Interstate 75 in Michigan

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This article is about the section of Interstate 75 in Michigan. For the entire length of the highway, see Interstate 75.

Interstate 75 marker

Interstate 75
I-75 runs from the southeastern corner of the Lower Peninsula northeasterly to Detroit and then northwesterly and northerly to the Straits of Mackinac. Once across the Mackinac Bridge, it runs northeasterly across the eastern end of the Upper Peninsula to terminate at the Canadian border.
I-75 highlighted in red
Route information
Maintained by MDOT and MBA
Length: 395.916 mi[2] (637.165 km)
Existed: 1959[1] – present
Tourist
routes:
Lake Erie Circle Tour
Lake Huron Circle Tour
Lake Michigan Circle Tour
Lake Superior Circle Tour
Major junctions
South end: I‑75 near Erie at the Ohio state line
 
North end: International Bridge in Sault Ste. Marie
Location
Counties: Monroe, Wayne, Oakland, Genesee, Saginaw, Bay, Arenac, Ogemaw, Roscommon, Crawford, Otsego, Cheboygan, Emmet, Mackinac, Chippewa
Highway system
M‑74 M‑75

Interstate 75 (I-75) is a part of the Interstate Highway System that runs from Miami, Florida, to Sault Ste. Marie in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. I-75 enters Michigan from Ohio in the south, north of Toledo and runs generally northward through Detroit, Pontiac and Bay City, crosses the Mackinac Bridge, and ends at the Canadian border in Sault Ste. Marie. The freeway runs for approximately 396 miles (637 km) on both of Michigan's peninsulas. The landscapes traversed by I-75 include Southern Michigan farmland, northern forests, suburban bedroom communities, and the urban core of Detroit. The freeway also uses three of the state's monumental bridges to cross major bodies of water. There are four auxiliary Interstates in the state related to I-75, as well as nine current or former business routes, with either Business Loop I-75 (BL I-75) or Business Spur I-75 (BS I-75) designations.

The freeway bears several names in addition to the I-75 designation. The southern segment was called the Detroit–Toledo Expressway during planning in the 1950s and 1960s. Through Detroit, I-75 is the Fisher Freeway or the Walter P. Chrysler Freeway, named for pioneers in the auto industry. Sections on either side of the Mackinac Bridge are the G. Mennen Williams Freeway or the Prentiss M. Brown Freeway, named for politicians who helped get the bridge built. Officially, the entire length is the American Legion Memorial Highway, after the organization of the same name. Various sections carry components of the four Great Lakes Circle Tours in the state.

Several Indian trails spanned the state along the general path of the modern freeway. After statehood, several of these were converted into plank roads that later became some of the first state highways. In the 1920s, five of these were added to the United States Numbered Highway System: US Highway 2 (US 2), US 10, US 24, US 25, and US 27. In the 1950s, a Michigan Turnpike was proposed as a tolled, controlled-access highway in the Lower Peninsula. After passage of the Federal Highway Act of 1956, this turnpike proposal was shelved as a free Interstate Highway was planned. Construction started in 1957, signs went up in 1959, and I-75 was completed in 1973. Since completion, the freeway has been upgraded with the construction of the Zilwaukee Bridge near Saginaw and improved connections to the Ambassador Bridge in Detroit.

Route description[edit]

Known as "Michigan's Main Street",[3] I-75 is listed on the National Highway System (NHS) for its entire length.[4] The NHS is a network of roadways important to the country's economy, defense, and mobility.[5] The freeway is the busiest in the state: between M-8 (Davison Highway) and McNichols Road in Detroit approximately 194,300 vehicles used the freeway on average each day in 2010; in contrast the lowest traffic level was 3,208 vehicles between the M-48 and M-80 interchanges in Chippewa County.[6] I-75 carries segments of all four Great Lakes Circle Tours in the state. It is also the only highway located on both Michigan's Upper and Lower peninsulas (UP and LP, respectively).[7] Between the Ohio state line and Kawkawlin, I-75 contains between a minimum of six and a maximum of ten lanes total; other sections vary between four and six lanes in total.[8]

Lake Erie shore and the Downriver communities[edit]

Photograph of
I-75 approaching exit 2 in Monroe County

Crossing the state line north of Toledo, Ohio, I-75 enters Michigan in Monroe County carrying the Lake Erie Circle Tour (LECT) near the North Maumee Bay of Lake Erie. The freeway runs parallel to the shoreline of the Great Lake and past the community of Luna Pier. Further north, I-75 passes to the southeast of Monroe and crosses the River Raisin between the city and the river mouth. North of the river, the freeway turns further inland running through farmland. Near Newport, I-275 splits off to the northwest and I-75 continues its northeasterly trek through Monroe County. When it crosses the Huron River, the trunkline enters Wayne County between South Rockwood and Rockwood.[7][8]

On the north side of the county line, I-75 begins to run inland of, and parallel to, the Detroit River, entering the Downriver area. The freeway turns northerly after the interchange with M-85 (Fort Street) near Gibraltar, and the LECT departs I-75 to follow M-85 north of the interchange. The landscape transitions to suburban residential areas instead of farmland through this area. The freeway turns back northeasterly in Taylor and intersects the southern end of M-39 (Southfield Highway) in Lincoln Park. I-75 crosses the Ecorse River and passes through an industrial area of Metro Detroit. Further north, the freeway spans the River Rouge in the southern part of Detroit.[7][8]

I-75 parallels to M-85 (Fort Street) and follows the Detroit River as far east as the Ambassador Bridge. Near the bridge's approaches, the freeway turns 90° away from the river and intersects the eastern end of I-96 before turning again to follow the river further inland. From there, I-75 meets M-10 (Lodge Freeway) and crosses under M-1 (Woodward Avenue). East of Woodward, the freeway travels past both Comerica Park and Ford Field, homes of the Detroit Tigers and Detroit Lions professional sports teams, respectively.[7][8]

Detroit to the Tri-Cities[edit]

Photograph
Looking south along the Chrysler Freeway to the Detroit skyline

Immediately east of Ford Field, I-75 turns northwesterly to follow the Chrysler Freeway away from the downtown Detroit area. The transition from the Fisher Freeway involves a set of one-lane ramps through the interchange with the connections to Interstate 375 and M-3 (Gratiot Avenue). Heading north-northwesterly, I-75 passes to the east of the campus of Wayne State University and through an interchange with I-94 (Edsel Ford Freeway). The Chrysler Freeway passes to the west of Hamtramck and to the east of Highland Park, enclaves within Detroit. I-75 meets M-8 (Davison Freeway) and continues through residential areas of Detroit's northern side. North of M-102 (8 Mile Road), the freeway crosses out of Detroit and into Oakland County. The Chrysler Freeway jogs through the suburb of Hazel Park,[7][8] site of the "worst freeway for accidents in Metro Detroit" at a curve near 9 Mile Road.[9]

Further north, I-75 intersects I-696 near 10 Mile Road. The freeway continues northward for about six miles (9.7 km) into Troy, where it turns westward. The route for I-75 zig-zags through Troy and Auburn Hills as the freeway alternates from north–south to east–west to bypass Pontiac. Near the M-59 interchange, I-75 passes the headquarters for Chrysler. Further north, by the M-24 interchange, it runs near The Palace of Auburn Hills, home of the Detroit Pistons. The freeway traverses through additional suburban residential areas as it runs northwesterly away from Pontiac. These subdivisions end north of Clarkston, which is the location of the northern terminus for US 24. Continuing through Holly and Newark, the freeway transitions back to a rural, wooded setting.[7][8]

