||This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2012)|
|• Mayor||Piotr Uszok|
|• City||164.67 km2 (63.58 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||352 m (1,155 ft)|
|Lowest elevation||266 m (873 ft)|
|• Density||1,900/km2 ( 4,900/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
|Postal code||40-001 to 40-999|
|Area code(s)||+48 32|
Katowice (Polish: [katɔˈvʲit͡sɛ] ( listen); German: Kattowitz) is a city in Silesia in southern Poland, on the Kłodnica and Rawa rivers (tributaries of the Oder and the Vistula respectively). Katowice is located in the Silesian Highlands, about 50 km (31 mi) north of the Silesian Beskids (part of the Carpathian Mountains) and about 100 km (62 mi) southeast of the Sudetes Mountains.
It is the central district of the Upper Silesian Metropolis, with a population of 2.2 million to 3.5 million. Katowice is the center of science, culture, industry, business and transportation in southern Poland. It is the main city in the Upper Silesian Industrial Region and of the 2.7 million conurbation, the Katowice urban area, within a Silesian metropolitan area populated by 4,676,983 people.
Katowice has been the capital of the Silesian Voivodeship since its formation in 1999. Previously, it was the capital of the Katowice Voivodeship; before then, of the Silesian Voivodeship, and before then Province of Upper Silesia in Germany.
||This section needs additional citations for verification. (May 2010)|
The area around Katowice in Upper Silesia has been inhabited by ethnic Silesians from its earliest documented history. It was first ruled by the Polish Silesian Piast dynasty (until its extinction). From 1335, it was a part of the Crown of Bohemia. In 1526 the territory passed to the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy after the death of King Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia. In 1742, most of Silesia was annexed from Austria by the Kingdom of Prussia during the First Silesian War.
Katowice gained city status in 1865 as Kattowitz in the Prussian Province of Silesia. The city flourished due to large mineral (especially coal) deposits in the nearby mountains. Extensive city growth and prosperity depended on the coal mining and steel industries, which took off during the Industrial Revolution. Kattowitz was inhabited mainly by Germans, Silesians, Jews and Poles. In 1884, 36 Jewish Zionist delegates met in Katowice, forming the Hovevei Zion movement. Previously part of the Beuthen district, in 1873 it became the capital of the new Kattowitz district. On 1 April 1899, the city of Kattowitz was separated from the district, becoming an independent city.
According to the Treaty of Versailles after World War I the Upper Silesia plebiscite was organised by the League of Nations. Though in the city of Katowice the plebiscite returned 22,774 votes to remain in Germany and 3,900 votes for Poland, it was however attached to Poland as the district in which it was located voted overall (with rural areas near the city and castle) 66,119 for Poland and 52,992 for Germany. Following the Silesian Uprisings (1918–21) Katowice became part of the Second Polish Republic with a certain level of autonomy (Silesian Parliament as a constituency and Silesian Voivodeship Council as the executive body).
The city was occupied by Nazi Germany between 1939-1945.
In 1953 the city was renamed Stalinogród ("Stalin City") by the Polish communist government to honor the passing of the Soviet dictator. However, the new name was never accepted by the city's population and in 1956 the former name of 'Katowice' was restored.
Severe ecological damage to the environment occurred during the post-Second World War time of communist governance in the People's Republic of Poland, but recent changes in regulations, procedures and policies of Polish government since the fall of Communism have reversed much of the harm that was done.
Katowice lies on Katowice Highlands, as part of the Silesian Highlands, in the eastern part of Upper Silesia, within the central portion of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. In administrative terms, Katowice is an urban community in the Silesian Voivodeship in south-west Poland. It is central district of the Upper Silesian Metropolis — metropolis with the population of 2 millions. It borders the cities of Chorzów, Siemianowice Śląskie, Sosnowiec, Mysłowice, Lędziny, Tychy, Mikołów, Ruda Śląska and Czeladź. In geographical terms, it lies between the Vistula and Oder rivers, on the Silesian Highlands. Several rivers flow through the city, the major two being the Kłodnica and Rawa Rivers. Within 600 km (370 mi) of Katowice are the capital cities of six countries: Berlin, Vienna, Prague, Bratislava, Budapest and Warsaw.
