||This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2012)|
|Founded||7 October 1919|
|Commenced operations||17 May 1920|
|Hubs||Amsterdam Airport Schiphol|
|Frequent-flyer program||Flying Blue|
|Company slogan||Een reis vol inspiratie ("Journeys of inspiration")|
|Parent company||Air France-KLM|
|Key people||Albert Plesman (Founder)
Peter Hartman (President & CEO) [until 30 June 2013]
Camiel Eurlings (President & CEO) [from 1 July 2013]
Koninklijke Luchtvaart Maatschappij N.V. (Royal Aviation Company), known by its initials KLM, is the flag carrier airline of the Netherlands. KLM's headquarters is in Amstelveen near its hub at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. KLM operates worldwide scheduled passenger and cargo services to more than 90 destinations. It is the oldest airline in the world still operating under its original name. As of 31 March 2010[update] it had 31,787 employees.
The merger of KLM with Air France in May 2004 created Air France-KLM, which is incorporated under French law with headquarters at Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport. Both Air France and KLM continue to fly under their distinct brand names. Air France-KLM is part of the SkyTeam alliance.
Pre World War II
KLM was founded on 7 October 1919 by Albert Plesman, making it the oldest carrier in the world still operating under its original name, though the company stopped operating during the Second World War—apart from the operations in the Dutch Antilles in the Caribbean. The first KLM flight was on 17 May 1920, from Croydon Airport, London to Amsterdam carrying two British journalists and a number of newspapers. It was flown by an Aircraft Transport and Travel Airco DH.16, callsign G-EALU, piloted by Jerry Shaw. In 1920 KLM carried 440 passengers and 22 tons of freight. In 1921 KLM started scheduled services.
Intercontinental service to the Netherlands East Indies started in 1929. This was for several years the world's longest scheduled air route. The service used Fokker F.VIIb, although the first non-scheduled KLM flight had been in 1924 by Fokker F7 registration H-NACC piloted by Van der Hoop. In 1930 KLM carried 15,143 passengers. The Douglas DC-2 was introduced on the Batavia service in 1934.
The first transatlantic KLM test flight was between Amsterdam and Curaçao in December 1934 using the Fokker F-XVIII "Snip." The first of the airline's Douglas DC-3 aircraft were delivered in 1936 and these replaced the DC-2s on the service via Batavia to Sydney. KLM were the first airline to serve Manchester's new Ringway airport from June 1938. KLM was the only civilian airline to operate the Douglas DC-5, using four examples in the Dutch East and West Indies between May 1940 and late 1941.
When German military forces invaded the Netherlands on 10 May 1940 a number of KLM aircraft (mostly DC-3's and a few DC-2's) were en route to or from the Far East or operating services in Europe. Five DC-3s and one DC-2 managed to escape to England. During the entire war these KLM planes and KLM crew would fly the infamous Bristol-Lisbon scheduled passenger flights under BOAC registration.
The Douglas DC-3 PH-ALI 'Ibis', then registered as G-AGBB, was attacked three times by the Luftwaffe: on 15 November 1942 and 19 April 1943 and finally on 1 June 1943 (fatal to passengers and crew, see BOAC Flight 777). Some KLM aircraft with their crews ended up in the Australia-Indonesia region, where they aided in transporting people who were escaping the Japanese aggression in that area.
In early 1946 KLM recommenced European flights, initially with a fleet of Douglas DC-3s and Douglas DC-4s. On 21 May 1946 KLM was the first continental European airline to start transatlantic scheduled flights (to New York). Long range pressurised Lockheed Constellations and Douglas DC-6s joined KLMs fleet in the late 1940s; the Convair 240 short range pressurised twin engined airliner began European flights for the company in late 1948.
In 1950 KLM carried 356,069 passengers. On 31 December 1953 the founder, and president, of KLM, Albert Plesman, died at the age of 64. He headed the company until his death. Fons Aler succeeded Albert Plesman as president of KLM. On 25 July 1957 the airline introduced its flight simulator for the Douglas DC-7C – the last KLM aircraft with piston engines – which opened the trans-polar route from Amsterdam via Anchorage to Tokyo on 1 November 1958. Each crew flying the transpolar route over the Arctic was equipped with a winter survival kit, including a 7.62 mm selective-fire AR-10 carbine for use against polar bears in the event the plane was forced down onto the polar ice.
The 1960s and 1970s
Beginning in September 1959, the airline introduced the four-engined turboprop Lockheed Electra onto some of its European and Middle Eastern routes. In March 1960, KLM introduced the first Douglas DC-8 jet into its fleet. In 1961 the president of KLM, Fons Aler, was succeeded by Ernst van der Beugel. Van der Beugel resigned as president in 1963 due to health reasons. Horatius Albarda was appointed to succeed Ernst van der Beugel as president of KLM in 1963. In 1965 Alberda lost his life in an air crash. Dr. Gerrit van der Wal succeeded Alberda as president of KLM. In 1966, KLM introduced the Douglas DC-9 on European and Middle East routes.
The new terminal buildings at Schiphol Airport opened in April 1967 and in 1968, the stretched Douglas DC-8-63 entered service. With 244 seats it was the largest airliner of the time. KLM was the first airline to put the higher gross-weight Boeing 747-200B into service, starting in February 1971, powered by Pratt & Whitney JT9D engines, thus beginning the airline's era of widebody jets. In 1973, Sergio Orlandini was appointed to succeed Gerrit van der Wal as president of KLM.
