed to vote in this State, to wit: (…) Fifth—All soldiers, marines and seamen, employed in the service of the army or navy of the United States.".[39]

In many countries with a presidential system of government a person is forbidden to be a legislator and an official of the executive branch at the same time. Such provisions are found, for example, in Article I of the U.S. Constitution.

History of suffrage around the world[edit]

Finland was the first nation in the world to give all adult citizens full suffrage, in other words the right to vote and to run for office (in 1906). New Zealand was the first country in the world to grant all adult citizens the right to vote (in 1893), but women did not get the right to run for the New Zealand legislature until 1919.

Australia[edit]

  • 1884 - Henrietta Dugdale forms the first Australian women’s suffrage society in Melbourne.
  • 1894 - South Australian women eligible to vote.[40]
  • 1899 - Western Australian women eligible to vote.[40]
  • 1902 - The Commonwealth Franchise Act enables women to vote federally, and in the state of New South Wales.
  • 1921 - Edith Cowan elected to the West Australian Legislative Assembly as member for West Perth, the first woman elected to any Australian Parliament.[41]
  • 1962 - Aboriginal peoples guaranteed the right to vote in Commonwealth elections

Brazil[edit]

  • 1932 - Vote becomes obligatory to all adults over 21 years old. Until then, vote was not obligatory but only allowed to men and limited by income and occupation.
  • 1955 - Adoption of standardized voting ballots and identification to mitigate frauds.
  • 1964 - Military regime established. From then on, presidents were elected by members of the congress, chosen by regular vote.
  • 1989 - Reestablishment of universal suffrage for all citizens over 16 years old. People considered illiterate are not obliged to vote, as people over younger than 18 and older than 70 years old. People under the obligation rule shall file a document to justify their absence should they not vote.
  • 2000 - Brazil becomes the first country with full adoption of electronic ballots in their voting process.

Canada[edit]

  • 1916 - Manitoba becomes the first province where women have the right to vote in provincial elections.[citation needed]
  • 1917 - Wartime Elections Act - Gives voting rights to women with relatives fighting overseas. Voting rights are stripped from all "enemy aliens" (those born in enemy countries who arrived in Canada after 1902; see also Ukrainian Canadian internment).[42] Military Voters Act - gave the vote to all soldiers, even non-citizens, and to females serving as nurses or clerks for the armed forces, but the votes are not for specific candidates but simply for or against the government.
  • 1918 - Women gain full voting rights in federal elections.[43]
  • 1919 - Women gain the right to run for federal office.[43]
  • 1940 - Quebec becomes the last province where women's right to vote is recognized.

(see Canadian women during the world wars for more information on Canadian suffrage)

Finland[edit]

  • 1906 - Full suffrage for all citizens adults aged 24 or older at beginning of voting year.
  • 1921 - Suppression of property-based amount of votes on municipal level; equal vote for everybody.
  • 1944 - Voting age lowered to 21 years.
  • 1969 - Voting age lowered to 20 years.
  • 1972 - Voting age lowered to 18 years.
  • 1981 - Voting and eligibility rights were granted to Nordic Passport Union country citizens without residence condition for municipal elections
  • 1991 - Voting and eligibility rights were granted to [extended to all foreign residents in 1991 with a 2 years residence condition for municipal elections
  • 1995 - Residence requirement abolished for EU residents, in conformity with the European legislation (Law 365/95, confirmed by Electoral Law 714/1998)
  • 1996 - Voting age lowered to 18 years at date of voting.
  • 2000 - Section 14, al. 2 of the 2000 Constitution of Finland states that "Every Finnish citizen and every foreigner permanently resident in Finland, having attained eighteen years of age, has the right to vote in municipal elections and municipal referendums, as provided by an Act. Provisions on the right to otherwise participate in municipal government are laid down by an Act."[48]

Hong Kong[edit]

Minimum age to vote was reduced from 21 to 18 years in 1995. According to the Basic Law, the constitution of the territory since 1997, stipulates that all permanent residents (a status conferred by birth or by seven years of residence) have the right to vote. The right of permanent residents who have right of abode in other countries to stand in election is, however, restricted to 12 functional constituencies by the Legislative Council Ordinance of 1997.

