Irvington, New Jersey
|Irvington, New Jersey|
|Township of Irvington|
Map of Irvington in Essex County. Inset: Essex County highlighted in the State of New Jersey.
Census Bureau map of Irvington, New Jersey
|Coordinates: Coordinates: |
|Incorporated||March 27, 1874|
|Named for||Washington Irving|
|• Type||Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council)|
|• Mayor||Wayne Smith (term ends June 30, 2014)|
|• Administrator||Wayne Bradley|
|• Clerk||Harold E. Wiener|
|• Total||2.930 sq mi (7.589 km2)|
|• Land||2.928 sq mi (7.584 km2)|
|• Water||0.002 sq mi (0.005 km2) 0.07%|
|Area rank||338th of 566 in state
16th of 22 in county
|Elevation||128 ft (39 m)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|• Estimate (2012)||54,108|
|• Rank||30th of 566 in state
3rd of 22 in county
|• Density||18,417.0/sq mi (7,110.8/km2)|
|• Density rank||8th of 566 in state
1st of 22 in county
|Time zone||Eastern (EST) (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||Eastern (EDT) (UTC-4)|
|GNIS feature ID||0877363|
Irvington is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township had a total population of 53,926, having declined by 6,769 (-11.2%) from the 60,695 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn declined by 323 (-0.5%) from the 61,018 counted in the 1990 Census.
Irvington is located at United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 2.930 square miles (7.589 km2), of which, 2.928 square miles (7.584 km2) of it is land and 0.002 square miles (0.005 km2) of it (0.07%) is water.(40.72386,-74.232517). According to the
1930-1990 2000 2010
At the 2010 United States Census, there were 53,926 people, 20,093 households, and 12,839 families residing in the township. The population density was 18,417.0 per square mile (7,110.8 /km2). There were 23,196 housing units at an average density of 7,922.0 per square mile (3,058.7 /km2). The racial makeup of the township was 5.64% (3,042) White, 85.41% (46,058) Black or African American, 0.38% (204) Native American, 0.87% (471) Asian, 0.07% (38) Pacific Islander, 5.42% (2,922) from other races, and 2.21% (1,191) from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 10.60% (5,716) of the population.
There were 20,093 households of which 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 27.6% were married couples living together, 27.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.1% were non-families. 31.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.66 and the average family size was 3.33.
In the township, 25.4% of the population were under the age of 18, 10.6% from 18 to 24, 30.0% from 25 to 44, 25.1% from 45 to 64, and 9.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34.0 years. For every 100 females there were 88.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.2 males.
The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (in 2010 inflation-adjusted dollars) median household income was $42,580, and the median family income was $50,798. Males had a median income of $38,033 versus $36,720 for females. The per capita income for the township was $20,520. About 14.4% of families and 16.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.4% of those under age 18 and 16.7% of those age 65 or over.
As of the 2000 United States Census there were 60,695 people, 22,032 households, and 14,408 families residing in the township. The population density was 20,528.3 people per square mile (7,917.1/km2). There were 24,116 housing units at an average density of 8,156.5 per square mile (3,145.7/km2). The racial makeup of the township was 81.66% Black or African American, 8.97% White, 0.24% Native American, 1.10% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 3.68% from other races, and 4.24% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 8.38% of the population.
As part of the 2000 Census, 81.66% of Irvington's residents identified themselves as being Black or African American. This was one of the highest percentages of African American people in the United States, and the third-highest in New Jersey (behind Lawnside at 93.6%, and East Orange at 89.46%) of all places with 1,000 or more residents identifying their ancestry.
There were 22,032 households out of which 33.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.2% were married couples living together, 27.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.6% were non-families. 29.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.39.
In the township the population was spread out with 28.0% under the age of 18, 10.7% from 18 to 24, 32.3% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, and 7.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 87.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.5 males.
The median income for a household in the township was $36,575, and the median income for a family was $41,098. Males had a median income of $32,043 versus $27,244 for females. The per capita income for the township was $16,874. About 15.8% of families and 17.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.9% of those under age 18 and 12.2% of those age 65 or over.
