Jules Verne ATV
Jules Verne ATV on its approach to the International Space Station.
|Station crew||Expedition 16
|Contractors||EADS Astrium (prime)
Thales Alenia Space
|Carrier Rocket||Ariane 5ES|
|Launch site||Kourou ELA-3|
|Launch date||9 March 2008
|Decay Date||29 September 2008
|Free flight time||2 months|
|Docked time||5 months|
|Docking port||Zvezda Aft|
|Docking date||3 April 2008
|Undocking date||5 September 2008
|Periapsis||331 kilometres (179 nmi)|
|Apoapsis||339 kilometres (183 nmi)|
|Total||19,360 kg (42,700 lb)|
|Cargo||2,297 kg (5,060 lb)|
|Dry cargo||1,150 kg (2,500 lb)|
|Fuel||856 kg (1,890 lb)|
|Gaseous cargo||21 kg (46 lb)|
|Water||270 kg (600 lb)|
The Jules Verne ATV, or Automated Transfer Vehicle 001 (ATV-001), was an unmanned cargo resupply spacecraft launched by the European Space Agency (ESA). The ATV was named after the 19th-century French science-fiction author Jules Verne. It was launched on 9 March 2008 on a mission to supply the International Space Station (ISS) with propellant, water, air, and dry cargo.
Because it was the first ATV to be launched, Jules Verne underwent three weeks of orbital testing before beginning its final rendezvous with the ISS. The spacecraft docked to the ISS on 3 April 2008 to deliver its cargo. On 25 April 2008, Jules Verne used its thrusters to reboost the station into a higher orbit. After spending just over five months docked at the station, Jules Verne undocked on 5 September 2008 and made a destructive re-entry over the Pacific Ocean on 29 September.
The first ATV was officially named Jules Verne on 9 April 2002. By the end of January 2003, most of its components had been assembled. These components were built by several different aerospace companies; the docking and refuelling systems were produced by RSC Energia in Russia, the pressurised section was assembled by Alenia Spazio in Turin, Italy, and the propulsion system was constructed by EADS Astrium in Bremen, Germany. The propulsion system was integrated with the pressurised compartment in Bremen, before the spacecraft was moved to the European Space Research and Technology Centre in Noordwijk, the Netherlands, for testing. It arrived at ESTEC on 15 July 2004.
Launch and early operations 
Jules Verne was launched into low Earth orbit atop the maiden flight of the Ariane 5ES carrier rocket. Lift-off from ELA-3 at the Guiana Space Centre in Kourou, French Guiana occurred at 04:03:04 UTC on 9 March 2008. The spacecraft separated from the carrier rocket 1 hour 6 minutes and 41 seconds after lift-off, and navigation systems were subsequently activated. Two days later, on 11 March, the four main engines of the ATV were fired for the first time, marking the beginning of several orbital insertion boosts. The Overberg Test Range played a part in relaying telemetry data from a mobile station deployed in New Zealand during the launch phase.
After in-orbit activation of the ATV's propulsion system about two hours after launch, the second of the four Propulsion Drive Electronics (PDE) units, which controlled a quarter of the ATV's maneuvering thrusters, reported an unexpected difference in the mixing pressure between the fuel and the oxidiser. Engine burns were briefly postponed while the fault was investigated. A restart of the entire propulsion system by the ATV Control Centre in Toulouse, France, resolved the problem. ESA reported that the mission could have gone ahead even if one quarter of the maneuvering thrusters had been unavailable.
During the free-flight phase, some shell heaters were more active than anticipated, but because the thermal and power situation remained acceptable, this did not affect the mission. Visual inspection from the space station later confirmed that some thermal blankets had partially detached. Air trapped under the blankets during launch rapidly expanded as the ATV's altitude increased; more holes were added to future craft to fix this problem.
On-orbit testing and docking 
Because Jules Verne was the first ATV, several on-orbit demonstration tests were performed in order to confirm that it was able to safely approach and dock with the space station. After launch, the ATV spent three weeks in free flight and successfully underwent Collision Avoidance Manoeuvre (CAM) tests on 13 March and 14 March, ensuring that the CAM could be conducted as a last back-off mechanism should all other systems fail during the docking manoeuvre.
