Inside view of the Pressurised Logistics Carrier section of HTV-1.
Canadarm2 removing unpressurised payload from HTV-2.
The HTV is about 9.8 m long (including maneuvering thrusters at one end) and 4.4 m in diameter. Total mass is 10.5 tonnes, with a 6,000 kilograms (13,000 lb) payload. The HTV are comparable in function to the RussianProgress, EuropeanATV, commercial Dragon, and commercial Cygnus spacecraft, all of which bring or are planned to bring supplies to the ISS. Like the ATV, the HTV carries more than twice the payload of the Progress, but is launched less than half as often. Unlike Progress capsules and ATVs, which dock automatically, HTVs and American commercial crafts approach the ISS in stages, and are signaled by ISS crew or ground control to continue from one holding point to the next. Once they reach their closest parking orbit to the ISS, crew grip them using the robotic arm Canadarm2 and berth them to an open berthing port on the Harmony module.
The HTV has an external payload bay which is accessed by robotic arm after it has been berthed to the ISS. New payloads can be moved directly from the HTV to Kibō's exposed facility. Internally, it has eight International Standard Payload Racks (ISPRs) in total which can be unloaded by the crew in a shirt-sleeve environment. After the retirement of NASA's Space Shuttle in 2011, HTVs became the only spacecraft capable of transporting ISPRs to the ISS, until that capability was expanded with the introduction of the SpaceXDragon in 2012.
The four main thrusters. Smaller attitude control thrusters can be seen at the right side of this view of HTV-1.
The baseline configuration, known as the "Mixed Logistics Carrier", uses one pressurized and one unpressurized segment and can carry 7,600 kg of cargo in total and is 9.2 m long. When two pressurized units are used together the cargo decreases slightly to about 7,000 kg, and the overall length is reduced to 7.4 m.
As of 2010[update], JAXA is planning to add a return capsule option. HTV's Pressurized Cargo is replaced by a reentry module capable of returning 1.6 tonne cargo from ISS to Earth. It is expected to be launched by 2018.[not in citation given]
Further, it is expected to be followed on by 2022 by capsules which accommodate a crew of three and carry up to 880 pounds (400 kilograms) of cargo.