Irvington experienced the crack epidemic of the 1980s and has struggled with its aftermath. The township's violent crime rate has been six times higher than New Jersey overall and the murder rate eight times higher than statewide statistics. As of 2007[update], the New Jersey State Police reported that Irvington had a violent crime rate of 22.4 incidents per 1,000 population, the highest of all 15 major urban areas in the state.
Clinton Township, which included what is now Irvington, Maplewood and parts of Newark and South Orange, was created on April 14, 1834. The area was known as Camptown until the mid-1800s. In 1850, after Stephen Foster published his ballad, Camptown Races, residents were concerned that the activities described in the song would be associated with their community. The town was renamed, Irvingtown, in honor of Washington Irving.
Irvington was incorporated as an independent village on March 27, 1874, from portions of Clinton Township. What remained of Clinton Township was absorbed into Newark on March 5, 1902. On March 2, 1898, Irvington was incorporated as a Town, replacing Irvington Village. Laws approved in Trenton in both 1903 and 1908 that would have annexed Irvington to Newark were rejected by local voters.
The 1967 Newark riots hastened an exodus of families from that city, many of them moving the few short blocks to Irvington. Until 1965, Irvington was almost exclusively white. By 1980, the town was nearly 40% black, by 1990 it was 70%. On July 1, 1980, Fred Bost, the first black to serve on the Town Council, was sworn in as East Ward Councilman. Michael G. Steele, the town's first black mayor, was elected in 1990, followed by Sara B. Bost in 1994. The current Mayor is Wayne Smith.
Irvington is governed under the Faulkner Act (Mayor-Council) form of municipal government. The mayor and the seven-member council are elected in non-partisan elections held every other year on the second Tuesday in May to four-year terms of office. The mayor and the three at-large seats are elected together and two years later the four ward seats are elected. The council selects a president, first vice president and second vice president from among its members at a reorganization meeting held after each election. The council is the legislative body of the township and needs a ⅔ majority to make changes to the budget submitted by the mayor. The mayor is the township's chief executive and is responsible for overseeing the day-to-day operations and submitting a budget, but is not eligible to vote on the council and is not required to attend its meetings.
As of 2013[update], the mayor of Irvington is Wayne Smith, whose term of office ends June 30, 2014. Members of the Township Council are Council President D. Bilal Beasley (At-Large; 2014), Vice President Andrea C. McElroy (At-Large; 2014), Charnette Federic (West Ward; 2016), Paul Inman (East Ward; 2016), Lebby C. Jones (At-Large; 2014), Sandra R. Jones (South Ward; 2016) and David Lyons (North Ward; 2016).
Federal, state and county representation
New Jersey's Tenth Congressional District is represented by Donald Payne, Jr. (D, Newark). New Jersey is represented in the United States Senate by Cory Booker (D, Newark; took office on October 31, 2013, after winning a special election to fill the seat of Frank Lautenberg) and Bob Menendez (D, North Bergen).
For the 2014-2015 Session, the 28th District of the New Jersey Legislature is represented in the State Senate by Ronald Rice (D, Newark) and in the General Assembly by Ralph R. Caputo (D, Belleville) and Cleopatra Tucker (D, Newark). The Governor of New Jersey is Chris Christie (R, Mendham Township). The Lieutenant Governor of New Jersey is Kim Guadagno (R, Monmouth Beach).