The climate of the area is oceanic. The average temperature is 8.2 °Celsius (average −1.5 °C (29 °F) in January and up to average 18 °C (64 °F) in July). Yearly rainfall averages at 608.5 mm (23.96 in). The area's characteristic weak winds blow at about 2 m/s from the west — Moravian Gate.
|Climate data for Katowice|
|Average high °C (°F)||1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−1.5
|Average low °C (°F)||−4
|Precipitation cm (inches)||3.04
|Source: MSN Weather|
Katowice lies in the centre of the largest conurbation in Poland and is one of the largest in the European Union, numbering at about 2.7 million. This urban expansion boomed in the 19th century thanks to the rapid development of the mining and metallurgical industries. The Katowice urban area consists of about 40 adjacent cities and towns. However, the whole Silesian metropolitan area (mostly within the Upper Silesian Coal Basin) consists of over 50 cities/town. This metropolitan area has a population of 5,294,000.
In 2006, Katowice and 14 adjacent cities united under one municipal organism — the union of cities — Upper Silesian Metropolis. Its population is 2 million and its area is 1,104 km2. In 2006-2007, the union planned to unite these cities in one city under the name "Silesia"; however, this proved unsuccessful.
Notable attractions include:
- Silesian Theater
- Cinema City - Punkt rozrywki 44 (13 halls)
- Cinema City - Silesia City Center (13 halls)
- Silesian Museum
- Silesian Philharmonic
- Polish National Radio Symphony Orchestra
- Kaliber 44
- Koniec Świata
- TV stations:
- radio stations:
- Dziennik Zachodni
- Gazeta Wyborcza - Katowice section
- Fakt - Katowice section
- Echo Miasta
- Metro International - Katowice
- Nowy Przegląd Katowicki
Festivals and events 
- Rawa Blues Festiwal - Spodek
- Metalmania - Spodek
- Metal Hammer Festival - Spodek
- Off Festival
- Mayday - Spodek
- International Competition of Conductors by Fitelberg
- International Festival of Military Orchestras
- International Exhibition of Graphic arts "Intergrafia"
- Tauron New Music Festival
Parks and squares 
- Main parks:
- Silesian culture and refreshment park (Wojewódzki Park Kultury i Wypoczynku)
- Kościuszko Park (Park im. Tadeusza Kościuszki)
- Forest Park of Katowice (Katowicki Park Leśny)
- Valley of Three Ponds (Dolina Trzech Stawów)
- Zadole Park
- Bolina Park
- Janina-Barbara Park
- Olympic Participants' Park (Park Olimpijczyków)
- Murckowska Valley
- Market square (Rynek w Katowicach)
- Wolność Square (Plac Wolności)
- Andrzej Square (Plac Andrzeja)
- Miarka Square (Plac Miarki)
- Council of Europe Square (Plac Rady Europy)
- Alfred Square (Plac Alfreda)
- A. Budniok Square (Plac A. Brudnioka)
- J. Londzin Square (Plac J. Londzina)
- A. Hlond Square (Plac A. Hlonda)
Nature reserves and ecological areas 
- Nature reserve Las Murckowski
- Nature reserve Ochojec
- Źródła Kłodnicy
- Staw Grunfeld
- Stawy Na Tysiącleciu
- Płone Bagno
Katowice belongs to those Polish cities that do not originate from medieval towns. The city centre was formed in the mid-19th century when the city was part of the Kingdom of Prussia and had an ethnic-German majority. The buildings of the time are decorated in an eclectic style (mostly Renaissance with elements of Baroque) and elements of Art Nouveau style (secesja). By the end of the nineteenth century the centre of Katowice was being referred to as a "little Paris", something which may surprise visitors today,
Examples of Modernism (International Style and Bauhaus inspired architecture) may be found in the city centre. Central Katowice also contain a significant number of Art Nouveau (Secesja) buildings along with the Communist Era giants such as Spodek or Superjednostka.