The right to vote and the right to stand in elections are not equal. Less than 250,000 of the electorate are eligible to run in the 30 functional constituencies, of which 23 are elected by less than 80,000 of the electorate, and in the 2008 Legislative Council election 14 members were elected unopposed from these functional constituencies. The size of the electorates of some constituencies are less than 200. Only people who can demonstrate a connection to the sector are eligible to run in a functional constituency.

The Legislative Council (Amendment) Bill 2012, if passed, amends the Legislative Council Ordinance to restrict the right to stand in Legislative Council by-elections in geographical constituencies and the District Council (Second) functional constituency. In addition to people who are mentally disabled, bankrupted, or imprisoned, members who resign their seats will not have the right to stand within six months' time from their resignation. The bill is currently passing through the committee stage.

India[edit]

Japan[edit]

Main article: Suffrage in Japan
  • 1947 - Universal Suffrage instituted with the establishment of Post-war Constitution.

New Zealand[edit]

  • 1853 - British government passes the New Zealand Constitution Act 1852, granting limited self rule, including a bicameral parliament to the colony. The vote was limited to male British subjects aged 21 or over who owned or rented sufficient property, and were not imprisoned for a serious offence. Communally owned land was excluded from the property qualification, thus disenfranchising most Māori (indigenous) men.
  • 1860 - Franchise extended to holders of miner's licenses who met all voting qualifications except that of property.
  • 1867 - Māori seats established, giving Māori four reserved seats in the lower house. There was no property qualification; thus Māori men gained universal suffrage before other New Zealanders. The number of seats did not reflect the size of the Māori population, but Māori men who met the property requirement for general electorates were able to vote in them or in the Māori electorates but not both.
  • 1879 - Property requirement abolished.
  • 1893 - Women won equal voting rights with men, making New Zealand the first nation in the world to allow adult women to vote.
  • 1969 - Voting age lowered to 20.
  • 1974 - Voting age lowered to 18.
  • 1975 - Franchise extended to permanent residents of New Zealand, regardless of whether they have citizenship.
  • 1996 - Number of Māori seats increased to reflect Māori population.
  • 2010 - Prisoners imprisoned for 1 year or more denied voting rights while serving the sentence.

Poland[edit]

  • 1918 - In its first days of independence in 1918 after 123 years of partition rights to vote were granted to both men and women. Eight women were elected to the Sejm in 1919.[58][59]

South Africa[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

King Henry VI of England established in 1432 that only male owners of property worth at least forty shillings, a significant sum, were entitled to vote in a county. Changes were made to the details of the system, but there was no major reform until the Reform Act 1832. It was not until 1918 that all men over 21, and wealthy women won the right to vote, and it was not until 1928 that all women over 21 won the right to vote. Suffrage in the United Kingdom was slowly changed over the course of the 19th and 20th centuries through the use of the Reform Acts and the Representation of the People Acts, culminating in universal suffrage, excluding children and convicted prisoners.

  • Reform Act 1832 - extended voting rights to adult males who rented propertied land of a certain value, so allowing 1 in 7 males in the UK voting rights
  • Reform Act 1867 - extended the franchise to men in urban areas who met a property qualification, so increasing male suffrage to the United Kingdom
  • Representation of the People Act 1884 - addressed imbalances between the boroughs and the countryside; this brought the voting population to 5,500,000, although 40% of males were still disenfranchised because of the property qualification.
  • Between 1885-1918 moves were made by the suffrage movement to ensure votes for women. However, the duration of the First World War stopped this reform movement. See also The Parliamentary Franchise in the United Kingdom 1885-1918.
  • Representation of the People Act 1918 - the consequences of World War I persuaded the government to expand the right to vote, not only for the many men who fought in the war who were disenfranchised, but also for the women who helped in the factories and elsewhere as part of the war effort. All men aged 21 and over were given the right to vote. Property restrictions for voting were lifted for men. Votes were given to 40% of women, with property restrictions and limited to those over 30 years old. This increased the electorate from 7.7 million to 21.4 million with women making up 8.5 million of the electorate. Seven percent of the electorate had more than one vote. The first election with this system was the United Kingdom general election, 1918
  • Representation of the People Act 1928 - this made women's voting rights equal with men, with voting possible at 21 with no property restrictions
  • Representation of the People Act 1948 - the act was passed to prevent plural voting
  • Representation of the People Act 1969 - extension of suffrage to those 18 and older
  • The Representation of the People Acts of 1983, 1985 and 2000 further modified voting
  • Electoral Administration Act 2006 - modified the ways in which people were able to vote and reduced the age of standing at a public election from 21 to 18.