Essex County is governed by a directly-elected County Executive, with legislative functions performed by the Board of Chosen Freeholders. As of 2013[update], the County Executive is Joseph N. DiVincenzo, Jr. The county's Board of Chosen Freeholders consists of nine members, four elected on an at-large basis and one from each of five wards, who serve three-year terms of office on a concurrent basis, all of which end in 2014. Essex County's Freeholders are Freeholder President Blonnie R. Watson (at large; Newark), Freeholder Vice President Patricia Sebold (at large; Livingston), Rufus I. Johnson (at large; Newark), Gerald M. Owens (At large; South Orange, filling the vacant seat after the resignation of Donald Payne, Jr.) Rolando Bobadilla (District 1 - Newark's North and East Wards, parts of Central and West Wards; Newark), D. Bilal Beasley (District 2 - Irvington, Maplewood and Newark's South Ward and parts of West Ward; Irvington), Carol Y. Clark (District 3 - East Orange, Newark's West and Central Wards, Orange and South Orange; East Orange) and Leonard M. Luciano (District 4 - Caldwell, Cedar Grove, Essex Fells, Fairfield, Livingston, Millburn, North Caldwell, Roseland, Verona, West Caldwell and West Orange; West Caldwell), and Brendan W. Gill (District 5 - Belleville, Bloomfield, Glen Ridge, Montclair and Nutley; Montclair). Constitutional elected countywide are County Clerk Christopher J. Durkin (West Caldwell, 2015), Sheriff Armando B. Fontoura (2015) and Surrogate Thomas N. Stephen, II (2016).
As of March 23, 2011, there were a total of 28,545 registered voters in Irvington, of which 14,694 (51.5%) were registered as Democrats, 404 (1.4%) were registered as Republicans and 13,442 (47.1%) were registered as Unaffiliated. There were 5 voters registered to other parties.
In the 2008 presidential election, Democrat Barack Obama received 96.9% of the vote here (18,923 cast), ahead of Republican John McCain with 2.5% (493 votes) and other candidates with 0.1% (29 votes), among the 19,533 ballots cast by the township's 28,879 registered voters, for a turnout of 67.6%. In the 2004 presidential election, Democrat John Kerry received 91.8% of the vote here (14,885 ballots cast), outpolling Republican George W. Bush with 7.3% (1,189 votes) and other candidates with 0.3% (80 votes), among the 16,211 ballots cast by the township's 26,594 registered voters, for a turnout percentage of 61.0.
In the 2009 gubernatorial election, Democrat Jon Corzine received 93.2% of the vote here (9,218 ballots cast), ahead of Republican Chris Christie with 4.6% (459 votes), Independent Chris Daggett with 0.9% (93 votes) and other candidates with 0.7% (66 votes), among the 9,894 ballots cast by the township's 28,189 registered voters, yielding a 35.1% turnout.
The Irvington Public Schools serve students in pre-kindergarten through 12th grade. The district is one of 31 Abbott districts statewide, which are now referred to as "SDA Districts" based on the requirement for the state to cover all costs for school building and renovation projects in these districts under the supervision of the New Jersey Schools Development Authority.
As of the 2010–11 school year, the district's 12 schools had an enrollment of 8,695 students. Schools in the district (with 2010–11 enrollment data from the National Center for Education Statistics) are Augusta Preschool Academy (prekindergarten; 324 students), eight elementary schools — Berkeley Terrace School (K–5; 465), Chancellor Avenue School (PreK–5; 453), Florence Avenue School (K–5; 545), Grove Street School (PreK–5; 367), Madison Avenue School (K–5; 301), Thurgood G. Marshall School (PreK–5; 456), Mount Vernon Avenue School (PreK–5; 666) and University Elementary School (K–5; 553) — along with Union Avenue Middle School (6–8; 806), University Middle School (6–8; 753) and Irvington High School (9–12; 1,465). The district's high school was the 309th-ranked public high school in New Jersey out of 328 schools statewide in New Jersey Monthly magazine's September 2012 cover story on the state's "Top Public High Schools", after being ranked 287th in 2010 out of 322 schools listed.
Portions of Irvington are part of an Urban Enterprise Zone. In addition to other benefits to encourage employment within the Zone, shoppers can take advantage of a reduced 3½% sales tax rate (versus the 7% rate charged statewide) at eligible merchants.
The Irvington Bus Terminal, which underwent renovation in the early 2000s, is one of New Jersey Transit's (NJT) busiest facilities and regional transit hubs. Irvington is served by NJT bus routes 107 to the Port Authority Bus Terminal in Midtown Manhattan; the 1, 13, 25, 27, 37, 39, 42, 70, 90 and 94 to Newark; and local service on the 26, 96 and routes.
