The Kurdish people are an Indo-European ethnic group, whose origins are in the Middle East. With a population estimate of ca 40-50 million, some sources claim that Kurdish are the largest ethnic group in the world that do not have a state of their own. The region of Kurdistan, the original geographic region of the Kurdish people and the home to the majority of Kurds today, covers contemporary Turkey, Iraq, Iran, and Syria. This geo-cultural region means "land of the Kurds". Kurdish populations occupy the territory in and around the northern and central parts of the Zagros mountains. These arid unwelcoming mountains have been a geographic buffer to cultural and political dominance from neighboring empires. Persians, Arabs and Ottomans were kept away, and a space was carved out to develop Kurdish culture, language and identity.
According to a report by Turkish agency KONDA, in 2006, out of the total population of 73 million people in Turkey there were 11.4 million Kurds and Zazas living in Turkey (close to 15.68% of the total population). The Turkish newspaper Milliyet has reported in 2008 that the Kurdish population in Turkey is 12.6 million; although this also includes 3 million Zazas. According to the World Factbook, Kurdish people make up 18% of Turkey's population (about 14 million, out of 77.8 million people). Kurdish sources put the figure at 20 to 25 million Kurds in Turkey.
Kurds mostly live in southeastern and eastern parts of Anatolia. But large Kurdish populations can be found in western Turkey due to internal migration. According to Rüstem Erkan, Istanbul is the province with the largest Kurdish population in Turkey.
From the 7 million Iranian Kurds, a significant portion are Sunni. Shia Kurds inhabit Kermanshah Province, except for those parts where people are Jaff, and Ilam Province; as well as some parts of Kurdistan, Hamadan and Zanjan provinces. The Kurds of Khorasan Province in northeastern Iran are also adherents of Shia Islam. During the Shia revolution in Iran the major Kurdish political parties were unsuccessful in absorbing Shia Kurds, who at that period had no interest in autonomy. However, since the 1990s Kurdish nationalism has seeped into the Shia Kurdish area partly due to outrage against government's violent suppression of Kurds farther north.
Kurds constitute approximately 17% of Iraq's population. They are the majority in at least three provinces in northern Iraq which are together known as Iraqi Kurdistan. Kurds also have a presence in Kirkuk, Mosul, Khanaqin, and Baghdad. Around 300,000 Kurds live in the Iraqi capital Baghdad, 50,000 in the city of Mosul and around 100,000 elsewhere in southern Iraq.
Kurds led by Mustafa Barzani were engaged in heavy fighting against successive Iraqi regimes from 1960 to 1975. In March 1970, Iraq announced a peace plan providing for Kurdish autonomy. The plan was to be implemented in four years. However, at the same time, the Iraqi regime started an Arabization program in the oil-rich regions of Kirkuk and Khanaqin. The peace agreement did not last long, and in 1974, the Iraqi government began a new offensive against the Kurds. Moreover in March 1975, Iraq and Iran signed the Algiers Accord, according to which Iran cut supplies to Iraqi Kurds. Iraq started another wave of Arabization by moving Arabs to the oil fields in Kurdistan, particularly those around Kirkuk. Between 1975 and 1978, 200,000 Kurds were deported to other parts of Iraq.
Syrian Kurdistan is an unofficial name used by some to describe the Kurdish inhabited regions of northern and northeastern Syria. The northeastern Kurdish inhabited region covers the greater part of Hasakah Governorate. The main cities in this region are Qamishli and Hasakah. Another region with significant Kurdish population is Kobanê (Ayn al-Arab) in the northern part of Syria near the town of Jarabulus and also the city of Afrin and its surroundings along the Turkish border.