United States[edit]

In the United States, suffrage is determined by the separate states, not federally (Wyoming being the first state to instill suffrage). However, the "right to vote" is expressly mentioned in five Amendments to the U.S. Constitution. These five Amendments limit the basis on which the right to vote may be abridged or denied:

  • 14th Amendment (1868): Regarding apportionment of Representatives.
  • 15th Amendment (1870): "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude."
  • 19th Amendment (1920): "The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex."
  • 23rd Amendment (1961): provides that residents of the District of Columbia can vote for the President and Vice President.
  • 24th Amendment (1964): "The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax."
  • 26th Amendment (1971): "The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age."

In the 2010s, voting has been restricted in states which are electorally important and whose legislatures are controlled by Republicans.[how?] These restrictions tend to disproportionately affect poor people and racial minorities, which tend to vote for Democratic candidates.[citation needed] These new restrictions are seen as an effort to help Republicans' electoral success.[49][50]

Majority-Muslim Countries[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ ">> social sciences >> Women's Suffrage Movement". glbtq. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  2. ^ "Deprivation of the Right to Vote — ACE Electoral Knowledge Network". Aceproject.org. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  3. ^ "suffrage - Dictionary definition and pronunciation - Yahoo! Education". Education.yahoo.com. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  4. ^ "Suffrage - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-webster.com. 31 August 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  5. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". Etymonline.com. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  6. ^ a b "LacusCurtius • Voting in Ancient Rome — Suffragium (Smith's Dictionary, 1875)". Penelope.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  7. ^ Nohlen, Dieter (2001). "Elections in Asia and the Pacific: South East Asia, East Asia, and the South Pacific". p.14. Oxford University Press, 2001
  8. ^ A. Kulinski, K. Pawlowski. "The Atlantic Community - The Titanic of the XXI Century". p.96. WSB-NLU. 2010
  9. ^ "Official Report of Debates". p.113. Council of germany, 9000
  10. ^ Votes for Women - Elections New Zealand Elections.org.
  11. ^ "Definition: suffrage". Websters Dictionary. Retrieved 24 October 2011. 
  12. ^ "CIA:The World Factbook". Retrieved 22 May 2012. 
  13. ^ Williamson, Chilton (1960), American Suffrage. From property to democracy, Princeton University Press 
  14. ^ Constitution of Delaware, 1776, The Avalon Project at Yale Law School, retrieved 7 December 2007 
  15. ^ State Constitution (Religious Sections) - Delaware, The Constitutional Principle: Separation of Church and State], retrieved 7 December 2007 
  16. ^ An Act for establishing the constitution of the State of South Carolina, 19 March 1778, The Avalon Project at Yale Law School, retrieved 5 December 2007 
  17. ^ Constitution of Georgia, The Avalon Project at Yale Law School, 5 February 1777, retrieved 7 December 2007 
  18. ^ An Act for the relief of Jews in Maryland, passed 26 February 1825, Archives of Maryland, Volume 3183, Page 1670, 26 February 1825, retrieved 5 December 2007 
  19. ^ A History of the Vote in Canada, Chapter 3 Modernization, 1920–1981, Elections Canada, Last Modified: 2007–7–9, retrieved 6 December 2007 
  20. ^ Chronology - From the History Museum of the Romanian Jews; Hasefer Publishing House, The Romanian Jewish Community, retrieved 6 December 2007 
  21. ^ "Maldives". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 12 December 2007. 
  22. ^ Ali Nafiz, UN rights chief calls on Maldives to remove Muslim-only citizenship provision, Haveeru Online, 25 November 2011
  23. ^ https://www.royal.gov.uk/MonarchUK/QueenandGovernment/Queenandvoting.aspx