As I-75 approaches Grand Blanc, the landscape changes back to suburbs. I-475 (UAW Freeway) splits off to the north to bypass the east side of Flint, and I-75 merges with US 23. The combined I-75/US 23 turns northerly to round the west side of the city. I-75/US 23 meets I-69 near the Bishop International Airport southwest of downtown Flint. The freeway continues northward along the western residential neighborhoods, encountering the northern end of I-475 near Mount Morris. I-75 passes to the west of Clio and the east of Birch Run, the latter home to a large outlet mall. From there, the trunkline travels through farmland in southern Saginaw County.[7][8]

Central Michigan[edit]

Photograph showing the
Split between I-75 and US 23 west of Standish

I-75/US 23 enters the southern reaches of the suburban Tri-Cities at Bridgeport and proceeds northward through the area. The freeway passes to the east of downtown Saginaw. I-675 splits off to run westward into downtown, and I-75 curves around to the northwest to cross the Saginaw River on the Zilwaukee Bridge in the suburb of Zilwaukee. North of the river, I-675 reconnects to I-75, which continues northward into Bay County. The freeway passes to the west of Bay City, encountering the eastern end of the US 10 freeway. From there, I-75/US 23 curves northwesterly to bypass Kawkawlin before continuing north to the Standish area through farmlands inland from the Saginaw Bay. West of Standish, US 23 splits to follow the Lake Huron shoreline, and I-75 turns northwesterly to run inland.[7][8]

West of Sterling, the landscape changes again; in this area the freeway enters forest lands. I-75 continues northwestward through Arenac County and crosses into western Ogemaw County. M-30 passes under the freeway without an interchange as I-75 rounds the west side of West Branch. On the northwest side of that city, M-55 merges onto I-75, and the two highways turn to run concurrently westward into Roscommon County. East of Prudenville, M-55 splits from the freeway. I-75 turns northward to curve around the east of Houghton and Higgins lakes. Turning back to the northwest, the trunkline bypasses Roscommon to the south and transfers into southern Crawford County. About five miles (8.0 km) north of the county line, I-75 meets the northern end of US 127,[7][8] the former US 27.[10]

Northern Michigan[edit]

Photograph of
Exit 254 south of Grayling

After the US 127 interchange, I-75 turns northward, and passes to the east of Grayling. There are a pair of interchanges on either end of town for BL I-75, and the southern one is a partial interchange; only northbound I-75 traffic may access the business loop and traffic entering the freeway may only access southbound I-75. There is no interchange further north for M-72; access to that highway is provided through the business loop. On the north side of Grayling, there is a full interchange for BL I-75/M-93 that provides the southbound I-75 connection to M-72 as well as access from both directions to the Hartwick Pines State Park.[7][8]

Crossing into southern Otsego County, I-75 continues northward through Northern Michigan forests. It passes to the east of the community of Waters and Otsego Lake. North of exit 279, I-75 proceeds by the Gaylord Regional Airport and crosses the 45th Parallel, the halfway mark between the Equator and the North Pole by latitude. The freeway then traverses the west side of Gaylord and continues through forests in the northern sections of the county. North of Vanderbilt, I-75 enters southern Cheboygan County,[7][8] assuming the G. Mennen Williams Freeway name.[11]

I-75 continues northward through Cheboygan County, passing the community of Indian River and spanning the river of the same name. North of town, the freeway traverses the area between Burt and Mullett lakes before intersecting the southern end of M-27; that highway provides access to Topinabee and Cheboygan. I-75 continues northward through tree farms and other agricultural properties in rural Cheboygan County. Cheboygan is accessible by way of interchanges for C-64 and C-66, a pair of county-designated highways in this area. North of C-66, I-75 turns northwesterly. The freeway meets the northern end of US 31 and picks up the Lake Michigan Circle Tour (LMCT) designation before entering Emmet County on the south side of Mackinaw City. I-75 then parallels the county line on the west side of the village, meeting the northern end of US 23. After that interchange, the Lake Huron Circle Tour (LHCT) merges in from the south. There is one more interchange along the freeway before I-75 ascends the approaches to the Mackinac Bridge.[7][8]

Mackinac Bridge[edit]

The Mackinac Bridge carries I-75 across the Straits of Mackinac that separate Michigan's Upper and Lower peninsulas; the straits also form the connection between Lakes Michigan and Huron.[7][8] The structure, unlike the rest of the state highways in Michigan like I-75, is under the maintenance and control of the Mackinac Bridge Authority (MBA).[a] The authority collects a toll from traffic that crosses the bridge,[13] which as of January 1, 2012, is $4 for passenger cars and $5 per axle for commercial vehicles and motorhomes.[14] In addition to cash, the MBA offers a pre-paid debit card option for the payment of tolls.[15] The authority also provides a driver assistance program that will drive vehicles across the bridge at no additional charge; motorists who use the service have a fear of bridges.[16] Because the bridge normally only allows motor vehicles, bicyclists and snowmobiles shuttled across are subject to fees. The authority maintains a small police department to patrol the bridge and escort vehicles across,[13][17] and a pair of radio station transmitters that broadcast bridge conditions and travel information on AM 530 and AM 1610.[18]

Upper Peninsula[edit]

Photograph of I-75
North of St. Ignace

North of the Mackinac Bridge, I-75 passes to the west of downtown St. Ignace, traveling between the Father Marquette National Memorial and the Straits State Park. There is an interchange north of the toll plaza that marks the eastern end of US 2 in the state. The LMCT departs I-75 to follow US 2 while the LHCT follows BL I-75 through town. The freeway curves around the Mackinac County Airport and meets the northern end of the business loop near Castle Rock; the LHCT returns to I-75 at that interchange as well. Continuing northward, M-123 (Tahquamenon Trail) intersects from the west as the freeway parallels H-63 (Mackinac Trail),[7][8] the former route of US 2.[19] I-75 crosses the Carp River and follows the shores of St. Martin Bay before meeting M-134. At that interchange, the LHCT departs again to run eastward. Through this area, the freeway continues northeasterly, traversing the Eastern Unit of the Hiawatha National Forest.[7][8][20]

I-75 crosses the Pine River before entering Chippewa County. The freeway takes a more northerly track as it travels under M-48 without an interchange. Further north, M-48 curves around to connect I-75 with Rudyard, and the freeway turns back to continue northeastward. About five miles (8.0 km) northeast of Rudyard, I-75 passes next to Chippewa County International Airport, the former Kincheloe Air Force Base in Kinross and Kincheloe. North of there in Dafter, the freeway intersects M-28 (9 Mile Road). Beyond that interchange, I-75 picks up the Lake Superior Circle Tour (LSCT) designation, which it carries the rest of the way north. On the south side of Sault Ste. Marie, the freeway meets BS I-75 and picks up the LHCT designation one more time. I-75 rounds the west side of the city, passes the Sault Ste. Marie Municipal Airport and the campus of Lake Superior State University before meeting the customs and toll plazas for the International Bridge.[7][8] From there, I-75 crosses the two-lane bridge and terminates at the Canadian border.[b] As of 1 April 2012, the toll rates on the bridge are $3 for passenger vehicles, $2.10 for commuters, and $4 per axle for commercial vehicles; currently the same toll rate is assessed in US dollars and Canadian dollars.[21] Motorists have the option to pay with cash or an IQ Card, an electronic toll collection debit card that uses radio-frequency identification technology.[22]

History[edit]

Indian trails to state highways[edit]

Black and white map
Map of the pre-statehood Indian trails

Before Michigan became a state, the first land transportation corridors were the Indian trails.[23] The French-Indian Trail ran through southeastern Michigan between Toledo, Monroe and Detroit. The Saginaw Trail ran north from Detroit to the Saginaw area where it connected with the original Mackinaw Trail that ran roughly parallel to, and west of, the modern I-75. Another path, the Cheboygan Trail, ran parallel to the modern freeway to the east between the West Branch area and Cheboygan. In the UP, an extension of the Mackinac Trail connected St. Ignace and Sault Ste. Marie.[24] In the 19th century, the Michigan Legislature chartered private companies to build and operate plank roads or turnpikes in the state, many of which replaced the original Indian trails. These roads were originally made of oak planks, but later legislation permitted gravel as well.[25] By the first decade of the 20th century, only 23 of the 202 chartered turnpikes were still in operation; many companies that received a charter never built their specified roadways. The remaining plank roads were turned over to the state or purchased by railway companies in the early part of the century.[26]