Subsequently, it performed two docking demonstration tests called "demo days". These tests consisted of a series of rendezvous with the ISS, and culminated in its final test: an actual docking with the aft port of the Zvezda service module on 3 April 2008. The rendezvous were performed by a fully automated system using GPS and optical sensors, including a videometer and telegoniometer. When Jules Verne was 249 metres (817 ft) from the space station, the final docking procedure was guided by a videometer, which fired laser pulses at cube-shaped reflectors on the Zvezda module, and a telegoniometer, which functioned like a radar system. The ISS crew could have aborted the docking at any point up until the ATV was one metre from the station (CHOP or Crew Hands-Off Point); this was not required. Jules Verne successfully docked with the ISS on 3 April 2008 at 14:45 UTC.
29 March – Demo-Day 1 
During Demo-Day 1 on 29 March 2008, the first rendezvous with the International Space Station was conducted. The manoeuvre culminated in a successful rendezvous with the space station at a distance of 3.5 kilometres (2.2 mi) despite a minor anomaly with the electronic systems controlling the spacecraft's engines.
Jules Verne started its approach to the ISS at 14:19 GMT. At 15:57, it reached the S2 hold point and waited there for 90 minutes to conduct tests. The ISS crew then commanded the ATV to conduct hold and retreat manoeuvres. At 17:30, the ATV was commanded to perform an escape manoeuvre, propelling it away from the station.
31 March – Demo-Day 2 
During Demo-Day 2, Jules Verne closed in to 12 metres (39 ft) of the International Space Station, after which the ISS crew simulated an abort. All targets for this Demo-Day were successfully met.
3 April – Docking 
On 3 April 2008, the ATV made contact with Zvezda's aft docking port at 14:45:32 UTC, starting a sequence of docking events that included mechanical capture at 14:55 UTC and docking with the ISS a few minutes later. Jules Verne remained docked there for five months, before making a destructive re-entry into Earth's atmosphere, while carrying space station waste that was stored on the ATV before departure.
Docked operations 
After docking and leak checks were conducted, the ISS crew was able to enter the pressurised cargo module and access the cargo. The ATV's liquid tanks were connected to the ISS, and their contents were transferred to the station. The crew manually released air components directly into the ISS's atmosphere. The ISS crew gradually replaced the ATV's cargo with waste for disposal. In addition, 270 kilograms (600 lb) of water, 21 kilograms (46 lb) of oxygen and 856 kilograms (1,890 lb) of propellant was transferred to the Zvezda module, and Jules Verne was also used to reboost the space station on four occasions. About 1,150 kilograms (2,500 lb) of dry cargo was removed from the ATV and remained aboard the ISS.
Two original manuscripts by Jules Verne, as well as an illustrated 19th century Hetzel French language edition of From the Earth to the Moon and Around the Moon, were flown aboard the spacecraft, and were successfully delivered to the crew of the International Space Station.
The thrusters of Jules Verne were fired for just over 5 minutes on 27 August 2008 at 16:11 UTC to conduct a debris avoidance manoeuvre. By slowing the station by approximately 1 m/s (2.2 mph), the altitude of the station was lowered by approximately 1.77 km (1.10 mi). This manoeuvre effectively eliminated any chance of a collision with a piece of space debris which had been part of the Kosmos 2421 satellite.
The ATV was one of the quietest places on the ISS, as it was isolated from the rest of the station. Because of this, the crew used it as sleeping quarters, and also as a place to perform personal hygiene activities. Yi So-yeon also used it as laboratory space where she performed nanotechnology experiments.
At the time of its docking, the Expedition 16 crew was aboard the space station. This consisted of Peggy Whitson of NASA who was the station's Commander, along with two Flight Engineers; Yuri Malenchenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency and Garrett Reisman of NASA. They were replaced by the Expedition 17 crew in April and May, who remained aboard the station at the time of the ATV's departure. This crew consisted of station Commander Sergey Volkov of the Russian Federal Space Agency, and Flight Engineers; Oleg Kononenko of the Russian Federal Space Agency and Gregory Chamitoff of NASA.
Whilst the ATV was docked, two manned spacecraft visited the space station. In April, Soyuz TMA-12 delivered two members of the Expedition 17 crew, and also carried South Korean spaceflight participant Yi So-Yeon. Space Shuttle Discovery docked in May on STS-124, replacing Reisman with Chamitoff and delivering the Japanese Experiment Module. No member of the European Space Agency was aboard the ISS while Jules Verne was docked.
End of mission 
On 5 September 2008, Jules Verne undocked and manoeuvred to an orbital position 5 km below the ISS. It remained in that orbit until the night of 29 September. At 10:00:27 GMT, Jules Verne started its first de-orbit burn of 6 minutes, followed by a second burn of 15 minutes at 12:58:18 GMT. At 13:31 GMT, Jules Verne re-entered the atmosphere at an altitude of 120 km, and then completed its destructive re-entry as planned over the following 12 minutes, depositing debris in the South Pacific Ocean southwest of Tahiti—in a particularly well-documented reentry and breakup.