The 1980s and 1990s
In 1980, KLM carried 9,715,069 passengers. In 1983, it reached agreement with Boeing to convert some of its Boeing 747-200s to stretched upper deck configuration. The work started in 1984 at the Boeing factory in Everett, Washington and finished in 1986. The converted aircraft were called Boeing 747-200SUD, which the airline operated in addition to Boeing 747-300s. Sergio Orlandini retired in 1987, and was succeeded by Jan de Soet as president of KLM. In June 1989, KLM introduced the Boeing 747-400 and in July it acquired 20% of Northwest Airlines, starting an alliance between the two airlines. In 1990, KLM carried 16,000,000 passengers. KLM president Jan de Soet retired at the end of 1990 and was succeeded in 1991 by Pieter Bouw. In March 1994, KLM and Northwest Airlines introduced World Business Class on intercontinental routes. KLM introduced the Boeing 767-300ER in July 1995. In 1997 Pieter Bouw resgined as president of KLM, he was succeeded by Leo van Wijk.
In March and June 2002, KLM announced it would renew its intercontinental fleets by replacing the Boeing 767s, Boeing 747-300s and eventually the McDonnell Douglas MD-11 with Boeing 777-200ERs and Airbus A330-200s. Some 747's would be first to retire. The MD-11s will remain in service until 2014. The first Boeing 777 was received on 25 October 2003, entering commercial service on the Amsterdam–Toronto route, while the first Airbus A330-200 was introduced on 25 August 2005 and entered commercial service on the Amsterdam–Washington Dulles route.
On 30 September 2003, Air France and KLM announced and agreed to a merger plan in which Air France and KLM would become subsidiaries of a holding company called Air France-KLM. Both airlines would retain their own brands and both Paris Charles de Gaulle and Amsterdam Airport Schiphol would become the key hubs. In February 2004, the European Commission and US Department of Justice approved the proposed merger of Air France and KLM. In April 2004 an exchange offer took place in which KLM shareholders exchanged their KLM shares for Air France shares. Furthermore, the merger of Air France and KLM got approved by the shareholders in April 2004. By exchanging the KLM shares for Air France shares, the merger was fulfilled. On 4 May 2004, the exchange offer was called successful, As of 5 May 2004, the merger of Air France and KLM was a done deal. As of 5 May 2004, Air France – KLM is listed at the Euronext exchanges in Paris, Amsterdam and New York. In September 2004 the merger was completed by creation of the Air France-KLM holding company. The merger of Air France and KLM resulted in the world's largest airline group by turnover. The merger should lead to an annual total cost-saving of between 400 and 500 milion euros.
It did not appear that KLM's longstanding joint venture with Northwest Airlines (since merged with Delta Air Lines), would be affected by the merging with Air France. Both KLM and Northwest joined the SkyTeam alliance in September 2004.
In March 2007 KLM started using the Amadeus reservation system, along with partner Kenya Airways. Furthermore, after 10 years, Leo van Wijk resigned from his position as president of KLM. He is succeeded by Peter Hartman.
The 2010s to date
In January 2010, Northwest Airlines was absorbed into Delta Air Lines, ending their 21-year long alliance. In September 2010 KLM announced that the passenger division of Martinair would be integrated within KLM. All personnel and routes will be transferred to KLM. By November 2011 Martinair will only consist of the cargo division and the maintenance division.
In March 2011 KLM and InselAir have reached an agreement for mutual interline cooperation on Insel Air destinations, thus expanding their services to their passengers. As of 27 March 2011, passengers carrying a KLM ticket can now also fly to all Insel Air destinations. Passengers will be transported 'comfortably and quickly' on one ticket and with automatic baggage transfer via InselAirs hubs in Curacao and Sint Maarten/Saint Martin. Due to this agreement, KLM passengers can now connect seamlessly and continue their flights to more and to different destinations via InselAir's flights. Cities include Kingston (Jamaica), San Juan (Puerto Rico), Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic), Port-au-Prince (Haiti) and Las Piedras (Venezuela).
On 20 February 2013 KLM announced that Peter Hartman will resign as president and CEO of KLM per 1 July 2013. He will be succeeded by Camiel Eurlings as of this date. Peter Hartman will remain in KLM's service until he retires on 1 January 2014.
Corporate affairs and identity
KLM's corporate leadership is in hands of president and chief executive officer (CEO) Peter Hartman. The president and CEO is part of the larger Executive Committee, which manages KLM and consists of the statutory managing directors and executive vice presidents of KLM's business units. The business units that are represented in the Executive Committee range from Operations to Industrial Relations, and from Engineering & Maintenance to Inflight Services. The supervision and management of KLM are structured in accordance with the two-tier model. This means that the Board of Managing Directors is supervised by a separate and independent Supervisory Board. Furthermore the Supervisory Board supervises the general performance of KLM as well. The Board of Managing Directors of KLM is formed by the four Managing Directors, including the CEO. The Supervisory Board is formed by nine Supervisory Directors.
KLM's head office is located in Amstelveen, on a 16-acre (6.5 ha) site near Schiphol Airport. The current KLM headquarters was built between 1968 and 1970. Before the opening of the new headquarters, the airline's head office was on the property of Schiphol Airport in the Haarlemmermeer.