The State Trunkline Highway System was formed on May 13, 1913, and several sections of the system were designated along the course of the then-future I-75. Division 1 connected the Ohio state line northeasterly to Detroit, and Division 2 connected Detroit with Mackinaw City. A branch of Division 7 ran north from St. Ignace to Sault Ste. Marie.[27] The system was signposted in 1919,[28] and those highways were marked on maps for the first time. The first M-10 was designated along the highways from Ohio through Detroit to Standish.[c] M-76 connected Standish with Grayling, where the first M-14 ran northward to Cheboygan. From there, M-10 connected to Mackinaw City.[29] In the UP, M-12 connected St. Ignace with Sault Ste. Marie along a route to the east of the old Mackinac Trail.[30] When the United States Numbered Highway System was formed on November 11, 1926, most of these highways were redesignated as part of the national system. From the state line northward, M-10 was included as a part of US 24 and US 25. At Detroit, M-10 was used as a part of US 10. North of Grayling, M-14 was redesignated as a part of US 27. M-12 was used for US 2.[31]

The Michigan State Highway Department (MSHD)[d] rerouted US 2 in 1933 between Rogers Park and Sault Ste. Marie. The new routing followed Mackinac Trail instead of turning east to Cedarville and north to Sault Ste. Marie; the former routing was given the M‑121 designation.[34][35]

Turnpikes and freeways[edit]

By 1945, a divided highway designated Alternate US 24 (ALT US 24) was opened from the state line north to Erie.[36] After World War II, the MSHD planned to convert several highways in the state to freeways. In planning maps from 1947, the modern I-75 corridor was included in the system that later became the Interstate Highway System.[37] It was also included in the General Location of National System of Interstate Highways Including All Additional Routes at Urban Areas Designated in September 1955, or Yellow Book after the cover color, that was released in 1955 as the federal government readied plans for the freeway system.[38]

Black and white map
1955 map of the proposed Michigan Turnpike

The Michigan Turnpike Authority (MTA), an agency which was created in 1951,[39] proposed the construction of a toll freeway to run north–south in the state. The original termini for the turnpike were Bridgeport and Rockwood.[40] The state highway commissioner at the time, Charles Ziegler, distrusted a separate agency dealing with statewide road building at the time, and he worked to stall progress on any proposed turnpikes.[41] Ziegler, who had a seat on the MTA board, publicly sparred with authority chairman George Higgins, even announcing that the MSHD would build a parallel freeway that would "reduce tolls on the turnpike 40 to 50 percent" according to consultants.[42] Trucking interests in the state also opposed the projects, preferring a moderate gas tax increase over any tolls.[43] Detroit denied the MTA permission to route a turnpike through the city over issues related to the River Rouge, Rouge Park and access across the right-of-way.[44] After a lawsuit by City of Dearborn, the legislation creating the authority was upheld by the Michigan Supreme Court in 1955, and the authority was allowed to sell bonds for its Bridgeport–Rockwood[45] and Detroit–Chicago toll roads.[46]

The original planning maps plotted the first turnpike to the west of Detroit, running near US 24 (Telegraph Road).[47] This route was later proposed for I-75 itself; I-275 would have been the freeway to loop into downtown Detroit.[48] The proposed length was increased by December 1955; the extended Michigan Turnpike would have run from a connection across the Ohio state line to Toledo north through Detroit and Saginaw and eventually to the southern end of the Mackinac Bridge.[44] By the following April, any extensions were cancelled leaving the turnpike to its original termini; the east–west companion road was also cancelled at that time.[49] The MTA proposed a state constitutional amendment in January 1956 that would allow the Michigan Legislature to issue state-guaranteed bonds for part of the MTA's construction expenses.[50] According to The Wall Street Journal, the authority "struggled for survival" in the face of opposition from the MSHD just two months later; the department's actions impaired the authority's appropriations from the state legislature and its ability to sell the necessary bonds to pay for construction.[51] When the federal government approved the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1956, Ziegler and the MSHD announced plans for a full freeway to run north through the Lower Peninsula and continue across to the Upper Peninsula. This announcement undermined the efforts to build the Michigan Turnpike.[52] By August 1956, the MTA voted to reduce its operations to a skeleton staff,[53] but moved forward in May 1957 on a bond sale to finance construction of the roadway.[54] Financiers stated such a sale was only feasible if the turnpike was to be safe from competition.[55] The Michigan Townships Association called for the abolition of the MTA in 1958.[56] The legislature killed a bill to do so in June 1959,[57] but it later voted to repeal the act that created the authority in 1962.[58]

Interstate Highway era[edit]

The first sections of freeway for I-75 were opened in 1957, beginning with the southern section near the Ohio state line opened in October 1957.[59] The Mackinac Bridge was opened to traffic on November 1, 1957; a new section of freeway and an interchange connected US 2 to the bridge.[60] The MSHD formally proposed the I-75 number in 1958.[61] On June 30 of that year, the first stretch of the "Fenton–Clio Expressway" opened.[62] Construction on the Chrysler Freeway in Detroit started on January 30, 1959.[63] The I-75 signs were first installed along the Detroit–Toledo Expressway in October 1959, replacing US 24A signage in the Monroe area,[1] after the state waited for final approval of the numbering system to be used in the state.[64]

I-75 marker with Michigan above the number
Shields such as this one bearing the state name were originally used when I-75 was first signed

In November 1960, sections of freeway opened from Indian River north to the southern Mackinac Bridge approaches in Mackinaw City and from St. Ignace to Evergreen Shores,[65] and by December, the section of freeway running between Evergreen Shores and M‑123 was scheduled to open.[66] The next year the original Zilwaukee Bridge, a bascule bridge across the Saginaw River was opened[67] along with a section of freeway north to Kawkawlin.[68][69] That September, the section between Gaylord and Vanderbilt was completed,[70] and in October 1961, the first segment of I-75 near Grayling opened, connecting M-18 with the city.[71] By the end of the year, the freeway was completed between Kinross and Dafter in the UP,[72] and the former segment of US 27 between Grayling and Gaylord was turned back to local control. After this individual segment of freeway was completed, it left a gap between Gaylord and Indian River that was designated "TO I-75" on maps for the former segment of US 27, and US 27 was truncated to about five miles (8.0 km) south of Grayling.[69][73] The 12-mile (19 km) section of I-75 was opened between Gaylord and Waters in July 1962.[74] Another temporary "TO I-75" designation was applied along US 10 and US 27 from Bay City to Grayling.[73] In 1961, the MSHD had proposed that the section of I-75 south of Detroit to Toledo be built as an electronic highway under a bid through General Motors;[75] the testing for such a roadway was ultimately done at Ohio State University instead.[76]

On October 25, 1962, the section of freeway from M-24 near Pontiac to the Flint area opened.[77] The same year, the freeway gap was filled in between Gaylord and Indian River.[78] The International Bridge and its approaches opened in Sault Ste. Marie on October 31, 1962.[79] The following year, a set of segments opened in the Detroit area. The freeway was extended south from Pontiac to 11 Mile Road with a connection along M-150 to M-102 (8 Mile Road). Another section opened to connect with US 24 (Telegraph Road) in the Woodhaven area; a TO I-75 designation was added to connect along US 24 and M-102 to M-150.[80][81] On the other end of the state, the gaps in the freeway across the UP were completed in 1963 as well,[82] and the section of freeway in Northern Michigan was named the most scenic new highway in the US in 1963 by Parade magazine.[83][84] The first part of the Chrysler Freeway opened to traffic on June 26, 1964,[63] the southern mile (1.6 km) of which was designated I-375.[85]