Many Kurds seek political autonomy for the Kurdish inhabited areas of Syria, similar to Iraqi Kurdistan in Iraq, or outright independence as part of Kurdistan. The name "Western Kurdistan" (Kurdish: Rojavayê Kurdistanê) is also used by Kurds to name the Syrian Kurdish inhabited areas in relation to Kurdistan. Since the Syrian civil war, Syrian government forces have abandoned many Kurdish-populated areas, leaving the Kurds to fill the power vacuum and govern these areas autonomously.
According to the 2011 Armenian Census, 37,470 Kurds live in Armenia, mainly Yazidi. They mainly live in the western parts of Armenia. The Kurds of the former Soviet Union first began writing Kurdish in the Armenian alphabet in the 1920s, followed by Latin in 1927, then Cyrillic in 1945, and now in both Cyrillic and Latin. The Kurds in Armenia established a Kurdish radio broadcast from Yerevan and the first Kurdish newspaper Riya Teze. There is a Kurdish Department in the Yerevan State Institute of Oriental studies. The Kurds of Armenia were the first exiled country to have access to media such as radio, education and press in their native tongue but many Kurds, from 1939 to 1959 were listed as the Azeri population or even as Armenians.
According to the 2002 Georgian Census, 20,843 Kurds live in Georgia The Kurds in Georgia mainly live in the capital of Tbilisi and Rustavi. According to a United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees rerport from 1998, about 80% of the Kurdish population in Georgia are Yazidi Kurds.
According to the 2010 Russian Census, 63,818 Kurds live in Russia. Russia has maintained warm relations with the Kurds for a long time, During the early 19th century, the main goal of the Russian Empire was to ensure the neutrality of the Kurds, in the wars against Persia and the Ottoman Empire. In the beginning of the 19th century, Kurds settled in Transcaucasia, at a time when Transcaucasia was incorporated into the Russian Empire. In the 20th century, Kurds were persecuted and exterminated by the Turks and Persians, a situation that led Kurds to move to Russia.
The existence of a community of at least 100,000 Kurds is the product of several waves of immigrants, the first major wave was in the period of 1925-1950 when thousands of Kurds fled violence and poverty in Turkey. Kurds in Lebanon go back far as the twelfth century A.D. when the Ayyubids arrived there. Over the next few centuries, several other Kurdish families were sent to Lebanon by a number of powers to maintain rule in those regions, others moved as a result of poverty and violence in Kurdistan. These Kurdish groups settled in and ruled many areas of Lebanon for a long period of time.:27 Kurds of Lebanon settled in Lebanon because of Lebanon's pluralistic society.
The Kurdish diaspora in Western Europe is most significant in Germany, France, Sweden, Belgium and the Netherlands. Kurds from Turkey went to Germany and France during the 1960s as immigrant workers. Thousands of Kurdish refugees and political refugees fled from Turkey to Sweden during the 1970s and onward, and from Iraq during the 1980s and 1990s.
In France, the Iranian Kurds make up the majority of the community. However, thousands of Iraqi Kurds also arrived in the mid 1990s. More recently, Syrian Kurds have been entering France illegally
In the United Kingdom, Kurds first began to immigrate between 1974-75 when the rebellion of Iraqi Kurds against the Iraqi government was repressed. The Iraqi government began to destroy Kurdish villages and forced many Kurds to move to barren land in the south. These events resulted in many Kurds fleeing to the United Kingdom. Thus, the Iraqi Kurds make up a large part of the community. In 1979, Ayatollah Khomeini came to power in Iran and installed Islamic law. There was widespread political oppression and persecution of the Kurdish community. Since the late 1970s the number of people from Iran seeking asylum in Britain has remained high. In 1988, Saddam Hussein launched the Anfal campaign in the northern Iraq. This included mass executions and disappearances of the Kurdish community. The use of chemical weapons against thousands of towns and villages in the region, as well as the town of Halabja increased the number of Iraq Kurds entering the United Kingdom. A large number of Kurds also came to the United Kingdom following the 1980 military coup in Turkey. More recently, immigration has been due to the continued political oppression and the repression of ethnic and religious minorities in Iraq and Iran. Estimates of the Kurdish population in the United Kingdom are as high as 200-250,000.