  24. ^ a b Transcript of Voting Rights Act (1965) U.S. National Archives.
  25. ^ The Constitution: The 24th Amendment Time Magazine. Retrieved 2011-10-24.
  26. ^ "Australian Electoral Commission, "Voting Overseas - Frequently Asked Questions", 20 November 2007". Aec.gov.au. 10 January 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  27. ^ Delcour, M.C., Traité théorique et pratique du droit électoral appliqué aux élections communales, Louvain, Ickx & Geets, 1842, p.16
  28. ^ Lambert, Pierre-Yves (1999), La participation politique des allochtones en Belgique - Historique et situation bruxelloise, Academia-Bruylant (coll. Sybidi Papers), Louvain-la-Neuve, retrieved 6 December 2007 
  29. ^ Patrick Weil, Nationalité française (débat sur la)", dans Jean-François Sirinelli (dir.), Dictionnaire historique de la vie politique française au XXe siècle, Paris, PUF, 1995, p. 719-721
  30. ^ Nadia Bernoussi, L’évolution du processus électoral au Maroc, 22 December 2005[dead link]
  31. ^ "art. 3, al. 3, Loi Organique portant code électoral guinéen". Ife.org.mx. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  32. ^ "Federated States of Micronesia". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 12 December 2007. 
  33. ^ "Nicaragua". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 12 December 2007. 
  34. ^ "Peru". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 12 December 2007. 
  35. ^ "Philippines". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 12 December 2007. 
  36. ^ "Uruguay". Inter-Parliamentary Union. Retrieved 12 December 2007. 
  37. ^ Plénitude de la République et extension du suffrage universel (– Scholar search) (in French), Assemblée nationale (National Assembly of France), retrieved 5 December 2007 [dead link]
  38. ^ Fonction publique et mandats électifs dans l'Union européenne (in French), Études de législation comparée, Assemblée nationale (National Assembly of France), May 2006, retrieved 5 December 2007 [dead link]
  39. ^ Constitution of the State of Texas (1876), Tarlton Law Library, The University of Texas School of Law, retrieved 8 December 2007 
  40. ^ a b "Women and the Right to Vote in Australia". Australian Electoral Commission. 28 January 2011. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  41. ^ "Electoral Milestones for Women". Australian Electoral Commission. 8 March 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  42. ^ "The Famous Five - Timeline". Abheritage.ca. 8 December 2010. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  43. ^ a b "Canada - Women's Vote - Women Suffrage". Faculty.marianopolis.edu. 27 January 1916. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  44. ^ "CBC Digital Archives". Archives.cbc.ca. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  45. ^ a b c Noel Dyck Revised: Tonio Sadik (18 December 1970). "Aboriginal People, Political Organization and Activism". Thecanadianencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  46. ^ "CBC Digital Archives". Archives.cbc.ca. Retrieved 21 June 2013. 
  47. ^ Sauvé v. Canada (Chief Electoral Officer)
  48. ^ "The Constitution of Finland" (PDF). 11 June 1999. Retrieved 10 December 2007. 
  49. ^ Robert Dewhirst and Daniel E. Smith, "Voter suppression of the American Electorate, 2009-2012" in Sean D. Foreman, Robert Dewhirst, The Roads to Congress 2012 p.9-26 Lexington Books, 10 July 2013
  50. ^ Steven Yaccino and Lizette Alvarez, "New G.O.P. Bid to Limit Voting in Swing States"nytimes.com New York Times 30 March 2014

Bibliography[edit]

  • Neill Atkinson, Adventures in Democracy: A History of the Vote in New Zealand (Dunedin: University of Otago Press, 2003).
  • Alexander Keyssar, The Right to Vote: The Contested History of Democracy in the United States (New York: Basic Books, 2000). ISBN 0-465-02968-X
  • U.S. Commission on Civil Rights: Reports on Voting (2005) ISBN 978-0-8377-3103-2
  • "Smallest State in the World," New York Times, 19 June 1896, p 6
  • A History of the Vote in Canada, Chief Electoral Officer of Canada, 2007.

External links[edit]