Katowice's Rynek is the old centre and marketplace of the city. Unfortunately many old buildings were demolished in the 1950s to make space for monumental communist modern buildings. Several streets around the Rynek and the Rynek itself are now closed to traffic and have been made into a shopping promenades.
Tourist attractions 
- Market square and adjacent streets: Warszawska, Teatralna, Dyrekcyjna, Staromiejska, Dworcowa, św. Jana, Pocztowa, Wawelska, 3 Maja, Stawowa, Mielęckiego, Starowiejska and Mickiewicza, the so-called "Great Market Square of Katowice" or "Old town of Katowice" — a lot of historic (monument) buildings. This is a group of functional-architectural. On the market square and most of the above-mentioned streets are prohibitions or restrictions on cars. Streets: Staromiejska, Dyrekcyjna, Wawelska, Stawowa and Warszawska is lined decorative cobblestone creating a pedestrian zone. The authority plans to Katowice — Quarter streets: św. Jana, Dworcowa, Mariacka, Mielęckiego, Stanisława and Starowiejska is to become so "small market square".
- Nikiszowiec - historical settlement of Katowice, candidate to UNESCO
- Cathedral in Katowice
- St. Mary's Church, Katowice
- Church of the Resurrection in Katowice, Evangelical-Augsburg, built in the years 1856-1858
- Church of St. Michael Archangel, the oldest church in the city, built in 1510
- Drapacz Chmur, one of the first skyscrapers in Europe
- Silesian Parliament, built in the years 1925-1929. For a very long time it was the biggest structure in Poland
- Modernist Old-Town
- Spodek is a large sports centre/concert hall, whose name translates as the 'saucer', from its distinctive shape resembling a UFO flying saucer
- Silesian Insurgents Monument (Polish: Pomnik Powstańców Śląskich), the largest and heaviest monument in Poland. It is a harmonious combination of architecture and sculpture with appropriate symbolism: the wings symbolize the three Silesian Uprisings 1919 - 1920 - 1921 while the names of places that were battlefields are etched on the vertical slopes. The monument, which was funded by the people of Warsaw for Upper Silesia, is considered Katowice's landmark.
- Silesian Theater, built in 1907
- Rialto Cinetheater, built in 1912
- Silesian Museum, built in 1899
- Old train station in Katowice, built in 1906
- The Goldstein Palace
- The Załęże Palace
- Parachute Tower Katowice - 50 m (160 ft) tall lattice parachute tower built in 1937 for training parachute jumps. It was used in the first days of World War II. Parachute Tower Katowice is the only existing parachute tower in Poland.
- Franciscan Monastery in Panewniki
- Church of St. Joseph in Katowice (Załęże)
- St. Stephen's Church
- Church of Christ Resurrection in Katowice
- The Monument to Marshal Piłsudski by Croatian sculptor Antun Augustinčić, 1937-39. It was commissioned in 1936 but brought to Poland in 1991
- Monopol Hotel in Katowice
- Katowice Rondo - is the large square/roundabout, which was reconstructed recently, featuring the semi circular Galeria Rondo Sztuki in the centre.
- The Altus Skyscraper, tallest City skyscraper
Katowice is a large coal and steel center. It has several coal mines (Wujek Coal Mine, Mysłowice-Wesoła Coal Mine, Wieczorek Coal Mine, Murcki Coal Mine, Staszic Coal Mine) organized into unions — Katowice Coal Holding company (pl: Katowicki Holding Węglowy), two steelworks (Huta Baildon, Huta Ferum), and one foundry of non-ferrous metals (Huta Metali Nieżelaznych Szopienice).