In Finland, most Kurds arrived in the 1990s as Iraqi refugees. Kurds in Finland have no great attachment to the Iraqi state because of their position as a persecuted minority. Thus, they feel more accepted and comfortable in Finland, many wanting to get rid of their Iraqi citizenship.
In the United States, it is believed that the Kurdish population is approximately 58,000, the large majority of which come from Iran. It is estimated that some 23,000 Iranian Kurds are living in the United States. During the 1991 Persian Gulf War, about 10,000 Iraqi refugees were admitted to the United States, most of which were Kurds and Shiites who had assisted or were sympathisers of the U.S –led war. Nashville, Tennessee has the nation's largest population of Kurdish people, with an estimated 8,000-11,000. There are also Kurds in Southern California, Los Angeles, and San Diego.
In Canada, Kurdish immigration was largely the result of the Iran-Iraq War and the Gulf War. Thus, many Iraqi Kurds immigrated to Canada due to the constant wars and suppression of Kurds and Shiites by the Iraqi government.
In Australia, Kurdish migrants first arrived in the second half of the 1960s, mainly from Turkey. However, in the late 1970s families from Syria and Lebanon were also present in Australia. Since the second half of the 1980s, the majority of Kurds arriving in Australia have been from Iraq and Iran; many of them were accepted under the Humanitarian Programme. However, Kurds from Lebanon, Armenia and Georgia have also migrated to Australia. The majority live in Melbourne and Sydney.
Statistics by country
Traditional areas of Kurdish settlement
|Country||Official figures||Official figures in %||Current est. Kurdish population||Further information|
|Israel||N/A||N/A||approx. 150,000||Kurds in Israel|
|Lebanon||N/A||N/A||approx. 80,000||Kurds in Lebanon|
|Sweden||N/A||N/A||approx. 66,000||Kurds in Sweden|
|United Kingdom||2011 census)49,841 (||0.1%||—||Kurds in the United Kingdom
|Kazakhstan||41,431 (2013 annual statistics)||0.2%||—||Kurds in Kazakhstan|
|Jordan||N/A||N/A||–100,00030,000||Kurds in Jordan|
|United States||ACS)15,361 (2006-2010||0%||—||Kurds in the United States
|Switzerland||14,699 (2012 statistics, Kurdish speakers)||0.2%||—||—|
|Kyrgyzstan||13,171 (2009 census)||0.2%||—||—|
|Canada||11,685 (2011 census)||0%||—||
|Finland||10,075 (2013 annual statistics, Kurdish speakers)||0.2%||—||
4,586 (2011 census, Kurdish speakers)
|Turkmenistan||6,097 (1995 census)||0.1%||—||Kurds in Turkmenistan|
|Austria||2,133 (2001 census, Kurdish speakers)||0%||—||—|
|Ukraine||2001 census)2,088 (||0%||—||
|Uzbekistan||1,839 (1989 census)||0%||—||—|
|Ireland||128 (2011 census)||0%||1,500||—|
720 (2013 census)|
828 (2013 census, Kurdish speakers)
|—||Kurds in New Zealand|
|Japan||N/A||N/A||300– 400||Kurds in Japan|
|Poland||224 (2011 census)||0%||—||—|
|Hungary||149 (2011 census)||0%||—||—|
9 (1989 census)|
132 (Immigrants 1993-2013)
|Bulgaria||105 (2011 census)||0%||—||—|
|Czech Republic||100 (2011 census)||0%||—||—|
|Belarus||81 (2009 census)||0%||—||—|
|Abkhazia||29 (1989 census)||0%||—||—|
|Latvia||29 (2014 annual statistics)||0%||—||—|
|Estonia||23 (2011 census)||0%||—||—|
|Serbia||<12 (2011 census)||0%||—||—|
|Lithuania||<10 (2011 census)||0%||—||—|
|Croatia||8 (2011 census)||0%||—||—|
|Tajikistan||7 (2010 census)||0%||—||—|
|South Ossetia||1 (1989 census)||0%||—||—|
- ^a According to the Turkish 1965 census, 2,219,502 people indicated Kurdish as their mother language and 429,168 as their second best language spoken. 150,644 people indicated Zaza as their mother language and 20,413 as their second best language spoken.