Map of
1958 numbering plan for Michigan's Interstates

The segment of I-75 through the Downriver suburbs of Detroit between the US 24 (Telegraph Road) connector and M-39 (Southfield Highway) was completed on December 28, 1966.[86] The same year, I-75 was scheduled to open southward from 11 Mile Road to M-102 (8 Mile Road).[87] In 1967, two segments of freeway opened. One was from Kawkawlin to Standish in October,[88] and the other through Detroit extended I-75 along the Fisher Freeway in December.[89] The first section of M-76 freeway from Standish northwesterly to Alger was scheduled to open in July 1968.[90] A one-mile (1.6 km) section of the Chrysler Freeway through Detroit opened on December 19, 1968, and the remainder was scheduled to open on January 10, 1969.[91]

In 1970, I-75 through Detroit was completed, and two additional sections of M-76 were converted to freeway. The northern section ran from the US 27-to-I-75 transition south of Grayling to the CrawfordRoscommon county line, and the second was an extension from Alger to the West Branch area.[92][93] The first ice-detection system in the state was installed on the River Rouge bridges in the Detroit area in an attempt to maximize driver safety. [94] The next year, the last section of the Chrysler Freeway in Hazel Park was finished when an interchange for the then-unbuilt I-696 was completed.[95] Another segment of the M-76 freeway was completed at the same time, bypassing Roscommon.[93][96] The final section between Alger and Roscommon was opened on November 1, 1973, in a dedication by Governor William G. Milliken.[97]

Since the freeway was completed, a few changes have been made to I-75 in Michigan. MDOT truncated US 2 to end in St. Ignace by removing it from the I‑75 freeway in 1983.[98][99] In 1986, US 10 was truncated to Bay City, removing its concurrency with I-75 from there to Clarkston.[100][101] Two years later, the original bascule Zilwaukee Bridge across the Saginaw River was replaced by a much higher structure slightly north of the former bridge.[102]

Gateway Project[edit]

Photograph of the Ambassador Bridge and
Construction in 2007 during the Gateway Project

Beginning on February 25, 2008, I-75 closed completely to traffic in both directions from Rosa Parks Boulevard (exit 49) to Clark Street (exit 47) in Detroit. This facilitated the complete rebuilding of the road as part of the Ambassador Gateway Project to better connect I-75 and I-96 to the Ambassador Bridge. Through traffic on I-75 was rerouted along I-94 to I-275 and local detours were posted.[103] The freeway reopened to traffic in June 2009, five months ahead of schedule.[104] The overall project to realign and connect the bridge to the freeways was mired in lawsuits between MDOT and the private company that owns the bridge. The company's owner was jailed for contempt of court during court proceedings in early 2012.[105] MDOT was later ordered to assume responsibility for construction,[106] and the department completed the project on September 21, 2012.[107]

Freeway names[edit]

Portrait of Walter P. Chrysler
Portrait of Prentiss M. Brown
Segments of I-75 in Michigan are named for Walter P. Chrysler (left) and Prentiss M. Brown (right) among others.

I-75 has five named segments in Michigan. The southernmost section from the state line north to the Detroit area is the Detroit–Toledo Expressway.[108] The segment through southern and central Detroit is known as the Fisher Freeway. It was dedicated on September 17, 1970, to the Fisher Brothers, who founded Fisher Body, later a part of General Motors.[109] After the curve in downtown Detroit, I-75 follows the Walter P. Chrysler Freeway northward. That segment is named for Walter P. Chrysler, founder of Chrysler. The name was chosen by the Detroit Common Council on November 6, 1957, and codified in state law in 1990; the state definition for the name places the northern end of the designation at the Oakland–Genesee county line.[63]

Officially, the entire length of I-75 in Michigan is the American Legion Memorial Highway. As a practical matter, this name is not used on the southernmost segments of the Interstate. The American Legion was honored with the designation in 1969 in a state law that required private interests to finance the signage. Public Act 174 of 1984 redesignated I-75 in honor of the group and placed responsibility for signage in MDOT's hands.[110] Another name that was applied to all of I-75 was the Michigan Bicentennial Freedom Way. Designated by Senate Concurrent Resolution 216 of 1975, the name only applied to the freeway in 1976.[111] The designation was formally repealed in 2001.[112]

Two other segments near the Straits of Mackinac were named in 1976 for figures instrumental in the construction of the Mackinac Bridge. From the Cheboygan–Otsego county line north to the bridge, I-75 was named for G. Mennen Williams, the former governor once called "Michigan's Politician of the Century" in the press.[11] The section in Mackinac County from the northern end of the Mackinac Bridge was named for Prentiss M. Brown, the former Congressman and Senator who served on the MBA board until his death in 1971.[113]

Monumental bridges[edit]

Photograph looking north at the
Zilwaukee Bridge

Along its route in the state, I-75 utilizes three of Michigan's monumental bridges. The first of them is the Zilwaukee Bridge near Saginaw. The original bridge across the Saginaw River at Zilwaukee was built in 1960 as a bascule bridge to allow shipping traffic to use the river. Opening the drawbridge would back traffic up on I-75/US 10/US 23 for upwards of four hours on holiday weekends.[114] Approved in 1974, construction on the replacement bridge started in October 1979. A major construction accident in August 1982 delayed completion of the new Zilwaukee Bridge; a bridge pier partially collapsed when contractors overloaded a section under construction. The affected 300-foot (91 m) deck segment tilted to rest three feet (0.91 m) higher on one end and five feet (1.5 m) lower on the other.[115] The structure was originally supposed to cost $76.8 million with a 1983 completion date; in the end it cost $131.3 million (equivalent to $435 million in 2012[116]) when the southbound span finally opened on September 19, 1988.[102] The structure is the largest concrete segmental bridge in the United States.[117]

Aerial photograph of the
Mackinac Bridge

The second is the Mackinac Bridge that connects Michigan's two peninsulas at the Straits of Mackinac. A structure was first proposed in 1888 by one of the directors of the Grand Hotel on Mackinac Island. Car ferry service was started in 1923 to cross the straits, and a bridge authority was first created in 1934 to investigate the possibility of building a permanent connection across the straits. This early authority started with a 1921 proposal for a series of bridges that would have connected Cheboygan to St. Ignace by way of Bois Blanc, Round, and Mackinac islands. The federal Public Works Administration rejected loan and grant requests for that project. A second, direct crossing was then proposed based on designs used for the Tacoma Narrows Bridge. The collapse of that bridge and World War II delayed any further work on a structure beyond tests of the lake bottom and the construction of the 4,200-foot-long (1,300 m) causeway on the St. Ignace side; the first bridge authority was abolished in 1947.[118] The current agency was created on June 6, 1950.[119]

The MBA was authorized in 1952 to sell bonds to finance construction,[118] which were sold on December 17, 1953, to finance the $99.8 million (equivalent to $2.1 billion in [116]) cost of the bridge.[120] The structure was designed by David B. Steinman and built by Merritt-Chapman & Scott for the substructure and the American Bridge Company division of U.S. Steel Corporation for the superstructure. Construction started in 1954 and the Mackinac Bridge opened to traffic on November 1, 1957. Final work on the bridge was completed in September 1958. Overall, the structure has a 3,800-foot (1,200 m) central suspension span flanked by two 1,800-foot (550 m) side spans. With the two backstay spans, the Mackinac Bridge is 8,614 feet (2,626 m) long between cable anchorages, the longest in the world at the time it opened.[e] The total length of the structure is 26,444 feet (8,060 m) with two 555-foot-tall (169 m) towers and 155 feet (47 m) of clearance for passing ships under the main span.[118] In 2000, the bridge was named "Michigan's No. 1 Civil Engineering Project of the 20th Century" by the Michigan Section of the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), and the structure was named a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark in 2010 by the national ASCE.[123]