Katowice is also a large business and trade fair center. Every year in Katowice International Fair and Spodek, tens of international trade fairs are organized. Katowice has the second largest business centre in Poland (after Warsaw Business Centre). Skyscrapers stand along Chorzowska, Korfantego and Roździeńskiego street in the centre of the city. The newest office buildings (A-class) in Katowice are the Chorzowska 50, Altus Skyscraper and Silesia Towers (under construction).
Katowice is the seat of Katowice Special Economic Zone (Katowicka Specjalna Strefa Ekonomiczna).
The unemployment rate in Katowice is one of the lowest in Poland, at 2% (2008), according to the official figures. The city is still characterized by its working class strength and thus attracts many people seeking jobs from neighbouring cities (other districts USMU.
Katowice is a large scientific centre in Poland. It has over 20 schools of higher education, at which over 100,000 people study.
- University of Silesia
- University of Economics in Katowice
- University of Music in Katowice
- University of Sports in Katowice
- Academy of Fine Arts in Katowice
- Medical University of Silesia
- Silesian University of Technology - Faculty of Materials Science and Metallurgy and Transport
- Polish Academy of Sciences
- International Higher School of Political Sciences in Katowice
- International Higher School of Banking and Finances in Katowice
- Silesian International Business Higher School in Katowice
- Silesian Higher School of Computer science in Katowice
- Silesian Higher School of Management in Katowice
- Uppersilesian Higher School of Trade in Katowice
- Higher School of Banking and Finances in Katowice
- Higher School of Humanistic Science in Katowice
- Higher School of Technical Science in Katowice
- Higher School of Computer Technologies in Katowice
- Higher School the Pedagogical TWP in Warsaw, the Institute of Pedagogy in Katowice
- Higher School of Social Skills in Poznań (department in Katowice)
- Higher School of Humanistic - Economic in Łódź (department in Katowice)
- Higher School of Marketing Management and Foreign Languages in Katowice
- Higher School of Management the Protection of Work in Katowice
- Silesian Higher Clerical Seminar in Katowice
- Theological Seminar of Franciscans in Katowice Panewniki
- Private Teacher's College of Foreign Languages in Katowice
- Private Teacher's Board of Foreign Languages in Bielsko (department in Katowice)
There are also:
- around 80 high schools
- around 35 gimnasia
- around 55 primary schools
- around 50 libraries, including the Silesian Library
Public transport 
The public transportation system of the Katowice and Upper Silesian Metropolis consists of four branches — buses and trams united in the KZK GOP and furthermore the regional rail. Additional services are operated by private companies and the state-owned railways.
Silesian Interurbans - one of the largest tram systems in the World, in existence since 1894. The system spreads for more than 50 kilometres (east-west) and covers 14 districts of the Upper Silesian Metropolis.
|This section requires expansion. (April 2009)|
- European route E40 (France - Belgium - Germany - Poland - Ukraine - Russia - Uzbekistan - Kazakhstan)
- European route E75 (Vardø, Norway - Finland - Poland - Slovakia - Hungary - Serbia - Macedonia - Crete, Greece)
- European route E462 (Czech Republic - Poland)
- Motorway A4 (German/Polish border – Wrocław – Katowice – Kraków – Rzeszów – Polish/Ukrainian border)
- National road 79
- National road 81
- National road 86
Several important roads in neighbourhoods of Katowice (USMU):
- Motorway A1 (Gdańsk – Toruń – Łódź – Gliwice – Polish/Czech border)
- Expressway S1
- National road 11
- National road 44
- National road 78
- National road 88
- National road 94
The city and the area is served by the Katowice International Airport, located about 30 km (19 mi) from the center of Katowice. With over 20 international and domestic flights daily, it is by far the biggest airport in Silesia (~2,5 million passengers served in 2008; 2 terminals: A and B).