Companies with a major KLM stake include:
|Company||Type||Principal activities||Incorporated in||Group's Equity Shareholding|
|Cobalt Ground Solutions||Subsidiary||Ground handling||United Kingdom||60%|
|Cygnific||Subsidiary||Sales and service||Netherlands||100%|
|High Speed Alliance||Joint Venture||High speed trains||Netherlands||5% (10% voting right)|
|KLM Catering Services||Subsidiary||Catering services||Netherlands||100%|
|KLM Cityhopper UK||Subsidiary||Airline||United Kingdom||100%|
|KLM Equipment Services||Subsidiary||Equipment support||Netherlands||100%|
|KLM Financial Services||Subsidiary||Financing||Netherlands||100%|
|KLM Flight Academy||Subsidiary||Flight academy||Netherlands||100%|
|KLM Health Services||Subsidiary||Health services||Netherlands||100%|
|KLM UK Engineering||Subsidiary||Engineering and maintenance||United Kingdom||100%|
|Schiphol Logistics Park||Joint controlled entity||Logistics||Netherlands||53% (45% voting right)|
Subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures of KLM in the past include:
|Company||Type||Year of establishment||Year of rejection||Notes||References|
|Air UK||Associate||1987||1998||Upon obtaining majority stake, renamed to KLM uk|||
|Buzz||Subsidiary||2000||2003||Sold to Ryanair|||
|De Kroonduif||Subsidiary||1955||1963||Acquired by Garuda Indonesia|||
|KLM Helicopters||Subsidiary||1965||1998||Sold to Schreiner Airways|||
|KLM Interinsulair Bedrijf (KLM-IIB)||Subsidiary||1947||1949||Nationalization and renaming to Garuda Indonesia|||
|KLM uk||Subsidiary||1998||2002||Merged with KLM Cityhopper|||
|NetherLines||Subsidiary||1988||1991||Merged with NLM CityHopper and formed KLM Cityhopper|||
|NLM CityHopper||Subsidiary||1966||1991||Merged with NetherLines and formed KLM Cityhopper|||
KLM asia (Chinese: 荷蘭亞洲航空公司; pinyin: Hélán Yàzhōu Hángkōng Gōngsī) is a wholly KLM owned subsidiary registered in Taiwan. The airline was established in 1995 in order to operate flights to Taipei, Taiwan, without compromising the traffic rights held by KLM for destinations in the People's Republic of China. KLM asia was one of a number of airline subsidiaries flying under the "Asia" name with the same purpose of flying to Taiwan. These also included Japan Asia Airways (a Japan Airlines subsidiary), Air France Asie, British Asia Airways, Swissair Asia and Australia Asia Airlines (a Qantas subsidiary).
The livery of KLM asia does not feature Dutch national symbols, such as the flag of the Netherlands, nor does it use KLM's stylised Dutch Crown logo. Instead, it features a special KLM asia logo. KLM asia has 5 Boeing 747-400 Combi aircraft (included in the KLM fleet as 747-400M), 7 Boeing 777-200ER, and 2 Boeing 777-300ER all included in the KLM fleet. KLM asia initially operated the route AMS-BKK-TPE with a B747-400 Combi, sometimes also with B747-400 aircraft. Since March 2012, KLM asia has operated over the revised route of AMS-TPE-MNL with B777-200ER/300ER aircraft.
At it establishment in 1919, Dirk Roosenburg designed the KLM logo. In this logo, Roosenburg intertwined the letter K, L and M, gave them wings and a crown. The crown was depicted to denote KLM's royal status, which was granted at KLM's establishment. The logo became known as the so-called "vinklogo" (referring to the Chaffinch bird breed). In 1925 the original KLM logo was revised by refining the logo, so that it looked more dynamic compared to the original logo. The biggest revision of the KLM logo so far took place in 1961. In this year F.H.K. Henrion designed the current KLM logo. A returning design element in this new logo was the crown, which denotes KLM's royal status. The crown is formed by the line, the four blue circles and the little cross on top of the logo. In 1991 the logo was further revised by Chris Ludlow of Henrion, Ludlow & Schmidt. In addition to its main logo, KLM has shown its alliance status in its branding, including "Worldwide Reliability" with Northwest Airlines (1993–2002) and the SkyTeam alliance (2004–present).
Livery and uniforms
The KLM livery featured a bright blue fuselage, with a wide white and dark blue strip above the grey belly of the aircraft. The bright blue KLM logo was placed on the white tail. The KLM logo was placed centrally at the tail and place at the front part of the fuselage. In December 2002, KLM introduced it's current livery. In this livery the white strip is dropped while the dark blue strip is transformed into a cheatline. The bright blue color is retained and now covers almost the complete fuselage. The KLM logo is placed more centrally on the fuselage, while the position of the logo on the tail, and the tail design, remained the same.
In April 2010 KLM introduced new uniforms for their female cabin attendants, ground attendants and pilots at KLM and KLM Cityhopper. The complete new uniform is designed by Dutch couturier Mart Visser. The uniform has the same KLM blue color which was introduced in 1971. In order to represent the typical Dutch pragmatism, KLM added a touch of orange, the national colour of the Netherlands, to the KLM blue.
KLM has used different slogans throughout its operational history. Several slogans that KLM used are:
Delft Blue houses
||It has been suggested that this section be split into a new article titled KLM Delft Blue houses. (Discuss) Proposed since February 2013.|
Since 1952, KLM has presented its long-haul first-class passengers with small Delftware, blue-and-white porcelain reproductions of old Dutch canal houses, filled with jenever. In 1993, amidst the change-over from three to two cabins on its long-haul service, these canal houses (in Dutch, "huisjes") were made available to its "WorldBusiness Class" passengers.
Initially, these houses, ranging in size from 5 to 11 cm. (about 2 to 4 inches) were filled with Rynbende jenever (a Dutch liquor and precursor to gin made from juniper berries); once Rynbende (Simon Rynbende & Sons) was acquired by Henkes[disambiguation needed], the houses were filled with Henkes jenever, and, when that company was acquired by Bols, they became filled with Bols jenever.
The impetus for these houses was a rule aimed at curtailing a previously widespread practice of offering significant incentives to passengers by limiting the value of gifts given by airlines to 75 US cents; however, no limit was placed on the provisions of duty-free liquor, so KLM was able to provide this more-valuable gift, camouflaged as liquor. Prior to giving out these Delft-blue liquor-filled houses, KLM gave Delft-blue tiles as gifts, but these tiles broke the 75-cent limits.