Jules Verne re-enters the Earth's atmosphere southwest of Tahiti.
ATV missions 
|Designation||Name||Launch date||ISS docking date||Re-entry date||Sources|
|ATV-001||Jules Verne||9 March 2008||3 April 2008||29 September 2008|||
|ATV-002||Johannes Kepler||16 February 2011||24 February 2011||21 June 2011|||
|ATV-003||Edoardo Amaldi||23 March 2012||28 March 2012||4 October 2012|||
|ATV-004||Albert Einstein||5 June 2013||15 June 2013||15 October 2013|||
|ATV-005||Georges Lemaître||12 April 2014||N/A||N/A|||
See also 
|Wikinews has related news: Ariane 5 rocket launches first Automated Transfer Vehicle|
- "Europe's 'Jules Verne' spacecraft carries namesake's notes on maiden voyage". collectSPACE.com. 7 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-09.
- "Jules Verne boosts ISS orbit". esa.int. 25 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-26.
- "International success for Astrium: Europe's Jules Verne mission accomplished". EADS.
- "Jules Verne - an extraordinary space traveller". European Space Agency. 2002-04-10.
- "2003: a challenging year to build Jules Verne". European Space Agency. 2003-01-31.
- "'Jules Verne' arrives at ESTEC". European Space Agency. 2004-07-20.
- "Jules Verne on track for long journey to ISS". ESA. 11 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-11.
- "Ariane 5 ES launches with ATV — suffers early fault on orbit".
- Jules Verne ATV under control after a textbook launch on ESA.int
- John Ellwood, et al.: Jule Verne's journey from Earth to ISS — ESA's first space ferry. ESA Bulletin 136. European Space Agency. November 2008.
- "Jules Verne demonstrates flawless Collision Avoidance Manoeuvre". ESA. 14 March 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-14.
- "State of the art in automatic rendezvous". ESA. 2 April 2004. Retrieved 2008-03-06.
- "Flight 181: Ariane 5/ATV Mission Timeline". Spaceflight Now. 2008-03-05. Retrieved 2008-03-10.
- Stephen Clark (2008-03-29). "Station resupply ship passes first demonstration day". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 2008-03-30.
- "ESA Updates to Jules Verne ATV Demonstration Day 2".
- ESA video of capture (the exact time is shown in the upper right of the screen)
- "ESA Portal - Europe's automated ship docks to the ISS". European Space Agency. 3 April 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-20.
- Jules Verne ATV given "go" for docking at www.esa.int
- Space Station crew enters Jules Verne ATV on www.esa.int
- "International Space Station Daily Report". 2008-08-28.
- "Jules Verne ATV reveals unexpected capabilities". ESA. 16 June 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-06.
- Etienne, Jean. "L'ATV, simple cargo spatial, dévoile des charmes insoupçonnés" (in French). Futura Sciences.
- "'Jules Verne' begins final voyage". BBC. 2008-09-05. Retrieved 2008-09-06.
- "Successful re-entry marks bright future for ATV". ESA. 2008-09-29. Retrieved 2008-09-29.
- "Image of the Day Gallery--October 6, 2008". NASA. Retrieved 2013-05-05.
- "Multi-Program Integrated Milestones" (PDF). NASA. 25 January 2008. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
- "European Cargo Ship Begins Maiden Space Voyage". Space.com. 9 March 2008. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
- "Europe's second cargo freighter to fly in December". Spaceflight Now. 17 September 2010. Retrieved 18 September 2010.
- "One-day delay of final shuttle launch makes room for ATV". Spaceflight Now. 1 October 2010. Retrieved 2 October 2010.
- "Third ATV named after Edoardo Amaldi". ESA. 17 March 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-17.
- "Europe's third cargo vehicle docks with the Space Station". ESA – ATV. 29 March 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
- "Deorbit burns set for Tuesday night/Wednesday morning". ESA ATV blog. Retrieved 2 October 2012.
- "Mission accomplished for ATV Edoardo Amaldi". Space-Travel.com. 4 October 2012. Retrieved 8 October 2012.
- "ATV-4 scheduled for summer liftoff". ESA. 11 April 2013. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
- "Fact Sheet – ATV Albert Einstein". ESA. 14 April 2013. Retrieved 20 May 2013.
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