Because of the long commute to the airport, there is a proposal to convert the much nearer sport aviation-serving Katowice-Muchowiec Airport into a so-called city airport, a second international airport for smaller, business-oriented traffic.
The first railway reached this area in 1846 (the Upper Silesia Railway, in Polish: Kolej Górnośląska; in German: Oberschlesische Eisenbahn). Nowadays Katowice is one of the main railway nodes and exchange points in Silesia and in Poland. The Polskie Koleje Państwowe (Polish State-Owned Railways) in the area of the proposed union constitute one of the main transport hubs in Poland (the most important one being Warsaw). The main railway station was Katowice Central Station, which has recently been demolished. A new station is currently under construction. Both the domestic and the international connections run from there to almost every major city in Poland and Europe.
Katowice has a long sporting tradition and hosted the highly successful international championships (continental and the world), therein final of EuroBasket 2009 and 1975 European Athletics Indoor Championships, 1975 European Amateur Boxing Championships, 1976 World Ice Hockey Championships, 1957, 1985 European Weightlifting Championships, 1974, 1982 World Wrestling Championships, 1991 World Amateur Bodybuilding Championships, 2011 Women's European Union Amateur Boxing Championships, 2014 FIVB Men's World Championship and some other.
The Silesian Stadium is located between Chorzów and Katowice. It was a national stadium of Poland, more than 50 international matches of Poland national football team were played here as well as around 30 matches of UEFA competitions. There were also a Speedway World Championship, Speedway Grand Prix of Europe and many concerts featuring international stars.
Tourists can relax playing tennis or squash, doing water sports also sailing (for example — in Dolina Trzech Stawów), horse-riding (in Wesoła Fala and Silesian culture and refreshment park), cycling or going to one of numerous excellently equipped fitness clubs. Near the city center are sporting facilities like swimming pools (for example "Bugla", "Rolna") and in neighbourhood — golf courses (in Siemianowice Śląskie).
Sports clubs 
- GKS Katowice - men's football, (Polish Cup winner: 1986, 1991, 1993; Polish SuperCup winner: 1991, 1995; 1st league in 2003/2004 and 2004/2005 seasons). ice hockey team Champion :1958,1960,1962 Gòrnik Katowice / GKS 1965,1968,1970.
- 1. FC Kattowitz - football club, vice-champion of Poland: 1927; champion of Upper Silesia: 1907, 1908, 1909, 1913, 1922, 1932, 1945
- AZS AWF Katowice - various sports, women's handball team playing in Polish Women's Handball Superleague, men's basketball team playing in Second league, fencing section - a lot of medals in the Polish Championship
- Naprzód Janów Katowice - hockey club playing in Polish Hockey Superleague, vice-champion of Poland (5x): 1971, 1973, 1977, 1989, 1992; bronze medal (7x): 1972, 1974, 1976, 1978, 1982, 1986, 1987; Polish Cup (1x): 1970.