- ^b Official Azerbaijani records claim only 6,073 Kurds in 2009, while Kurdish leaders estimate as much as 200,000. The problem is that the historical record of the Kurds in Azerbaijan is filled with lacunae. For instance, in 1979 there was according to the census no Kurds recorded. Not only did Turkey and Azerbaijan pursue an identical policy against the Kurds, they even employed identical techniques like forced assimilation, manipulation of population figures, settlement of non-Kurds in areas predominantly Kurdish, suppression of publications and abolition of Kurdish as a medium of instruction in schools.
- ^c In the 2010 Russian Census, 23,232 people indicated Kurdish (Курды) as their ethnicity, while 40,586 chose Yazidi (Езиды) as their ethnicity.
- ^d In the 2011 Armenian Census, 2,131 people indicated Kurdish (Քրդեր) as their ethnicity, while 35,272 indicated Yazidi (Եզդիներ) as their ethnicity.
- ^e 2006 Konda survey.
- Gunter, Michael (2008). The Kurds Ascending. New York: Palgrave MacMillan. ISBN 978-0-230-60370-7.
- Aziz, Mahir (2011). The Kurds of Iraq. London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84885-546-5.
- KONDA 2006, 18.
- Milliyet. "Türkiye'deki Kürtlerin sayısı!". Retrieved 2010-11-13.
- Central Intelligence Agency. "The World Factbook: Turkey". Retrieved 2010-11-13.
- Kurdish PKK chief Murat Karayilan says will spread to Turkish cities if we were attacked by Turkey
- "En Büyük Şehri, İstanbul", Time Türk, March 25, 2010.
- Romano, David (2006). The Kurdish Nationalist Movement. New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 235. ISBN 0-521-85041-X.
- McDowall (1996). A Modern History of the Kurds. London: I.B. Tauris. p. 270. ISBN 1-85043-653-3.
- McDowall (1996). A Modern History of the Kurds. London: I.B. Tauris. p. 278. ISBN 1-85043-653-3.
- "By Location". Adherents.com. Retrieved 2011-12-02.
- G.S. Harris, Ethnic Conflict and the Kurds in the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, pp. 118–120, 1977
- Introduction. Genocide in Iraq: The Anfal Campaign Against the Kurds (Human Rights Watch Report, 1993).
- G.S. Harris, Ethnic Conflict and the Kurds in the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, p.121, 1977
- M. Farouk-Sluglett, P. Sluglett, J. Stork, Not Quite Armageddon: Impact of the War on Iraq, MERIP Reports, July–September 1984, p.24
- Background Note: Syria U.S. Department of State
- "Syria: End Persecution of Kurds". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 4 October 2011.
- Ian Black. Syrian human rights record unchanged under Assad, report says, The Guardian, 16 July 2010.
- Morris, Loveday (9 August 2012). "Syrian President Bashar al-Assad accused of arming Kurdish separatists for attacks against Turkish government". The Independent (London).
- "Ankara Alarmed by Syrian Kurds' Autonomy". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
- "Syrian Kurds more a chance than challenge to Turkey, if…". Al-Arabiya. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
- "Syrian Kurdish moves ring alarm bells in Turkey". Reuters. 24 July 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- "Kurds seek autonomy in a democratic Syria". BBC World News. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
- "Information from the 2011 Armenian National Census". Statistics of Armenia (in Armenian). Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- The Peoples of the USSR: An Ethnographic Handbook - P. 117. by Ronald Wixman
- Mannerheim: Marshal of Finland - P. 210. by Alexandre Bennigsen, Stig Jägerskiöld, S. Enders Wimbush
- "Ethnic Groups of Georgia: Censuses 1926 – 2002". Retrieved 24 July 2014.