There are 93 different houses as of late 2012, with an additional house added every year on 7 October; this being the anniversary of KLM's founding, each numbered and representing the number of years KLM has been in operation. Each year, a new house receives the next sequential number. All houses are reproductions of historic houses in the Netherlands or its overseas dependencies, although the specific location of every archetype of some of the first ten huisjes was not recorded.
In addition to the 93 standard houses, sealed and filled with jenever (with numerous variations on the wording on the bottom or back of the houses in different manufacturing batches and with different jenever manufacturer names), there are variants that are not filled with gin, which are distributed to passengers on certain long-haul flights to Islamic countries who forbid import or export of liquor. In 2006 when, in response to terrorist activities, liquids were banned or restricted on various flights, KLM's trans-Atlantic flights to the United States briefly also offered the same liquor-free huisjes. Until the early 1980s, the houses distributed on those routes were packaged as "ashtrays" with an open chimney and a semi-circular hole cut into the rear of the house, ostensibly for a cigarette.
Additional, larger, special Delftware have periodically been offered to VIPs and honeymoon couples; for most of the 1980s and 1990s, this was a model of the Royal Palace; since 2003, this was the "Waag". These are particularly prized by collectors.
KLM has an extensive presence on various social media platforms, like Twitter, Facebook, Pinterest, Instagram, LinkedIn, Google+ and YouTube. Furthermore KLM runs a blog to further engage with its customers. Customers can reach out to ask questions to KLM through these channels. Furthermore these channels are used by KLM to keep their followers up-to-date on the latest KLM news and fun promotions.
The usage of social media platforms to reach customers experienced an extreme uptake when the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull erupted in April 2010, which caused extreme disruptions of the air traffic. In order to reach KLM, customers used the social channels. In turn KLM decided to utilize these social channels (Twitter and Facebook) to reach out to customers and provide them with information about the situation. Following the increased use of social media to reach KLM, KLM decided to create one-stop-shop for the public in October 2010 and established the Social Media Hub from which customers can be served through social media.
The public can reach out to KLM with questions on topics such as baggage, seat reservations and re-booking of a ticket and will receive a reply within an hour, problems will be solved within 24 hours. Initially KLM could only be reached between certain hours, but as of 18 July 2011, KLM is one of the first airlines to offer 24/7 availability of customer service through social media platforms. Customers initially could approach KLM in two languages, English and Dutch, but this gruadually expanded to seven languages (English, Dutch, Spanish, German, Japanese, Portuguese and Italian).
Besides servicing customers, the social media platforms are used as well for marketing campaigns. Noteworthy campaigns that KLM launched at their social channels were:
- Fly2Miami: a bet between a Dutch DJ/producer and film-maker duo and KLM to gather 150 people who would like to fly earlier to Miami than the 27 March 2011 re-opening of the Amsterdam-Miami route. The Dutch duo used Twitter to gather 150 people, and reached the goal within 5 hours. On board Dutch DJs performed live DJ sets.
- Tile & Inspire: KLM invited followers around the world to create a Delft blue tile showing their picture and an (inspiring) personal message. Of the submitted tiles, around 4000 were selected and placed on a Boeing 777-200ER which flew to numerous destinations around the world.
- KLM Surprise: a team of the KLM Social Media Hub gave away small personal gifts to passengers traveling from or to Amsterdam Schiphol Airport who checked in using Foursquare, or indicated that they were traveling with KLM on Twitter or Facebook.
- #LiveReply: a campaign in which KLM replied live in the form of a YouTube movie to questions through social media. Replies were formed by KLM employees which each carried a specific letter which in turn were raised simultaneously in order to form a man-made tweet. The campgain was organised in order to emphasize the 24/7-availability of KLM's personal customer servic& e through social media.
KLM developed several services based on these social platforms, some of which are:
- Meet & Seat: this service lets passengers find out about interesting people who will be on board the same KLM flight by connecting your Facebook or LinkedIn profile to the flight. Meet & Seat facilitates contact with fellow travelers who have the same background or interests. By launching Meet & Seat, KLM became the world's first airline to integrate social networking in its regular flight process.
- Trip Planner: this platform utilizes Facebook in order to organize a trip with Facebook friends. The Trip Planner adds "social booking" to KLM's portfolio.
- Twitterbots: KLM operates several Twitterbots, these include a bot to request the current status of a flight and a bot to request the lowest KLM fares to a destination on a specified date or in a specified month.
In 2011, KLM announced plans to start using recycled cooking oil as biofuel to power more than 200 flights from Amsterdam to Paris. On 19 June 2012 KLM made the world's first-ever transatlantic KLM flight fuelled partly by sustainable biofuels to Rio de Janeiro. This was the longest distance any aircraft had flown on biofuels. In March 2013, KLM announced that it would begin weekly flights from John F. Kennedy Airport to Schiphol using sustainable biofuel.