- AZS US Katowice - various sports, a lot of medals in the Polish Championship in various sports
- HKS Szopienice - various sports, a lot of medals in the Polish and Europe and World Championship in weightlifting
- Silesia Miners - American football club playing in Polish American Football League, Polish champion in 2009, vice-champion in 2007
- Jango Katowice - futsal club playing in Polish Futsal Superleague; Polish Cup (1x): 2007; bronze medal Polish Championship (2x): 2001, 2007
- Rozwój Katowice - football club playing in Polish Third League
- MK Katowice - football club playing in Polish Fourth League
- Hetman Szopienice - chess club, a lot of medals in the Polish Championship
- Sparta Katowice - various sports, a lot of medals in the Polish Championship in various sports
- Policyjny Klub Sportowy Katowice - various sports, a lot of medals in the Polish Championship in various sports
- AWF Mickiewicz Katowice - basketball club
- Silesian Flying Club (Aeroklub Śląski)
Defunct sports clubs:
- Diana Kattowitz - football club
- Germania Kattowitz - football club
- KS Baildon Katowice - various sports, a lot of medals in the Polish Championship in various sports
- Pogoń Katowice - various sports, a lot of medals in the Polish Championship in various sports
Sports events 
- FIVB World League 2001
- FIVB World League 2007
- Eurobasket 2009
- Tour de Pologne 2010
- BNP Paribas Katowice Open
Notable residents 
- Hans Sachs (1877–1945), serologist
- Kurt Goldstein (1878–1965), neurologist
- Franz Leopold Neumann (1900–1954), politician
- Hans Bellmer (1902–1975), surrealist photographer
- Maria Goeppert-Mayer (1906–1972), physicist
- Chaskel Besser (1923–2010), Orthodox rabbi
- Kazimierz Kutz (born 1929), film director and politician
- Wojciech Kilar (born 1932), classical and film music composer
- Henryk Górecki (1933–2010), classical composer
- Henryk Broder (born 1946), journalist
- Jerzy Kukuczka (1948–1989), alpine and high altitude climber
Twin towns — Sister cities 
Katowice is twinned with:
See also 
- pl:GUS : million "Aglomeracja śląska w liczbach - Podmioty gospodarki narodowej - Powierzchnia i ludność"
- Jerzy Jan Parysek: Aglomeracje miejskie w Polsce oraz problemy ich funkcjonowania i rozwoju. W: Wybrane problemy rozwoju i rewitalizacji miast: aspekty poznawcze i praktyczne
- 2,746,000 according to scientific description by Tadeusz Markowski "Funkcje Metropolitalne Pięciu Stolic Województw Wschodnich"
- 2,733,000 (2,928,000 - counting whole powiats adjacent to the city) according to scientific description by Paweł Swianiewicz and Urszula Klimska "Społeczne i polityczne zróżnicowanie aglomeracji w Polsce" - Paweł Swianiewicz, Urszula Klimska; University of Warsaw 2005
- 2,775,000 according to citypopulation.de
- 2,710,397 according to Eurostat - Larger Urban Zones (LUZ): Urban Audit.org
- "Powierzchnia i ludność w przekroju terytorialnym w 2008" (in Polish). Central Statistical Office in Poland. 1 January 2008. "In 42 adjacent cities and towns in conurbation, reside a total of 2,764,971 peoples on 2,411 km2 (931 sq mi), density: 1146 hab./km2"
- Von Krakau bis Danzig (in German). Thomas Urban. 2004. Retrieved 2009-03-21.
- Documents on British foreign policy, 1919-1939 Great Britain. Foreign Office, Ernest Llewellyn Woodward page 44
- Auer, Matthew R. 2004. “Lessons from Leaders and Laggards: Appraising Environmental Reforms in Central and Eastern Europe and Russia,” in Matthew R. Auer, ed., Restoring Cursed Earth: Appraising Environmental Policy Reforms in Eastern Europe and Russia. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield: page 6.
- "Local weather forecast: Katowice".
- (Polish) dziennik.pl - "17 śląskich miast chce się połączyć w Silesię", 11 December 2006)
- "Wydawnictwo Muzeum Śląskiego: Lech Szaraniec "Katowice w dawnej i współczesnej fotografii".
- Dziennik Zachodni Katowice - "Będą dwie Mariackie", 3 sierpnia 2007
- "Bezrobotni oraz stopa bezrobocia wg województw, podregionów i powiatów (stan w końcu lipca 2008 r.)".
- "Voivodship Cities basic statistical data" - Central Statistical Office in Poland, ISSN 1642-574X , 31.06.2008
- "Partnerstädte". Retrieved 2009-06-22.
- "Groningen - Partner Cities". © 2008 Gemeente Groningen, Kreupelstraat 1,9712 HW Groningen. Retrieved 2008-12-08.
- "Mobile's Sister Cities". City of Mobile. Retrieved 2009-11-26.
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