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (1 August 1998). Georgia: Treatment of the Kurds, in particular of Yezidi Kurds. Refworld: The leader in Refugee Decision Support. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
- "РОССИЯ И ПРОБЛЕМА КУРДОВ". rau.su (in Russian). rau.su. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "Kurds". Institute of Estonia (EKI). Institute of Estonia (EKI). Retrieved 22 June 2012.
- A Modern History of the Kurds - Page 485 by David MacDowall
- Lokman I. Meho; Kelly L. Maglaughlin. Kurdish Culture and Society: An Annotated Bibliography.
- Lebanon a Country Study - Page 83 by Federal Research Division
- McDowall 2000, 457.
- Miller 2000, 101.
- France24. "Illegal migrants sent to mainland". Retrieved 2010-11-14.
- Museum of London. "Belonging: Voices of London's Refugees". Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- Fadloullah 1994, 36.
- Wahlbeck 2005, 1004.
- Safran 2009, 86.
- Izady 1992, 100.
- Powell 2005, 151.
- Kelley, Friedlander & Colby 1993, 156
- Powell 2005, 152.
- Jupp 2001, 550.
- "Iran plays a complex game with the Kurds Read more: http://www.dailystar.com.lb/Opinion/Commentary/2014/May-12/256069-iran-plays-a-complex-game-with-the-kurds.ashx#ixzz349WdP0wi (The Daily Star :: Lebanon News :: http://www.dailystar.com.lb)". The Daily Star. 12 May 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
- Fuat Dundar (2012). "British Use of Statistics in the Iraqi Kurdish Question (1919–1932)". p. 48. Retrieved 25 June 2014. "Source: The data are compiled from the map that indicates the statistical data regarding “Races” and “Religions” of Mosul and its neighboring districts, which is entitled “Enclosure of Ministry of Economics Memo No. 677.” In Records of Iraq, V.7, pp. 596–97"
- "Kurds could opt out of next Iraqi government - president". Reuters. 13 May 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
- "Syria’s Kurds follow their brothers in bid for autonomy". Haaretz. 18 February 2014. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
- "ՀՀ Արմավիրի մարզ, մշտական բնակչություն". Statistics of Armenia (in Armenian). Statistics of Armenia. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "ՀՀ Արագածոտնի մարզ, մշտական բնակչություն". Statistics of Armenia (in Armenian). Statistics of Armenia. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "ՀՀ Արարատի մարզ, մշտական բնակչությունի". Statistics of Armenia (in Armenian). Statistics of Armenia. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "ք. Երևան, մշտական բնակչություն". Statistics of Armenia (in Armenian). Statistics of Armenia. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "ՀՀ Կոտայքի մարզ, մշտական բնակչություն". Statistics of Armenia (in Armenian). Statistics of Armenia. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
- "ՀՀ Շիրակի մարզ, մշտական բնակչություն". Statistics of Armenia (in Armenian). Statistics of Armenia. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- "ՀՀ Լոռու մարզ, մշտական բնակչություն". Statistics of Armenia (in Armenian). Statistics of Armenia. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- 'The cultural situation of the Kurds
- Ismet Chériff Vanly, “The Kurds in the Soviet Union”, in: Philip G. Kreyenbroek & S. Sperl (eds.), The Kurds: A Contemporary Overview (London: Routledge, 1992). pg 164
- "Ethnic composition of Azerbaijan". pop-stat.mashke.org. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
- "Приложение 2. Hациональный состав населения по субъектам Российской Федерации". Statistics of Russia (in Russian). Statistics of Russia. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
- "Camps built in Germany, Austria to win new members for PKK, reports reveal". Zaman. 9 August 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
- Jerusalem Center For Jewish-Christian Relations. "Kurdish Jewish Community in Israel". Retrieved 7 January 2012.