KLM (and its partners) serves 133 destinations in 69 countries across five continents from their hub at Amsterdam Schiphol Airport, south of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. KLM (and its partners) have a strong position in Greater China. KLM (and its partners) serve eight destination in Greater China. With a total of 54 flights a week, KLM and its partners offer more connections to Greater China than any other European carrier. KLM and its partners have become the largest flight operator between Western Europe and Greater China. For many years, KLM flew to Sydney in Australia. However, in March 2001, KLM stopped all services to Sydney.
|Boeing 747-400M||15||0||42||36||197||275||Passenger/cargo combi aircraft|
|Boeing 777-300ER||8||2||35||40||350||425||2015 (2)|
|Boeing 787-9||—||23||36||45||195||276||2015 (2), 2016 (9)|
|McDonnell Douglas MD-11||6||0||24||38||229||285||To be phased out by end 2014|
|KLM Cargo Fleet|
|Boeing 747-400ERF||4||0||112,760 kg||All leased to Martinair Cargo|
KLM is currently in the midst of a major fleet renewal programme. The complete narrow-body fleet has been replaced by next-generation aircraft. In the near future, KLM will start to renew the wide-body fleet. The complete MD-11 fleet will be phased out in the next years. For winter 2013/14, the only remaining scheduled routes served by this aircraft will be Amsterdam-Montréal (1 daily) and Amsterdam-San Francisco (4-6 weekly). The new Boeing 787-9 and Airbus A350-900 have been ordered by the Air France-KLM group. First deliveries are expected to enter service with KLM in 2015. The Boeing customer code for KLM is 06. The Boeing 737 Next Generation aircraft are delivered with Boeing customer code K2, used for Transavia.
Over the years, KLM operated the following aircraft types:
KLM's frequent flyer programme, Flying Blue, awards members miles based on the distance travelled, ticket fare and class of service. Merger partner Air France adopted the Flying Blue frequent flyer programme as well. Other airlines that adopted the Flying Blue programme are: Air Europa, Kenya Airways and TAROM. Miles can be earned as well at all other SkyTeam partners. Membership into the Flying Blue programme is free.
Two types of miles can be earned within the Flying Blue frequent flyer programme: Award Miles and Level Miles. Award Miles can be exchanged for rewards and are valid for life by taking one flight every 20 months. Level Miles, on the other hand, are used to determine the membership level and remain valid until 31 December of each year.
Award Miles can be earned at over 130 Flying Blue partners divided over ten categories: Airlines, Hotels, Cars, Entertainment, Credit Cards, Telecommunication & More, Gifts & Subscriptions, Shopping, Electronics and Exchange Miles. At the Airline category, Flying Blue Award Miles can be earned with Air France, KLM, Air Europa, Kenya Airways, TAROM and Aircalin as well as through the other SkyTeam partners. Award Miles can be earned on Flying Blue partner airlines such as: Alaska Airlines, Air Corsica, Airlinair, Bangkok Airways, Chalair Aviation, Comair, Copa Airlines, Gol Transportes Aéreos, Japan Airlines, Jet Airways, Malaysia Airlines, Qantas, TAAG Angola, Twin Jet and Ukraine International Airlines. Furthermore paying while using a co-branded American Express Flying Blue card, helps earning Award Miles and offers additional benefits as well. Award Miles are redeemable for free tickets, upgrades to a higher class of service, extra baggage allowance and lounge access. Award Miles can furthermore be donated to charity, through the KLM AirCares programme, or can be spent in the Flying Blue Store.
The Flying Blue programme is divided into four tiers: Ivory, Silver (SkyTeam Elite), Gold (SkyTeam Elite Plus), and Platinum (SkyTeam Elite Plus). The membership tier depends on the number of Level Miles and is redetermined each calendar year. Flying Blue privileges are additive by membership tier, with higher tiers including all benefits listed for prior tiers. There is an additional fifth tier, Platinum for Life, which can be obtained after 10 consecutive years of Platinum membership. After the Platinum for Life status is obtained, re-qualification is never needed again. Level Miles can be earned with Air France, KLM, Air Europa, Kenya Airways, TAROM and through the other SkyTeam partners. Qualification levels and general benefits, with SkyTeam airline partners, of the different Flying Blue tiers are as follows:
|Tier Level||Mileage requirements||Membership benefits||Validity|
|General benefits (tier additive)||Mileage bonus||Economy Comfort discount||Extra baggage||Lounge access|
Qualification: 25,000 Level Miles
||50%||25%||10 kg (22 lb)||Cardholder||1-year|
|Gold (Elite Plus)||
Qualification: 40,000 Level Miles
||75%||50%||20 kg (44 lb)||Cardholder
and 1 guest
Qualification: 70,000 Level Miles
No additional benefits compared to Gold status
|100%||100%||20 kg (44 lb)||Cardholder
and 1 guest
KLM offers various check-in methods to their passengers. Passengers are able to check in for their flights at the self-service check-in kiosks at the airport, via the Internet and via a mobile phone or tablet using klm.com or using the dedicated KLM application. Check-in by an airline representative at the counter is provided at destinations where the above mentioned facilities are not available. Electronic boarding passes can be received at a mobile phone or tablet while boarding passes can be printed at the airport through the kiosks.
Since 4 July 2008 KLM, in cooperation with Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, pioneers by offering self-service baggage drop-off to their passengers. The project started with a pilot which concerned just one drop-off point. However, the number of self-service baggage drop-off points has gradually increased and as of 8 February 2012[update] the number of self-service baggage drop-off points that KLM passengers are able to use is 12. These self-service baggage drop-off points enable passengers to drop off their baggage by themselves. Together with the self-service check-in kiosks, KLM passengers are now able to check in without any contact with a KLM employee.
In November 2012, KLM, started a pilot at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol to test self-service boarding. The passengers boards the aircraft without interference of a gate agent by scanning its boarding pass, which will open a gate. Partner Air France runs the same pilot at its hub at Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport. The pilot will run until March 2013, after which it will be evaluated.
KLM is the first airline in the world which offers self-service transfer kiosks on its European and intercontinental routes for passengers connecting through Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. The self-service transfer kiosks enable connecting passengers to view flight details of connecting flights, to change seat assignments or upgrade to a more comfortable seat. When a passenger misses a connecting flight, details about alternative flight can be viewed on the kiosk and a new boarding pass can be printed. Furthermore, coupons for a beverage, meal, the use of a telephone or travel discount can be printed from the kiosk when a passenger is entitled with such coupons.