Taxi service is provided primarily by Red Top Taxi and Irvington Cab, the two largest cab companies in the community. Numerous smaller companies (often "gypsy cabs") are also available.
Local roads include County Road 509 and Route 124. Major highways include Interstate 78 which passes through very briefly along the southeastern border at Exit 54. The Garden State Parkway also runs through the center and is accessible from Exit 143 and Exit 144.
Notable current and former residents of Irvington include:
- Paul Boris (born 1955), former pitcher for the Minnesota Twins.
- Josh Evans, (born 1991), free safety who has played in the NFL for the Jacksonville Jaguars.
- Austin Gunsel (1909–1974), National Football League's interim commissioner following the death of Bert Bell on October 11, 1959.
- James J. Howard (1927–1988), represented New Jersey's 3rd congressional district in the United States House of Representatives from 1965–1988.
- Kareem Huggins (born 1986) running back for the Tampa Bay Buccaneers.
- Cullen Jones (born 1984), Gold Medalist swimmer at the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing in the Men's 4 x 100m Freestyle Relay.
- Queen Latifah (born 1970), rapper, singer, actress, producer.
- Jerry Lewis (born 1926), comedian, actor, director.
- Joe Morello (1928–2011), drummer best known for his work with The Dave Brubeck Quartet.
- Raheem Morris (born 1976), former head coach of the Tampa Bay Buccaneers.
- Sybil Moses (c. 1939–2009), prosecutor of the "Dr. X" Mario Jascalevich murder case and New Jersey Superior Court judge.
- Blanche Noyes (1900–1981), pioneering female aviator who was among the first ten women to receive a pilot's license.
- Robert Randolph, singer and guitarist for Robert Randolph & the Family band.
- Mark Rudd (born 1947), educator and anti-war activist.
- Artie Schroeck (born 1938), composer and arranger.
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- Department of Administration, Township of Irvington. Accessed August 14, 2012.
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- DP-1: Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000 - Census 2000 Summary File 1 (SF 1) 100-Percent Data for Irvington township, Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed July 12, 2013.
- DP03: Selected Economic Characteristics from the 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates for Irvington township, Essex County, New Jersey, United States Census Bureau. Accessed March 1, 2012.
- African-American Communities, EPodunk. Accessed July 16, 2011.
- Jones, Richard G. "A Cruel Turn for Irvington, a Town Already Battling Crime and Blight", The New York Times, October 20, 2007. Accessed August 19, 2008. "On Tuesday, the State Police reported that Irvington had the highest violent crime rate of the state's 15 major urban areas, with 22.4 incidents for every 1,000 residents."
- Snyder, John P. The Story of New Jersey's Civil Boundaries: 1606-1968, Bureau of Geology and Topography; Trenton, New Jersey; 1969. p. 126 re Clinton Township, p. 128 re Irvington. Accessed August 14, 2012.
- History of Irvington, Irvington Township. Accessed May 9, 2007.
- Crime statistics for Irvington, Homesurfer. Accessed August 14, 2007.
- Our Municipal Council, Township of Irvington. Accessed August 1, 2013.
- Biographical Sketch of Wayne Smith, Mayor, Township of Irvington. Accessed August 1, 2013.
- Municipal Officials in Essex County As of January 2012, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed August 1, 2013. Term-end year of 2012 is listed for ward councilmembers as of date accessed.
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- Lee, Eunice. "Labor leader from South Orange tapped as new Essex County freeholder", The Star-Ledger, December 19, 2012. Accessed January 9, 2013. "A longtime labor union leader from South Orange was sworn in this afternoon as the newest Essex County freeholder.Gerald Owens, 74, is a general organizer for the International Longshoremen's Association.... Owens is filling the seat vacated by former at-large freeholder Donald Payne Jr., who stepped down from the post last month after securing the 10th Congressional District seat left open by his late father."