Photograph of
Part of the International Bridge

The northernmost of the three monumental bridges along I-75 is the International Bridge, linking the twin cities of Sault Ste. Marie in Michigan and Ontario. The governments on each side of the international border formed a bridge authority to build a highway bridge in 1935.[118] Construction started on the structure September 16, 1960.[79] The International Bridge is nearly three miles (4.8 km) long, encompassing spans over the American and Canadian navigation channels for the Soo Locks and the St. Mary's River. The American approach is 2,471 feet (753 m), and the Canadian approach is 2,942 feet (897 m). The center span over the river is 9,280 feet (2,830 m), flanked by 1,260-foot (380 m) and 830-foot (250 m) spans over the American and Canadian shipping channels, respectively. The bridge was designed by the same firm that handled the Mackinac Bridge for a cost of $20 million[118] (equivalent to $318 million in 2012[116]). It opened to traffic on October 31, 1962.[79]

Exit list[edit]

County Location Mile[2] km Exit Destinations Notes
Monroe Erie Township 0.000 0.000 I‑75 / LECT south – Toledo Ohio state line; LECT continues south into Ohio
1.587 2.554 2 Summit Street Southbound exit and northbound entrance
2.547 4.099 2 Erie, Temperance Northbound exit and southbound entrance; unsigned CONN M-125
4.610 7.419 5 Erie Road – Erie, Temperance
Luna Pier 5.785 9.310 6 Luna Pier
La Salle Township 8.629 13.887 9 South Otter Creek Road – La Salle
Monroe Charter Township 11.357 18.277 11 La Plaisance Road – Downtown Monroe
Monroe 13.452 21.649 13 Front Street – Monroe
13.583 21.860 14 Elm Avenue
Frenchtown Charter Township 15.230 24.510 15 Dixie Highway – Downtown Monroe Former M-50
18.040 29.033 18 Nadeau Road
20.310 32.686 20 I‑275 north – Flint To Detroit Metro Airport
Berlin Charter Township 21.463 34.541 21 Swan Creek Road – Newport To Newport Road
South Rockwood 26.342 42.393 26 South Huron River Drive – South Rockwood
Wayne Rockwood 26.941 43.357 27 North Huron River Drive – Rockwood
Brownstown Charter Township 27.680 44.547 28 M‑85 north (Fort Street) / LECT Northbound exit and southbound entrance; southern terminus of M-85 and northern end of LECT concurrency
Flat Rock 28.824 46.388 29 Gibraltar, Flat Rock Signed as exits 29A (Gibraltar) and 29B (Flat Rock) southbound
Woodhaven 31.821 51.211 32 West Road Signed as exits 32A (east) and 32B (west)
Brownstown Charter Township 33.707–
33.783
54.246–
54.368
34A Dix–Toledo Highway Signed as exit 34 northbound; converted from partial to complete interchange in 2012[124]
34.012 54.737 34B Sibley Road Southbound exit and northbound entrance
Taylor 34.794 55.996 35 US 24 (Telegraph Road) Northbound exit and southbound entrance
35.961 57.874 36 Eureka Road
TaylorSouthgate city line 36.800–
37.311
59.224–
60.046
37 Allen Road, Northline Road
Lincoln Park 39.875 64.173 40 Dix Highway No access from southbound I-75 to northbound Dix Highway, northbound Dix Highway to southbound I-75, or southbound Dix Highway to northbound I-75
40.686–
40.711
65.478–
65.518
41 M‑39 (Southfield Road)
Melvindale 41.827 67.314 42 Outer Drive
Detroit 42.999 69.200 43 M‑85 (Fort Street) / LECT / Schaefer Highway Signed as exits 43A (Schaefer Highway south, M-85 [Fort Street]) and 43B (Schaefer Highway north) southbound; former northern terminus of M-85; southern end of LECT concurrency
44.862 72.198 44 Dearborn Street Northbound exit and southbound entrance
45.594 73.376 45 M‑85 (Fort Street) / Springwells Street
46.484 74.809 46 Livernois Avenue
47.276 76.083 47A Clark Street Former M-3
48.020 77.281 47B Bridge to Canada
LECT
To Highway 3; southbound exit and northbound entrance; northern end of LECT concurrency
48.062 77.348 47C Vernor Highway
Bridge to Canada
Signed as exits 47C (left exit, Vernor Highway) and 47B (Ambassador Bridge) southbound
47.894–
49.108
77.078–
79.032
48 I‑96 west (Jeffries Freeway) – Lansing Eastern terminus of I-96
49.878–
49.108
80.271–
79.032
49 M‑10 (Lodge Freeway) / Rosa Parks Boulevard – Civic Center Signed as exits 49A (Rosa Parks Boulevard) and 49B (M-10) southbound
50.171 80.742 50 Grand River Avenue Access to Comerica Park
50.717 81.621 51B M‑3 (Gratiot Avenue via Fisher Freeway) to M‑53 Signed as exit 51 northbound
50.864–
50.896
81.858–
81.909
51C I‑375 south (Chrysler Freeway) – Downtown Detroit One-lane ramps for I-75's transition between Fisher and Chrysler freeways;[125] 25 mph (40 km/h) speed advisory[126]
51.551–
51.560
82.963–
82.978
51 Mack Avenue
52.291–
52.305
84.154–
84.177
53A Warren Avenue
52.853–
52.870
85.059–
85.086
53B I‑94 (Ford Freeway) – Port Huron, Chicago
53.581 86.230 54 East Grand Boulevard, Clay Avenue
Hamtramck 54.212–
54.941
87.246–
88.419
55 Holbrook Avenue, Caniff Avenue
Detroit 55.965 90.067 56 M‑8 (Davison Freeway) Signed as exits 56A (east) and 56B (west)
56.741–
56.752
91.316–
91.333
57 McNichols Road
57.822 93.055 58 7 Mile Road
WayneOakland county line DetroitHazel Park city line 58.811–
58.819
94.647–
94.660
59 M‑102 (8 Mile Road)
Oakland Hazel Park 59.918–
60.104
96.429–
96.728
60 John R. Road, 9 Mile Road
Hazel ParkFerndale
Madison HeightsRoyal Oak city quadripoint
61.183–
61.207
98.464–
98.503
61 I‑696 (Reuther Freeway) – Port Huron, Lansing
Royal OakMadison Heights city line 62.189 100.083 62 11 Mile Road, 10 Mile Road west
Madison Heights 63.180 101.678 63 12 Mile Road
Madison HeightsTroy city line 65.211 104.947 65 14 Mile Road Signed as exits 65A (east) and 65B (west)
Troy 67.429 108.516 67 Rochester Road
68.972 111.000 69 Big Beaver Road Signed as exits 69A (east) and 69B (west)
71.593 115.218 72 Crooks Road Indirect access to Crooks Road, requires exiting onto a trumpet interchange with Corporate Drive to reach Crooks Road
Bloomfield Township 74.138 119.314 74 Adams Road Southbound entrance and exit via Square Lake Road
75.179–
76.063
120.989–
122.412
75 BL I‑75 north (Square Lake Road) – Pontiac Signed as Square Lake Road southbound
Auburn Hills 77.351–
77.369
124.484–
124.513
77 M‑59 – Utica, Pontiac Signed as exits 77A (east) and 77B (west)
78.547 126.409 78 Chrysler Drive Access to Featherstone Road
79.040 127.203 79 University Drive – Rochester
80.994 130.347 81 BL I‑75 south – Pontiac
M‑24 north – Lapeer
Access to The Palace of Auburn Hills; signed as only M-24 northbound; double trumpet interchange
82.911 133.432 83 Joslyn Road Signed as exits 83A (north) and 83B (south) southbound; east entrance to Great Lakes Crossing Outlets
84.128 135.391 84 Baldwin Road Signed as exits 84A (north) and 84B (south) northbound; west entrance to Great Lakes Crossing Outlets
Independence Township 88.752 142.832 89 Sashabaw Road
90.812 146.148 91 M‑15 – Clarkston, Davison
Springfield Township 92.653 149.111 93 US 24 south (Dixie Highway) – Waterford Northern terminus of US 24
97.995 157.708 98 East Holly Road
Groveland Township 100.963 162.484 101 Grange Hall Road – Fenton, Ortonville
Holly Township 105.941 170.496 106 Dixie Highway Southbound exit and northbound entrance
106.308 171.086 106 Saginaw Road – Grand Blanc Northbound exit and southbound entrance