On May 3, 2013, KLM suffered a "major baggage handling disruption" in Schiphol, losing the baggage for most passengers, and being unable to return baggage even for passenges whose flights were cancelled. As of May 5, 2013, the situation is ongoing; baggage is not arriving at the destinations.
KLM offers three classes of service on its long-haul flights: "World Business Class" (business), "Economy Comfort" (premium economy) and Economy Class. All cabins feature satellite telephones, Audio Video On Demand (AVOD) entertainment, SMS and e-mail service and in Airbus A330-300 cabins, mood lighting. Short-haul flights operated by KLM and KLM Cityhopper feature two classes of service: "Europe Business Class" (business) and Economy Class. As of December 2012, "Economy Comfort" is offered as well on flights operated by Boeing 737 aircraft.
World Business Class
World Business Class is KLM's long-haul business class product. Seats in World Business Class are 20-inch (0.51 m) wide and pitched at 60-inch (1.5 m). Seats can be converted into a 170 to 175-degree angled lie-flat bed with a total length of 75-inch (1.9 m). Seats are equipped with a 10.4-inch (26 cm) PTV with AVOD in the armrest, privacy canopy, massage function and laptop power ports. World Business Class seating is in a 2–3–2 abreast arrangement on the Boeing 777 aircraft and the MD-11 aircraft, in a 2–2–2 abreast arrangement on the Airbus A330 aircraft and in a 2–2 abreast arrangement on the Boeing 747-400 aircraft. KLM's newest addition to the fleet, the Boeing 777-300ER and Airbus A330-300, feature new World Business Class seats based on the Business Class seats of merger partner Air France. These new World Business Class seats emphasize personal space and are arranged in a pod-style layout.
KLM will introduce a new World Business Class seat on the complete long haul fleet, starting in June 2013. Dutch designer Hella Jongerius will design the new cabin as well as the new flat-bed seat, which will replace the angled flat seat that is currently offered in World Business Class. The retrofit will start in June 2013 by refitting the 22 Boeing 747-400 aircraft first.
Dutch design duo Viktor & Rolf has designed and provides amenity kits to World Business Class passengers. Each year a new design will be introduced while the color of the amenity kits will change every six months.
Europe Business Class
Europe Business Class is KLM's, and KLM Cityhopper's, short-haul business class product. This new premium product replaced the "Europe Select Class" as of 27 March 2011. Europe Business Class seats measure a 17-inch (0.43 m) width and an average pitch of 33-inch (0.84 m). Middle seats in rows of 3 are blocked to increase the personal space of passengers, furthermore Europe Business Class seats feature extra legroom and more recline than regular Economy Class seats. In-seat power is available on all Boeing 737 aircraft. Europe Business Class does not feature any personal entertainment. Europe Business Class seating is in a 3–3 abreast arrangement, with the middle seat blocked, on the Boeing 737 aircraft, in a 3–2 abreast arrangement, with the middle seat blocked, on the Fokker 70 aircraft and in a 2–2 abreast arrangement on the Embraer 190 aircraft .
Economy Comfort is the premium economy product offered on KLM flights. Economy Comfort is offered on all intercontinental flights as well as on intra-European flights operated by Boeing 737 aircraft. Economy Comfort seats on long-haul flights are pitched up to 35-inch (0.89 m) and recline up to 7-inch (0.18 m). Economy Comfort seats on short-haul flights are have a 33-inch (0.84 m) pitch and can recline up to 5-inch (0.13 m). Except the increased pitch and recline, seating and service in Economy Comfort is the same as in Economy Class. Economy Comfort is located in a separate cabin before the Economy Class zone and thus quick disembarkation is provided to Economy Comfort passengers as well.
Both intercontinental and intracontinental seats can be reserved by any Economy Class passenger. The Economy Comfort service is free for passengers with a full-fare ticket, for Flying Blue Platinum members and for Delta SkyMiles Platinum or Diamond members. Discounts apply for Flying Blue Silver or Gold members, SkyTeam Elite Plus members and Delta SkyMiles members.
The Economy Class seats on long-haul flights offer a 31-inch (0.79 m) to 32-inch (0.81 m) pitch and are 17.5-inch (0.44 m) wide. All seats are equipped with adjustable winged headrests, a 9-inch (23 cm) PTV with AVOD, a personal handset satellite telephone which can be used with a credit card. Economy Class seats in Airbus A330-300 aircraft are equipped with in-seat power as well. The Economy Class seats on short-haul flights offer a 30-inch (0.76 m) to 31-inch (0.79 m) pitch and are 17-inch (0.43 m) wide. The Economy Class seats on short-haul flights do not feature any personal entertainment. The long-haul Economy Class seating is in a 3–4–3 abreast arrangement on the Boeing 747-400 and Boeing 777-300ER aircraft, in a 3–3–3 abreast arrangement on the MD-11 and Boeing 777-200ER aircraft and in a 2–4–2 abreast arrangement on the Airbus A330 aircraft aircraft. The short-haul Economy Class seating is in a 3–3 abreast arrangement on the Boeing 737 aircraft, in a 3–2 abreast arrangement on the Fokker 70 aircraft and in a 2–2 abreast arrangement on the Embraer 190 aircraft.
The last major interior refurbishment of KLM's Economy Class took place in 2010 when interior refurbishment of its Boeing 747-400 fleet was complete. During this interior refurbishment, the old Economy Class seats were replaced by the new Economy Class seats which feature more legroom as well as the new in-flight entertainment system. By finishing this refurbishment, Economy Class now features a consistent product across the complete widebody fleet.