- Rolando Bobadilla, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- D. Bilal Beasley, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- Carol Y. Clark, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- Leonard M. Luciano, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
- Brendan W. Gill, Essex County, New Jersey. Accessed January 9, 2013.
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- 2008 Presidential General Election Results: Essex County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 23, 2008. Accessed November 5, 2012.
- 2004 Presidential Election: Essex County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 13, 2004. Accessed November 5, 2012.
- 2009 Governor: Essex County, New Jersey Department of State Division of Elections, December 31, 2009. Accessed November 5, 2012.
- Abbott Districts, New Jersey Department of Education, backed up by the Internet Archiveas of May 15, 2009. Accessed August 14, 2012.
- What are SDA Districts?, New Jersey Schools Development Authority. Accessed August 14, 2012. "SDA Districts are 31 special-needs school districts throughout New Jersey. They were formerly known as Abbott Districts, based on the Abbott v. Burke case in which the New Jersey Supreme Court ruled that the State must provide 100 percent funding for all school renovation and construction projects in special-needs school districts.... The districts were renamed after the elimination of the Abbott designation through passage of the state's new School Funding Formula in January 2008."
- SDA Districts, New Jersey Schools Development Authority. Accessed August 14, 2012.
- District information for the Irvington Township School District, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed October 10, 2012.
- Data for the Irvington Public Schools, National Center for Education Statistics. Accessed October 10, 2012.
- Augusta Preschool Academy, Irvington Public Schools. Accessed August 1, 2013.
- Berkeley Terrace School, Irvington Public Schools. Accessed August 1, 2013.
- Chancellor Avenue School, Irvington Public Schools. Accessed August 1, 2013.
- Florence Avenue School, Irvington Public Schools. Accessed August 1, 2013.
- Grove Street School, Irvington Public Schools. Accessed August 1, 2013.
- Madison Avenue School, Irvington Public Schools. Accessed August 1, 2013.
- Thurgood G. Marshall School, Irvington Public Schools. Accessed August 1, 2013.
- Mount Vernon Avenue School, Irvington Public Schools. Accessed August 1, 2013.
- University Elementary School, Irvington Public Schools. Accessed August 1, 2013.
- Union Avenue Middle School, Irvington Public Schools. Accessed August 1, 2013.
- University Middle School, Irvington Public Schools. Accessed August 1, 2013.
- Irvington High School, Irvington Public Schools. Accessed August 1, 2013.
- New Jersey School Directory for the Irvington Public Schools, New Jersey Department of Education. Accessed August 1, 2013.
- Staff. "The Top New Jersey High Schools: Alphabetical", New Jersey Monthly, August 16, 2012. Accessed October 10, 2012.
- Geographic & Urban Redevelopment Tax Credit Programs: Urban Enterprise Zone Employee Tax Credit, State of New Jersey, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 25, 2009. Accessed Juky 16, 2011.
- "IRVINGTON BUS TERMINAL TO GET FACELIFT: Wider Bus Lanes, Redesigned Waiting Area, Enhanced Parking and Improved Pedestrian Links are Designated for Aging Facility", New Jersey Transit press release, October 16, 2003. Accessed October 10, 2012.
- New Irvington Bus Terminal, RCC Builders and Developers. Accessed October 10, 2012.
- Essex County Train/Bus service, New Jersey Transit, backed up by the Internet Archive as of May 22, 2009. Accessed July 16, 2011.
- Paul Boris Statistics, The Baseball Cube. Accessed January 19, 2008.
- "Jaguars sign Josh Evans", Jacksonville Jaguars, July 20, 2013. Accessed February 8, 2014. "The Irvington, N.J. native played quarterback and safety at Irvington High School where he rushed for 14 touchdowns and threw for 18 more."
- via Associated Press. "N.F.L. Picks Interim Chief; GUNSEL IS CHOSEN BY CLUB OWNERS Acting Chief of Pro League Since Bell's Death to Serve Until January", The New York Times, October 15, 1959. Accessed June 9, 2011. "By profession, he is an accountant. A native of Irvington, N. J., Gunsel now lives in Narberth, Pa., as did Bell."
