Illumina (company)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Illumina, Inc.
Type Public (NASDAQILMN)
Industry Biotechnology
Founded 1998
Headquarters San Diego, California, U.S.
Revenue $331.00 million (Q1 2013)
Website www.illumina.com

Illumina, Inc. is an American company incorporated in April 1998 that develops, manufactures and markets integrated systems for the analysis of genetic variation and biological function. Using its technologies, the company provides a line of products and services that serve the sequencing, genotyping and gene expression markets. Customers include genomic research centers, pharmaceutical companies, academic institutions, clinical research organizations and biotechnology companies. Its tools provide researchers with the capability to perform genetic tests needed to extract medical information from advances in genomics and proteomics. Its headquarters are located in San Diego, California.

History[edit]

Illumina was founded in April 1998 by David Walt, Ph.D., Larry Bock, John Stuelpnagel, D.V.M., Anthony Czarnik, Ph.D., and Mark Chee, Ph.D. While working with CW Group, a venture capital firm, Larry and John uncovered what would become Illumina's BeadArray technology at Tufts University and negotiated an exclusive license to that technology. Illumina completed its initial public offering in July 2000.

Illumina began offering single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping services in 2001 and launched its first system, the Illumina BeadLab, in 2002, using GoldenGate Genotyping technology. Illumina currently offers microarray-based products and services for an expanding range of genetic analysis sequencing, including SNP genotyping, gene expression, and protein analysis. Illumina's technologies are used by a broad range of academic, government, pharmaceutical, biotechnology, and other leading institutions around the globe.

On January 26, 2007, the Company completed the acquisition of Hayward based Solexa, Inc. Solexa was founded in June 1998 by Shankar Balasubramanian, Ph.D. and David Klenerman Ph.D. to develop and commercialize genome sequencing technology invented by the founders in the University of Cambridge. The technology is being used to perform a range of analyses, including whole genome resequencing, gene expression analysis and small ribonucleic acid (RNA) analysis.

In June 2009, Illumina announced the launch of their own Personal Full Genome Sequencing Service at a depth of 30X for $48,000 per genome,[1] and a year later dropped the price to $19,500.[2] This is still too expensive for true commercialization but the price will most likely decrease substantially over the next few years as they realize economies of scale and given the competition with other companies such as Complete Genomics and Knome.[3][4] As of May 2011, Illumina reduced the price to $4,000.[5][6]

Illumina acquired Epicentre Biotechnologies, based in Madison, Wisconsin, on January 11, 2011.[7]

On January 25, 2012, Hoffmann-La Roche made an unsolicited bid to buy Illumina for $44.50 per share or about $5.7 billion.[8][9] Roche tried other tactics, including raising its offer (to $51.00, for about $6.8 billion).[10] Illumina rejected the offer,[11] and Roche abandoned the offer in April.[12]

In 2014, the company announced a multi-million dollar product, HiSeqX Ten, that it forecast would provide large-scale whole-genome sequencing for $1,000/genome. The company claimed that forty such machines would be able to sequence more genomes in one year than had been produced by all other sequencers to date.[13]

Products[edit]

DNA methylation profiling[edit]

Golden Gate Methylation[edit]

The GoldenGate Methylation Cancer Panel allows the user to probe 1,505 CpG loci selected from 807 genes across a large sample size. The array based method allows 96 samples to be probed simultaneously on one array matrix.

Infinium methylation[edit]

Utilizing Illumina's HumanMethylation27 DNA Analysis BeadChip and the Infinium technology, this method allows the user to map single methylation resolution for 27,578 CpG sites across over 14,000 genes.

DNA sequencing[edit]

Illumina sells a number of very high-throughput DNA sequencing systems, also known as DNA sequencers, based on technology developed by Solexa. The technology features bridge amplification to generate clusters and reversible terminators for sequence determination.[14][15] The technology behind these sequencing systems involves ligation of fragmented DNA to a chip, followed by primer addition and sequential fluorescent dNTP incorporation and detection.

Every Genome[edit]

Full genome sequencing service is sold solely through health care professionals (not direct to consumer).

References[edit]

  1. ^ Everygenome.com: Individual genome sequencing - Illumina, Inc
  2. ^ Kerry Dolan (2010-09-16). Illumina CEO On The Lunch That Launched Him. Forbes. 
  3. ^ Daniel MacArthur (2009-06-11). "Illumina launches personal genome sequencing service for $48,000". Scienceblogs.com. 
  4. ^ Kevin Davies (2009-06-11). "Illumina To Offer $48,000 Personal Genome Sequencing Service". Bio-IT world. 
  5. ^ Illumina drops sequencing price to $4,000 | UTSanDiego.com
  6. ^ Everygenome.com: Individual genome sequencing - Illumina, Inc
  7. ^ "Illumina .::. Investor Relations News Release". Investor.illumina.com. 2011-01-11. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  8. ^ Roche - Roche offers to acquire all outstanding shares of Illumina, Inc. to further strengthen its leading role in diagnostics
  9. ^ Five Reasons Illumina Should Fight Roche's Insulting Low-Ball Bid | Xconomy
  10. ^ Roche and Illumina: Taking it personally. The Economist (2012-04-18). Retrieved on 2013-09-05.
  11. ^ Illumina Board Rejects Roche's Hostile Tender
  12. ^ Roche decides not to extend its tender offer for Illumina, Inc.
  13. ^ Young, Susan (2014-01-14). "Illumina Claims It’s Reached $1,000-Genome Milestone with New High-Throughput Human Genome Sequencer | MIT Technology Review". Technologyreview.com. Retrieved 2014-01-18. 
  14. ^ S Balasubramanian RSC Chem. Commun., 47 (26), 7281-7286 (2011)
  15. ^ Bentley, David R.; et al. (6 November 2008). "Accurate whole human genome sequencing using reversible terminator chemistry". Nature 456 (7218): 53–59. doi:10.1038/nature07517. PMC 2581791. PMID 18987734. 

External links[edit]