Genesee Grand Blanc 108.676 174.897 108 Holly Road – Grand Blanc
109.905 176.875 109 M‑54 north (Dort Highway) – Burton Southern terminus of M-54
111.622–
111.899
179.638–
180.084
111 I‑475 north – Downtown Flint Northbound exit and southbound entrance
Mundy Township 115.017–
115.335
185.102–
185.614
115 US 23 south – Ann Arbor Southern end of US 23 concurrency; southbound exit and northbound entrance
Flint 116.334 187.221 116 Bristol Road – Bishop International Airport Signed as exits 116A (east) and 116B (west) southbound; former M-121
Flint Township 117.221–
117.662
188.649–
189.359
117 I‑69 / Miller Road – Port Huron, Lansing Signed as exits 117A (I-69) and 117B (Miller Road)
118.756 191.119 118 M‑21 (Corunna Road) – Owosso
Mount Morris Township 121.968 196.288 122 Pierson Road – Flushing
123.972 199.514 Coldwater Road Interchange eliminated in 1967[127][128]
125.191–
125.846
201.475–
202.530
125 I‑475 south – Downtown Flint
125.992 202.764 126 Mt. Morris
Vienna Township 130.078 209.340 131 M‑57 – Clio, Montrose
Saginaw Birch Run 136.159 219.127 136 M‑54 south / M‑83 north – Birch Run, Frankenmuth Northern terminus of M-54; southern terminus of M-83
Bridgeport Township 144.562 232.650 144 Frankenmuth, Bridgeport Signed as exits 144A (Frankenmuth) and 144B (Bridgeport) northbound
Buena Vista Township 149.285 240.251 149 M‑46 – Sandusky, Buena Vista Signed as exits 149A (east) and 149B (west)
149.593 240.747 150 I‑675 north – Downtown Saginaw
151.765 244.242 151 M‑81 – Caro, Reese
152.977 246.193 153 M‑13 (East Bay City Road) – Saginaw
Saginaw River 152.612–
154.144
245.605–
248.071
Zilwaukee Bridge
Zilwaukee 153.922 247.713 154 Zilwaukee
Zilwaukee Township 154.849–
154.875
249.205–
249.247
155 I‑675 south – Downtown Saginaw
Bay Frankenlust Township 160.218 257.846 160 M‑84 (Westside Saginaw Road)
Monitor Township 162.699–
162.711
261.839–
261.858
162 US 10 west – Clare
M‑25 east – Downtown Bay City
Eastern terminus of US 10; western terminus of M-25 and the unsigned BL I-75; signed as exits 162A (east) and 162B (west)
163.983 263.905 164
CONN M‑13 – Kawkawlin
Northbound exit and southbound entrance
164.775 265.180 164 Wilder Road Southbound exit and northbound entrance; southbound access to CONN M-13
Kawkawlin Township 168.945 271.891 168 Beaver Road
Fraser Township 173.912 279.884 173 Linwood Road – Linwood
Pinconning Township 181.927 292.783 181 Pinconning Road – Pinconning
Arenac Lincoln Township 188.476–
188.518
303.323–
303.390
188 US 23 north – Alpena, Standish Northern end of US 23 concurrency
190.885 307.200 190 M‑61 – Gladwin, Standish
Adams Township 195.009 313.837 195 Sterling Road – Sterling
Moffatt Township 202.817 326.402 202 M‑33 north – Mio
Ogemaw Horton Township 212.118 341.371 212 BL I‑75 north (Cook Road) – West Branch
Ogemaw Township 215.670 347.087 215 M‑55 east / BL I‑75 south to M‑30 – Tawas City, West Branch Eastern end of M-55 concurrency
Roscommon Richfield Township 222.821 358.596 222 Old 76 – St. Helen Former M-76
Backus Township 227.578 366.251 227 M‑55 west – Cadillac, Houghton Lake Western end of M-55 concurrency
Higgins Township 239.631 385.649 239 M‑18 / BL I‑75 north – Roscommon, Houghton Lake
RoscommonCrawford county line GerrishBeaver Creek township line 244.243 393.071 244 BL I‑75 south – Roscommon, North Higgins Lake State Park
Crawford Beaver Creek Township 250.155 402.585 249 US 127 south – Lansing, Clare Southbound exit and northbound entrance; northern terminus of US 127
Beaver CreekGrayling township line 251.020 403.978 251 4 Mile Road
Grayling 254.028 408.818 254 BL I‑75 north to M‑72 – Downtown Grayling, Traverse City Northbound exit and southbound entrance
256.131 412.203 256 North Down River Road Southbound exit and northbound entrance
Grayling Township 259.191 417.127 259 M‑93 (Hartwick Pines Road) / BL I‑75 south to M‑72 – Downtown Grayling, Traverse City Signed as only M-93 northbound
Maple Forest Township 264.224 425.227 264 Frederic, Lewiston
Otsego Otsego Lake Township 270.818 435.839 270 Waters
Bagley Township 279.067 449.115 279 BL I‑75 north (Old 27) – Downtown Gaylord Former US 27; signed as only Old 27 southbound
Gaylord 281.953 453.759 282 M‑32 / BL I‑75 south – Downtown Gaylord, Alpena Signed as only M-32 northbound
Vanderbilt 290.707 467.848 290 Old 27 – Vanderbilt
Cheboygan Nunda Township 300.967 484.359 301 C-58 – Wolverine
Indian River 310.156 499.148 310 M‑68 – Indian River, Rogers City
313.646 504.764 313 M‑27 north – Cheboygan, Indian River Southern terminus of M-27
Munro Township 322.524 519.052 322 C-64 – Cheboygan, Pellston
Hebron Township 326.726 525.815 326 C-66 – Cheboygan, Cross Village
Mackinaw Township 335.632 540.147 336 US 31 south / LMCT south – Petoskey, Charlevoix Southbound exit and northbound entrance; northern terminus of US 31 and southern end of LMCT concurrency
CheboyganEmmet county line MackinawWawatam township line 337.750 543.556 337 Nicolet Avenue – Mackinaw City Northbound exit and southbound entrance; southern terminus of the former M-108
Emmet Mackinaw City 338.434 544.657 338 US 23 south / LHCT south – Cheboygan, Rogers City, Alpena Southbound exit and northbound entrance; northern terminus of US 23; southern end of LHCT, signed as the GLCT from here north
338.754 545.172 338 Michigan Welcome Center Northbound exit only
339.234 545.944 339 Jamet Street Right-in/right-out interchange; signed only as Mackinaw City southbound
Straits of Mackinac 339.252–
343.349
545.973–
552.567
Mackinac Bridge (tolled)
Mackinac St. Ignace 343.662 553.070 343 Bridge View Southbound exit only
344.228 553.981 344 US 2 west / LMCT west – Manistique, Escanaba
BL I‑75 north / LHCT north – St. Ignace
Signed as exits 344A (north) and 344B (west) northbound; BL I-75 not signed southbound; eastern terminus of the western US segment of US 2; southern terminus of BL I-75; LMCT follows exit 344A to US 2 and LHCT follows exit 344B to BL I-75
344.936 555.121 345 Portage Street – St. Ignace Southbound exit and northbound entrance
St. Ignace Township 347.938 559.952 348 BL I‑75 south / LMCT – St. Ignace
H-63 north / Mackinac Trail
Signed as BL I-75 southbound and H-63 northbound; southern end of LMCT concurrency
352.004 566.496 352 M‑123 north – Newberry Southern terminus of M-123
359.233 578.129 359 M‑134 east / LHCT east – Drummond Island, De Tour Village Western terminus of M-134; northern end of LHCT concurrency
Chippewa Rudyard Township 373.587 601.230 373 M‑48 east (H-40) – Pickford, Rudyard Western terminus of M-48
Kinross Township 377.753 607.935 378 M‑80 east – Kinross Western terminus of M-80
379.520 610.778 379 Gaines Highway – Barbeau Area
Dafter Township 386.166 621.474 386 M‑28 / LSCT west – Munising, Newberry Southern end of LSCT concurrency
Sault Ste. Marie 392.473 631.624 392 BS I‑75 north (3 Mile Road) / LHCT – Sault Ste. Marie Southern end of LHCT concurrency signed as GLCT concurrency
394.649 635.126 394 Easterday Avenue – Sault Ste. Marie, Soo Locks
394.826 635.411 Toll Plaza (northbound)
U.S. Customs (southbound)
St. Marys River 395.035–
395.916
635.747–
637.165
International Bridge (tolled) to Canada[b]
1.000 mi = 1.609 km; 1.000 km = 0.621 mi