- "3 Kurdish women political activists shot dead in Paris". CNN. 11 January 2013. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
- "Kurds - Medea". Medea. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
- "The Kurdish Diaspora". Institut Kurde de Paris. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
- "Kurds in Netherlands". wereldjournalisten.nl. 23 May 2007. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
- "Sveriges språk – vem talar vad" (in Swedish). p. 91. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
- "QS211EW - Ethnic group (detailed)". nomis. Office for National Statistics. Retrieved 3 August 2013.
- "Ethnic Group - Full Detail_QS201NI". Retrieved 4 September 2013.
- "Scotland's Census 2011 - National Records of Scotland - Ethnic group (detailed)". Scotland Census. Scotland Census. Retrieved 29 September 2013.
- "Ethnic group (write-in responses)". nomis. Retrieved 20 July 2014.
- Қазақстан Республикасы Статистика агенттігі. ҚАЗАҚСТАННЫҢ ЭТНОДЕМОГРАФИЯЛЫҚ ЖЫЛНАМАЛЫҒЫ ЭТНОДЕМОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ ЕЖЕГОДНИК КАЗАХСТАНА 2013
- Mahmoud A. Al-Khatib and Mohammed N. Al-Ali. "Language and Cultural Shift Among the Kurds of Jordan". p. 12. Retrieved 7 January 2012.
- "Diaspora: Die Gemeinschaft in Jordanien". Kurdica (in German). Kurdica. Retrieved 10 December 2012.
- "Fakta: Kurdere i Danmark". Jyllandsposten (in Danish). 8 May 2006. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
- "Kurds Flee Persecution for 'Sympathetic Shores' of Greece". The Christian Science Monitor. 12 January 1998. Retrieved 22 December 2013.
- "2006-2010 American Community Survey Selected Population Tables". Government of the United States of America. Government of the United States of America. Retrieved 5 August 2013.
- "Population résidante permanente de 15 ans et plus, ayant comme langue principale: kurde, en 2012". Statistics of Switzerland. Statistics of Switzerland. Retrieved 28 May 2014.
- "4.1. Number of resident population by selected nationality". Government of Kyrgyzstan. United Nations. Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- "Население Кыргызстана" (in Russian).
- "2011 National Household Survey: Data tables". Statistics of Canada. Statistics of Canada. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- "Language according to age and sex by region 1990 - 2013". Statistics Finland. Statistics Finland. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- "The People of Australia - Statistics from the 2011 census". SBS. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- "The People of New South Wales - Statistics from the 2011 census". p. 132. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- "The People of Western Australia - Statistics from the 2011 census". p. 132. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- "The People of Queensland Statistics from the 2011 Census". datsima.qld.gov.au. p. 132. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- "The People of Tasmania - Statistics from the 2011 census". p. 124. Retrieved 29 May 2014.
- "The People of Northern Territory Statistics from the 2011 Census". Government of Northern Territory. Retrieved 21 July 2014.
- "Итоги всеобщей переписи населения Туркменистана по национальному составу в 1995 году.". asgabat.net (in Russian). asgabat.net. Retrieved 31 July 2012.
- Murphy, Kim (11 April 1991). "Kurds in Kuwait Also Are Treated Harshly : Ethnic conflict: Many have been prevented from returning to their jobs, and some have disappeared.". New York Times. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
- "Ethnocultural Diversity Resource Center". Ethnocultural Diversity Resource Center (in Romanian). 2006. p. 36. Retrieved 16 February 2014.
- "Tabelle 14: Bevölkerung nach Umgangssprache, Staatsangehörigkeit und Geburtsland". Statistics of Austria (in German). Statistics of Austria. p. 75. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- "The distribution of the population by nationality and mother tongue". Ukrainian Census (2001). Retrieved 9 July 2012.