KLM's in-flight entertainment system, is available in all classes on all widebody aircraft and provides all passengers with Audio/Video on Demand (AVOD). The system features over 1000 hours of interactive entertainment and offers the latest Hollywood blockbuster movies, TV programmes, music, games and language courses. In total more than 80 movies including recent releases, classics and world cinema are available. Movies can be viewed in a selection of a variety of languages: Arabic, Chinese, Dutch, English, French, German, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese and Spanish. The selection of entertainment is updated every month. The in-flight entertainment system can also be used to send SMS text messages and emails to the ground. Panasonic's 3000i system is installed on all Boeing 747-400, Boeing 777-200ER and MD-11 aircraft and one the larger part of the Airbus A330-200 aircraft. All Airbus A330-300 and Boeing 777-300ER aircraft, as well as some Airbus A330-200 aircraft are fitted with the Panasonic eX2 in-flight entertainment system. No in-flight entertainment system is available in KLM's and KLM Cityhopper's narrowbody aircraft.
KLM provides a selection of (inter)national newspapers to their passengers on all long-haul flights, while newspapers on short-haul flights are only offered to Europe Business Class passengers. In addition, a selection of international magazines is available for World Business Class passengers on long-haul flights. All passengers are provided with a free copy of the oldest, and award-winning, in-flight magazine of the world, the Holland Herald On board flight to the Asian countries of China, South-Korea and Japan the in-flight magazines EuroSky (China and Japan), in either Chinese or Japanese, and Wings of Europe (South-Korea), in Korean, are offered.
World Business Class passengers are being served a three course meal. Each year KLM partners with a leading Dutch chef in order to develop the dishes that are being served on board. Passengers in European Business Class are being served either a cold meal, hot main course or three course meal depending on the duration of the flight. All chicken served in World and European Business Class meets the standards of the Dutch Beter Leven Keurmerk (Better Life Quality Mark). Furthermore KLM partnered with Dutch designer Marcel Wanders to design the tablewear of World and European Business Class.
Economy Class passengers on long-haul flights are being served a hot meal service and a snack or a second hot meal or breakfast, depending on the duration of the flight. On short-haul flights, passengers are being served a snack which suits the time of day. Most alcoholic beverages are free of charge on KLM flights for all passengers. After a successful trial period, KLM introduced à la carte meals in Economy Class at 14 September 2011, with a variety of five à la carte meals available: Dutch, Japanese, Italian, cold delicacies and Indonesian.
Special meal offerings can be requested in each class up to 24 or 36 hours prior to departure. Special meals include children's, vegetarian, medical diet's and religious meals. On flights to the Asian countries India, China, South-Korea and Japan, KLM offers authentic Asian meals in all classes as one of the choices. Meals served on KLM flights departing from Amsterdam are provided by KLM subsidiary KLM Catering Services.
Incidents and accidents
For sourcing and full list of accidents from 1943 see:Aviation safety database
The most notable accident in which a KLM flight has been involved was the 1977 Tenerife disaster. After this accident KLM flights have not led to fatalities.
Accidents involving fatalities
- On 24 April 1923, Fokker F.III H-NABS departed Lympne for Rotterdam and Amsterdam. The aircraft was not heard of again. It was presumed to have crashed into the sea, killing the pilot and both passengers.
- On 22 August 1927, Fokker F.VIII H-NADU crashed near Sevenoaks, England. One crewmember was killed.
- On 20 December 1934, KLM Douglas DC-2, PH-AJU "Uiver" crashed at Rutbah Wells, Iraq, killing all occupants. It participated in the Mac Robertson Air Race in October 1934 and won the handicap division. It had returned to the Netherlands in November and the crew were heroes. It was on its first flight after return from the race and was en route to the Netherlands Indies carrying the Christmas mail.
- On 14 July 1935, KLM Fokker F.XXII PH-AJQ "Kwikstaart" crashed and burned just outside Schiphol, killing four crew and two passengers – 14 other occupants survived.
- On 20 July 1935, KLM Douglas DC-2, PH-AKG "Gaai" crashed in an Alpine pass in the San Bernardino Pass near Pian San Giacomo, killing all three crew and all ten passengers.
- On 9 December 1936, KLM Douglas DC-2, PH-AKL crashed into a house after taking off from Croydon Airport, London the accident killed 15 out of 17 on board the DC-2 (see 1936 KLM Croydon accident)
- On 28 December 1941, KNILM Douglas DC-3, PK-ALN (formerly KLM PH-ALN) "Nandoe" was destroyed on the ground by Japanese fighters at Medan, North Sumatra, Dutch East Indies, killing all crew members and passengers.
- On 1 June 1943, the BOAC Douglas DC-3 (formerly KLM PH-ALI) "Ibis" was shot down by eight German Junkers Ju-88 fighters over the Gulf of Biskay while on the scheduled route Lisbon-Bristol. All thirteen passengers and four KLM crewmembers perished. For more information see: BOAC Flight 777.
- On 14 November 1946 – A KLM Douglas C-47 crashed at Schiphol Airport, caused by a failed landing in bad weather. All 21 passengers and the 5 crew were killed. One passenger was the Dutch writer Herman de Man.
- On 26 January 1947, KLM Douglas Dakota PH-TCR crashed after takeoff from Copenhagen, killing all 22 on board, including Prince Gustaf Adolf of Sweden.
- On 20 October 1948, KLM Lockheed Constellation PH-TEN "Nijmegen" crashed near Prestwick, Scotland, killing all 40 aboard.