- James John Howard, Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Accessed August 30, 2007.
- Yasinskas, Pat. "Bucs release Derrick Ward", ESPN.com, August 31, 2010. Accessed June 9, 2011. "Morris also said the move does not mean Huggins, who's from the coach's hometown of Irvington, N.J., and has rushed for a team-best 97 yards on 19 carries this preseason, has won a job."
- Mallozzi, Vincent M. "U.S. Swimmer Hopes to Inspire", The New York Times, August 3, 2008. Accessed June 9, 2011. "CULLEN JONES does not want to be described as an athlete who came out of nowhere, burst onto the scene or made a surprising debut. 'I don't like any of those descriptions,' said Jones, a 24-year-old swimming sensation from the impoverished city of Irvington, N.J. 'I've been on a long, hard road to get to where I want to be, so I don't consider myself a surprise.'"
- Guthrie, Marissa. "'Life' of a Queen: Latifah digs deep for an HBO movie", copy of article from New York Daily News, March 8, 2007, accessed April 19, 2007. "Latifah—who'll turn 37 this month—grew up in Irvington, N.J."
- Sragow, Michael. "Funny Bones", The New York Times, June 9, 1996. Accessed March 9, 2012. "Mr. Levy locates the seeds of Mr. Lewis's king-size ambitions and insecurities in his struggling show-biz family (his parents devoted themselves primarily to his father's career as a would-be Jolson), and in his sometime hometown of Irvington, N.J., which in the 1930's was rife with German-American support for Hitler."
- Smith, Steve. "Joe Morello, Drummer with Dave Brubeck Quartet, Dies at 82", The New York Times, March 13, 2011. Accessed July 16, 2011. "Joe Morello, a jazz drummer whose elegant, economical playing in the Dave Brubeck Quartet sounded natural and effortless even in unusual time signatures, died on Saturday at his home in Irvington, N.J. He was 82."
- via Associated Press. "Irvington native Raheem Morris named head coach of Tampa Bay Buccaneers", The Star-Ledger, January 17, 2009. Accessed June 9, 2011. "The 32-year-old, a 1994 Irvington High School graduate, oozed enthusiasm during a news conference to introduce him as Jon Gruden's successor on Saturday, even if he did not offer specifics about his plan to help the Bucs climb back among the NFL's elite."
- Grimes, William. "Sybil R. Moses, Prosecutor and Longtime New Jersey Judge, Dies at 69", The New York Times, January 24, 2009. Accessed June 9, 2011. "Sybil Rappaport was born in Newark and grew up in Irvington, N.J."
- "MRS. NOYES GETS AIR POST; Irvington Woman Is Appointed Federal Marking Pilot.", The New York Times, August 14, 1936. Accessed January 2, 2008. "Mrs. Blanche Noyes of Irvington, N.J., was appointed today an air-marking pilot for the Bureau of Air Commerce by Eugene L. Vidal, the director. Mrs. Noyes has been flying since 1929 and was one of the first ten women pilots to receive an air transport license."
- Wise, Brian. "Eclectic Sounds of New Jersey, Echoing From Coast to Coast", The New York Times, February 8, 2004. Accessed March 9, 2012. "Raised in Irvington, Mr. Randolph, 25, learned to play pedal steel guitar at age 16 by watching so-called Sacred Steel players in the House of God Church, an African-American Pentecostal denomination in Orange."
- Who is Mark Rudd?, dated July 2005, accessed April 19, 2007. "Mark was born on June 2, 1947 in Irvington, N.J."
- Home page, Artie Schroeck. Accessed February 8, 2014. "Artie Schroeck was born in Irvington, New Jersey, October 10, 1938, the youngest of 4 boys."
- Township of Irvington homepage
- Irvington Public Schools
- Irvington Public Schools's 2010–11 School Report Card from the New Jersey Department of Education
- Data for the Irvington Public Schools, National Center for Education Statistics
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Irvington". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.