- Demoscope. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР" (in Russian). Demoscope.ru. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
- "2011 Census Results". Central Statistics Office (CSO). Retrieved 23 December 2013. "According to the 2011 census of population there was 128 persons usually resident in Ireland who stated their ethnicity was Kurdish. However please note that individual ethnic backgrounds like Kurdish would most likely have been understated in the census. On the census form there were 8 options where a person could tick their ethnicity. If someone's ethnicity was Kurdish they were required to write this at the end of the question, however they may have ticked another box without stating their specific ethnicity. I.e. they may have ticked the box for "Any other white background"."
- "A long way from home... But new school hopes to bring Kurds together". Dublin People. 11 February 2013. Retrieved 16 February 2013.
- "Kurds set up ‘tent city’ in asylum protest". CyprusMail (via Cyprusedirectory). 22 May 2010. Retrieved 20 January 2013.
- "Kurds in Korea launch ethnic fellowship; Group hopes to raise.". Asia Africa Intelligence Wire. 21 April 2003. Retrieved 19 January 2013.
- "Spaniard Pushes Cultural Ties With Kurdistan". Rudaw. 28 November 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2013.
- "2013 Census totals by topic – tables (Excel, 59 sheets, 1.54MB)". Statistics of New Zealand. Retrieved 4 March 2014.
- "日本にやってきたクルド人たち". Geocities.jp. Retrieved 16 November 2012.
- "Tabl. 28. ludność według rodzaju i złożoności identyfikacji narodowo- -etnicznych w 2011 roku". Glowny Urzad Statysty (in Polish). 17 January 2014.
- "Előzetes adatok". Hungarian Central Statistical Office (in Hungarian). Hungarian Central Statistical Office. Retrieved 29 December 2013.
- Demoscope. "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года. Национальный состав населения по республикам СССР" (in Russian). Demoscope.ru. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
- "Distribution of immigrants by nationality and purpose of arrival, 1993-2012". Statistics of Moldova. Statistics of Moldova. Retrieved 13 June 2014.
- "ДОКЛАД за ПРЕБРОЯВАНЕТО НАНАСЕЛЕНИЕТО В БЪЛГАРИЯ 2011г.". Statistics of Bulgaria. Retrieved 30 July 2014.
- "Czech Statistical Office". Czech Statistical Office. Retrieved 24 May 2013. "There were 91 inhabitants who declared themselves as Kurds in the questionnaires and 9 who declared to be mixed ethnicity Kurd plus Czech/Silesian."
- "Национальный статистический комитет Республики Беларусь". Национальный статистический комитет Республики Беларусь (in Russian). Национальный статистический комитет Республики Беларусь. Retrieved 1 August 2012.
- "Ethnic Groups of Georgia:Census 1989 (Total/Percentage)". Emicaucasus. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
- "Latvijas iedzīvotāju sadalījums pēc nacionālā sastāva un valstiskās piederības (Datums=01.07.2014)". Pilsonības un migrācijas lietu pārvalde (in Latvian). p. 4. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
- "PCE04: ENUMERATED PERMANENT RESIDENTS BY ETHNIC NATIONALITY AND SEX, 31 DECEMBER 2011". pub.stat.ee. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
- ""Oстали" етничке заједнице са мање од 2000 припадника и двојако изјашњени" (in Serbian). Statistics of Serbia. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- Statistics Lithuania. "2 lentelė. Gyventojai pagal tautybę" (in Lithuanian). Statistics Lithuania. p. 8. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
- "1. Population by ethnicity - detailed classification, 2011 census". Statistics of Croatia. Retrieved 29 May 2014. "Kurds (ethnicity) – 8 persons Mother tongue Kurdish - 4 persons"
- "3. Population by mother tongue - detailed classification, 2011 census". Statistics of Croatia. Retrieved 29 May 2014. "Kurds (ethnicity) – 8 persons Mother tongue Kurdish - 4 persons"
- "Национальный состав, владение языками и гражданство населения республики таджикистан". Statistics of Tajikistan (in Russian and Tajik). Statistics of Tajikistan. p. 9. Retrieved 27 January 2013.