Related trunklines[edit]

Photograph of
Southern end of the business loop for St. Ignace

There are four auxiliary Interstate Highways for I-75 in Michigan. I-275 begins as a loop from northern Monroe County and continues to connect with I-96 and I-696. The freeway serves the population of western Wayne County and Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport.[7] The highway was originally intended to connect with I-75 north of Pontiac.[38] I-375 was the shortest signed Interstate in the nation;[f] It serves the immediate downtown Detroit area.[7] I-475 is known as the UAW Freeway and the David Dunbar Buick Freeway.[134] This freeway serves Flint's downtown areas as I-75 goes to the west side of the city.[7] The fourth auxiliary Interstate is I-675, a loop into the city of Saginaw[7] that served as an alternate to I-75 when the drawbridge over the Saginaw River was still operating.[114]

In addition to the auxiliary Interstates, there are eight current business routes related to the freeway in the state. These business loops and spurs provide signed connections into the downtowns of Pontiac, Bay City, West Branch, Roscommon, Grayling, Gaylord, St. Ignace, and Sault Ste. Marie.[7] A ninth highway was previously designated in Saginaw as well.[93]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The MBA is an independent state agency responsible for the Mackinac Bridge and thus maintains that section of the overall highway system. The MBA works with MDOT but does not report to it. The executive secretary of the MBA is appointed by MDOT with MBA approval.[12]
  2. ^ a b The sign assembly erected by MDOT indicates that I-75 ends just south of the toll and customs plaza for the International Bridge,[129] however according to MDOT's Physical Reference Finder Application online[2] and the Federal Highway Administration's Route Log and Finder List,[130] I-75 continues onto the International Bridge and ends at the international border in the middle of the St. Marys River.
  3. ^ Northeast of Standish, M-10 ran along the Lake Huron shoreline.
  4. ^ The Michigan State Highway Department was reorganized into the Michigan Department of State Highways and Transportation on August 23, 1973.[32] The name was shortened to its current form in 1978.[33]
  5. ^ The Akashi Kaikyō and Great Belt bridges in the Eastern Hemisphere are each longer between anchorages at 12,826 feet (3,909 m) and 8,921 feet (2,719 m) respectively,[121] but the Mackinac is still the longest between anchorages in the Western Hemisphere,[122] and crosses a wider body of water.
  6. ^ I-375 was the shortest signed Interstate Highway until I-110 was signed in 2010;[131][132] I-878 and I-315 in New York City and Great Falls, Montana, are shorter,[133] but unsigned.[131]