- On 23 June 1949, KLM Lockheed Constellation PH-TER "Roermond", piloted by Hans Plesman (the son of CEO Albert Plesman) crashed into the sea off Bari, killing 33 occupants.
- On 12 July 1949, KLM Lockheed Constellation PH-TDF "Franeker" crashed into a 674 ft Ghatkopar hill near Bombay, India, killing all 45 aboard. Thirteen of the dead were American news correspondents.
- On 22 March 1952, a KLM Douglas DC-6 PH-TBJ "Koningin Juliana", crashed in Frankfurt, killing 42 of 47 occupants
- On 23 August 1954; a KLM Douglas DC-6B, PH-DFO "Willem Bontekoe", crashed between Shannon and Schiphol in the North Sea, 40 km from IJmuiden – all 21 passengers and crew died.
- On 5 September 1954, Flight 633, a Lockheed Super Constellation, PH-LKY "Triton" ditched in the River Shannon after takeoff from Shannon Airport, Ireland. 28 out of 56 people on board (46 passengers and 10 crew) were killed.
- On 14 July 1957, KLM Super Constellation PH-LKT "Neutron" crashed in the sea near Biak, after takeoff from Mokmer airport at Biak on its way to Manila. The pilot made a low farewell flypass over the island, but the aircraft lost altitude, crashed into the sea and exploded. Nine crew and 49 passengers died; there were 10 survivors. See KLM Flight 844.
- On 14 August 1958, KLM Flight 607-E, a Lockheed Super Constellation, PH-LKM "Hugo de Groot" en route from Amsterdam to New York, via Shannon Airport, crashed into the ocean 180 km off the coast of Co. Galway, Ireland. 91 passengers and 8 crew members perished.
- On 25 October 1968, Douglas C-47A PH-DAA of KLM Aerocarto flew into Tafelberg Mountain, Suriname, following an engine failure whilst on a survey flight. The aircraft collided with the mountain in cloud, killing three of the five people on board.
- On 27 March 1977, Flight 4805, a Boeing 747-206B, PH-BUF, and Pan Am Flight 1736, a Boeing 747–121, N736PA, collided at Tenerife North Airport, Canary Islands, killing 583 people. The incident has the highest number of on-board fatalities of any single accident in aviation history.
Notable incidents without fatalities
- On 17 July 1935, KLM DC-2 PH-AKM "Maraboe" crashed near Bushehr, Iran. All occupants were rescued.
- On 15 November 1942, the escaped KLM DC-3 PH-ALI "Ibis", flying with a Dutch crew under BOAC's flag (G-AGBB) and later destroyed in the downing of Flight 777-A, was attacked by a single Messerschmitt Bf 110 fighter, but she was able to limp on to Lisbon where repairs were carried out. The damage sustained by cannon and machine gun fire included the port wing, engine nacelle and fuselage.
- On 19 April 1943, the Ibis was again attacked at coordinates 46 North, 9 West, by a schwarm of six Bf 110 fighters. Captain Koene Dirk Parmentier evaded the attackers by dropping to 50 feet above the ocean and then climbing steeply into the clouds. The "Ibis" again sustained damage to the port aileron, shrapnel to the fuselage and a holed fuel tank. A new wingtip was flown to Lisbon to complete repairs. Despite these attacks, BOAC continued to fly the Lisbon–Whitchurch route.
- On 6 November 1946, KLM Douglas DC-3 PH-TBO crashed near Shere as the flight was on approach to Croydon Airport after a flight from Amsterdam. None of the 20 passengers and crew were killed in the accident.
- On 23 March 1952, a KLM Lockheed Constellation, PH-TFF "Venlo", suffered a propeller failure and subsequent engine fire during landing in Bangkok. All 44 passengers and crew escaped shortly before the fire completely consumed the plane. A Thai ground crewman ran into the burning aircraft and returned with an infant who had been left behind.
- On 25 November 1973, KLM Flight 861, a Boeing 747-206B, PH-BUA "Mississippi" was hijacked over Iraq by Palestinian terrorists. The plane took off in Amsterdam and was bound for Tokyo. After 70 hours the plane made its final landing in Dubai. The passengers were released earlier in Malta. Everyone survived the hijack.
- On 15 December 1989, KLM Flight 867, a Boeing 747-400, PH-BFC flew through a volcanic plume causing nearly $80 million worth of damage to the then brand-new aircraft. The plane landed in Anchorage, Alaska, with no reported injuries or fatalities.
- On 28 November 2004, KLM Flight 1673, a Boeing 737-400, PH-BTC had a birdstrike upon rotation from Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. The plane continued onwards to Barcelona International Airport, where the nose gear collapsed. No injuries or casualties; the aircraft was written off.
Corporate responsibility issues
Alleged support to Nazi war criminals
KLM has been accused of helping Nazi war criminals to escape from Europe at the end of the Second World War. Suspected war criminals were forbidden by the Allies to leave Germany but historical research done by Dutch journalists show that KLM asked the Swiss authorities to allow some former Nazi to cross the borders without proper documents so that they could then escape to South America.  KLM has always denied that it played such a role.
KLM started KLM AirCares in 1999. KLM AirCares is a programme that aids underprivileged children in developing countries that KLM flies to.
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- ANP. "'KLM hielp nazi's bij vlucht naar Argentinië’, de Volkskrant, 1 May 2007". De Volkskrant (in (Dutch)). Retrieved 2012-11-29.
- "KLM accused of helping Nazis flee". BBC News. 8 May 2007.
- Charter, David (8 May 2007). "Airline accused of helping Nazis to flee". The Times (London). Retrieved 7 May 2010.
- ""KLM AirCares" KLM Website". Corporate.klm.com. Retrieved 2012-11-29.
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