- Heinz Kloss & Grant McConnel, Linguistic composition of the nations of the world, vol,5, Europe and USSR, Québec, Presses de l'Université Laval, 1984, ISBN 2-7637-7044-4
- An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of the Russian and Soviet Empires, James Stuart Olson, Lee Brigance Pappas, Nicholas Charles Pappas, Greenwood Publishing Group, (1994), ISBN 0-313-27497-5, p.409
- The Kurds: A Contemporary Overview, Philip G. Kreyenbroek, Stefan Sperl, Routledge, ISBN 0-415-07265-4, (1992), p.204
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 г. Национальный состав населения Российской Федерации". Demoscope. Demoscope. Retrieved 4 July 2012.
- "Kürt Meselesini Yeniden Düşünmek". KONDA. p. 19. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
- Ammann, Birgit (2005), "Kurds in Germany", in Ember, Melvin; Ember, Carol R.; Skoggard, Ian, Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Diaspora Communities, Volume 2, Springer Publishers, ISBN 0-306-48321-1.
- Baser, Bahar.“Kurdish Diaspora Political Activism in Europe with a Particular Focus on Great Britain.”, Diaspora Dialogues for Development and Peace Project, Berlin: Berghof Peace Support, June 2011.
- Berry, John W. (2006), Immigrant youth in cultural transition: acculturation, identity, and adaptation across national contexts, Routledge, ISBN 0-8058-5156-9.
- Fadloullah, Abdellatif (1994), "Migratory flows from the countries of the South to Western Europe", in De Azevedo, Raimondo Cagiano (ed), Migration and Development Co-operation, Council of Europe, ISBN 92-871-2611-9.
- Gunter, Michael M. (1997), The Kurds and the future of Turkey, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 0-312-17265-6.
- Issa, Tözün (2005), Talking Turkey: the language, culture and identity of Turkish speaking children in Britain, Trentham Books, ISBN 1-85856-318-6.
- Izady, Mehrdad R. (1992), The Kurds: A Concise Handbook, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 0-8448-1727-9.
- Jupp, James (2001), The Australian people: an encyclopedia of the nation, its people and their origins, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-80789-1.
- Kelley, Ron; Friedlander, Jonathan; Colby, Anita (1993), Irangeles: Iranians in Los Angeles, University of California Press, ISBN 0-520-08008-4.
- Koslowski, Rey (2000), Migrants and Citizens: Demographic Change in the European State System, Cornell University Press, ISBN 0-8014-3714-8.
- McDowall, David (2000), A modern history of the Kurds, I.B.Tauris, ISBN 1-85043-416-6.
- Miller, Mark J. (2000), "A durable international migration and security nexus: the problem of the Islamic periphery in transatlantic ties", in Graham, David T.; Poku, Nana (eds), Migration, Globalisation, and Human Security, Routledge Publishers, ISBN 0-415-18436-3.
- Powell, John (2005), Encyclopedia of North American Immigration, Infobase Publishing, ISBN 0-8160-4658-1.
- Safran, William (2009), "The Diaspora and the Homeland: Reciprocities, Transformations, and Role Reversals", in Rafael, Eliezer Ben; Sternberg, Yitzak (eds), Transnationalism: Diasporas and the Advent of a New (dis)order, BRILL, ISBN 90-04-17470-2.
- Wahlbeck, Osten (2005), "Kurds in Finland", in Ember, Melvin; Ember, Carol R.; Skoggard, Ian, Encyclopedia of Diasporas: Immigrant and Refugee Cultures Around the World. Diaspora Communities, Volume 2, Springer Publishers, ISBN 0-306-48321-1.