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Interstate 75 Road Markers Are Unveiled". The Herald-Press (St. Joseph, MI). Associated Press. October 13, 1959. p. 3. OCLC 10117184. Retrieved March 22, 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c Michigan Department of Transportation (2009). MDOT Physical Reference Finder Application (Map). Cartography by Michigan Center for Geographic Information. http://www.mcgi.state.mi.us/prfinder/. Retrieved July 22, 2013.
  3. ^ Meyer, Zlati (March 28, 2010). "You Haven't Lived Here Until You Drive I-75 Ohio to the Soo" (PDF). Detroit Free Press. p. 18A. ISSN 1055-2758. Retrieved October 30, 2012. 
  4. ^ Michigan Department of Transportation (April 23, 2006) (PDF). National Highway System, Michigan (Map). http://www.michigan.gov/documents/MDOT_NHS_Statewide_150626_7.pdf. Retrieved October 7, 2008.
  5. ^ Natzke, Stefan; Neathery, Mike & Adderly, Kevin (June 20, 2012). "What is the National Highway System?". National Highway System. Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved July 1, 2012. 
  6. ^ Bureau of Transportation Planning (2012). "Traffic Monitoring Information System". Michigan Department of Transportation. Retrieved October 30, 2012. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Michigan Department of Transportation (2012). State Transportation Map (Map). 1 in:15 mi / 1 cm:9 km (main map); 1 in:2.5 mi / 1 cm:1.75 km (inset). Section B11–G11, G11–M14, M14–N13, main map; section B8–E11, E11–H9, Detroit Area inset.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Google Inc. "Overview Map of I-75 in Michigan". Google Maps (Map). Cartography by Google, Inc. https://maps.google.com/maps?saddr=I-75+N&daddr=42.41798,-83.08751+to:Sault+Ste+Marie+International+Bridge&hl=en&sll=46.496915,-84.358006&sspn=0.056958,0.058279&geocode=FbTHfAIdLBAG-w%3BFTw_hwIdai8M-ylN2vRw_M0kiDFiEnNGSZxgpQ%3BFaypxQId-sH4-g&oq=Sault&mra=ls&via=1&t=h&z=7. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
  9. ^ Oosting, Jonathan (December 5, 2010). "Worst Freeway for Accidents in Metro Detroit? Stretch of I-75 Where Tanker Exploded Last Year". MLive (Detroit: Booth Newspapers). Retrieved October 29, 2012. 
  10. ^ Ranzenberger, Mark (April 27, 2008). "US 127 Signs Getting Updated". The Morning Sun (Mount Pleasant, MI). pp. 1A, 6A. OCLC 22378715. Retrieved August 23, 2012. 
  11. ^ a b Barnett, p. 88.
  12. ^ "Bridge Legislation Signed". The Grand Rapids Press. Associated Press. December 29, 2005. p. B3. OCLC 9975013. 
  13. ^ a b Gould, Karen (July 26, 2007). "A Day in the Life of the Mackinac Bridge". The St. Ignace News. Retrieved April 5, 2013. 
  14. ^ "Mackinac Bridge Toll Increase". Upper Michigan's Source (Negaunee, MI: WLUC-TV). Associated Press. December 30, 2011. Retrieved April 5, 2013. 
  15. ^ Greenwood, Tom (April 18, 2009). "'Quick Card' payment to be used at Mackinac Bridge". The Detroit News. p. 3A. Retrieved April 5, 2013. (subscription required)
  16. ^ Schneider, Kim (May 20, 2007). "Fear the Mighty Mac? They get you over it". MLive (Booth Newspapers). Retrieved April 5, 2013. 
  17. ^ Carr, Tom (July 1, 2007). "Troubled Over Bridged Waters: Mackinac Crew Offers Rides to Those with Severe Phobia". Traverse City Record-Eagle. pp. 1E, 2E. OCLC 30098364. Retrieved April 5, 2013. 
  18. ^ "WNHC787 AM 530 St. Ignace / AM 1610 Mackinaw City". MichiGuide. Retrieved April 5, 2013. 
  19. ^ Collier, Edward (July 29, 1960). "Michigan's Upper Peninsula: Hiawatha's Scenic Land Opened Up by Might Bridge". The Titusville Herald. p. 8. Retrieved August 15, 2013. 
  20. ^ Rand McNally (2013). "Michigan". The Road Atlas (Map) (2013 Walmart ed.). p. 50, section E8–F8. ISBN 0-528-00626-6.
  21. ^ "Tolls Rise for Some at Sault International Bridge". Associated Press. March 25, 2012. 
  22. ^ Helwig, David. "New Bridge Cards Available Tomorrow". SooToday.com. Retrieved August 15, 2013. 
  23. ^ Morrison, p. 1.
  24. ^ Mason, p. 18.
  25. ^ Morrison, pp. 7–8.
  26. ^ Mason, p. 4.
  27. ^ Michigan Legislature, p. 1868
  28. ^ "Michigan May Do Well Following Wisconsin's Road Marking System". The Grand Rapids Press. September 20, 1919. p. 10. OCLC 9975013. 
  29. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (July 1, 1919). State of Michigan: Lower Peninsula (Map). Cartography by MSHD.
  30. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (July 1, 1919). State of Michigan: Upper Peninsula (Map). Cartography by MSHD.
  31. ^ Bureau of Public Roads (November 11, 1926). United States System of Highways Adopted for Uniform Marking by the American Association of State Highway Officials (Map). 1:7,000,000. Cartography by U.S. Geological Survey. OCLC 32889555. http://texashistory.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metapth298433/m1/1/zoom/. Retrieved November 7, 2013.
  32. ^ Kulsea, p. 27.
  33. ^ Kulsea, pp. 30–1.
  34. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (May 1, 1933). Official Michigan Highway Map (Map). Cartography by Rand McNally.
  35. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (September 1, 1933). Official Michigan Highway Map (Map). Cartography by Rand McNally.
  36. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (October 1, 1945). Official Highway Map of Michigan (Map). Section N13.
  37. ^ Public Roads Administration (August 2, 1947). National System of Interstate Highways (Map). http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Interstate_Highway_plan_August_2,_1947_big_text.jpg. Retrieved September 4, 2010.
  38. ^ a b Bureau of Public Roads (September 1955). General Location of National System of Interstate Highways Including All Additional Routes at Urban Areas Designated in September 1955 (Yellow Book) (Map). OCLC 4165975. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Interstate_Highway_plan_September_1955.jpg. Retrieved September 4, 2010.
  39. ^ Staff (March 1, 2010) (PDF). Section 394 Report: Analysis of Transportation Funding Distribution Formula (Report). Michigan Department of Transportation. p. 12. http://www.micountyroads.org/PDF/Sec_394_Report_2010.pdf. Retrieved October 28, 2012.
  40. ^ "Michigan To Push Its North–South Turnpike: Toll Road To Link Centers of Industrial Areas". Youngstown Vindicator. February 21, 1955. p. 2. OCLC 5424159. Retrieved October 30, 2012. 
  41. ^ Bagley, Les (October 25, 2007). "Autos Across Mackinac: Michigan Decides Against Building Turnpikes". The St. Ignace News. OCLC 36250796. Retrieved October 30, 2012. 
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  60. ^ Kulsea, p. 22.
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  76. ^ "Driverless Auto Being Developed: Could Be Ready in 15 Years, Ohio Researcher Says". The New York Times. December 11, 1966. p. 132. ISSN 0362-4331. 
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  81. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (1964). Official Highway Map (Map). Section B11–D11, L13.
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  89. ^ "Part of Fisher Freeway Opens". The News-Palladium (Benton Harbor, MI). Associated Press. December 13, 1967. p. 34. OCLC 10117334. Retrieved August 15, 2013. 
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  113. ^ Barnett, pp. 178–8.
  114. ^ a b Hyde, p. 166.
  115. ^ Hyde, p. 168.
  116. ^ a b c United States nominal Gross Domestic Product per capita figures follow the "Measuring Worth" series supplied in Johnston, Louis & Williamson, Samuel H. (2014). "What Was the U.S. GDP Then?". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved April 18, 2014.  These figures follow the figures as of 2012.
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  120. ^ Rubin, pp. 103–7.
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  125. ^ Google Inc. "Interchange between Fisher and Chrysler Freeways, Detroit". Google Maps (Map). Cartography by Google, Inc. //maps.google.com/maps?q=detroit&hl=en&ll=42.342131,-83.045086&spn=0.007645,0.007521&sll=40.365277,-82.669252&sspn=8.067848,7.701416&hnear=Detroit,+Wayne,+Michigan&t=h&z=17. Retrieved April 5, 2013.
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  127. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (1967). Official Highway Map (Map). Not to scale. Cartography by MSHD. Michigan freeways inset.
  128. ^ Michigan State Highway Department (1968). Official Highway Map (Map). 1 in:3 mi. Cartography by MSHD. Flint inset.
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  130. ^ Kleskovic, Peter (January 19, 2012) [October 31, 2002]. "Table 1: Main Routes of the Dwight D. Eisenhower National System Of Interstate and Defense Highways as of October 31, 2002". Route Log and Finder List. Federal Highway Administration. OCLC 47914009. Retrieved October 26, 2012. 
  131. ^ a b Rand McNally (2009). The Road Atlas (Map). ISBN 0-528-93981-5.
    • "Montana". 1 :3 mi. pp. 60–1, section N16, Great Falls inset.
    • "New York: New York City". 1 in:2 mi. pp. 72–3, section J13–J14, New York City & Vicinity inset.
    • "Texas: Western". 1 in:3 mi. pp. 98–9, section WT3, El Paso inset.
  132. ^ Staff (2010). Northbound I-110/US 54/I-10/US 180 Pull-Through Sign (Highway guide sign). El Paso, TX: Texas Department of Transportation. Retrieved October 27, 2012. 
  133. ^ Staff (October 31, 2002). "Table 2: Auxiliary Routes of the Dwight D. Eisenhower National System Of Interstate and Defense Highways as of October 31, 2002". Route Log and Finder List. Federal Highway Administration. OCLC 47914009. Retrieved March 25, 2010. 
  134. ^ Barnett, pp. 40–1, 215.

Works cited[edit]

  • Barnett, LeRoy (2004). A Drive Down Memory Lane: The Named State and Federal Highways of Michigan. Allegan Forest, MI: The Priscilla Press. ISBN 1-886167-24-9. 
  • Hyde, Charles K. (1993). Historic Highway Bridges of Michigan. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-2448-7. 
  • Kulsea, Bill & Shawver, Tom (1980). Making Michigan Move: A History of Michigan Highways and the Michigan Department of Transportation. Lansing, MI: Michigan Department of Transportation. OCLC 8169232. 
  • Mason, Philip P. (1959). Michigan Highways From Indian Trails to Expressways. Ann Arbor, MI: Braun-Brumfield. OCLC 23314983. 
  • Michigan Legislature (1915). "Chapter 91: State Reward Trunk Line Highways". In Shields, Edmund C.; Black, Cyrenius P. & Broomfield, Archibald. The Compiled Laws of the State of Michigan, Volume I. Lansing, MI: Wynkoop, Hallenbeck, Crawford. pp. 1868–72. OCLC 44724558. Retrieved January 24, 2012. 
  • Morrison, Roger L. (Autumn 1937). "The History and Development of Michigan Highways". Michigan Alumnus Quarterly Review (Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Bureau of Alumni Relations) 39 (54): 59–73. OCLC 698029175. 
  • Rubin, Lawrence A. (1985). Bridging the Straits. Detroit: Wayne State University Press. ISBN 0-8143-1789-8. 

External links[edit]

Route map: Google / Bing


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