List of European tornadoes and tornado outbreaks

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Parent article: List of tornadoes and tornado outbreaks

These are some notable tornadoes, tornado outbreaks, and tornado outbreak sequences that have occurred in Europe.

Pre-20th century[edit]

Event Date Area Tornadoes Casualties Notes
Rosdalla, Ireland tornado 30 April 1054 Kilbeggan, Ireland - - Earliest known European tornado[1]
London tornado of 1091 23 October 1091 London, Middlesex, United Kingdom - - Earliest known and perhaps strongest British tornado[1]
Vyšehrad tornado of 1119 30 July 1119 Vyšehrad, Bohemia - - Earliest known and perhaps strongest Czech tornado which destroyed palace of Czech duke at Vyšehrad now in Prague[2]
Czech tornado of 1144 14 May 1144 Bohemia 2 - Two tornadoes near military camp of duke Oto.[2]
Prague tornado of 1255 8 April 1255 Prague, Bohemia - - Tornado at Prague Castle.[2]
Valletta, Malta tornado 23 September 1551 (or 1556) Malta - ≈600 fatalities Perhaps deadliest European tornado[1]
Neznašov, Czech tornado 6 July 1585 Bohemia - - [2]
Augsburg, Germany tornado 2 July 1587 Augsburg, Germany - -
Roma, Italy tornado 4 December 1645 Rome, Italy - Many fatalities probably F4[citation needed]
La Rochelle - Paris, France tornadoes September 1669 France - - Longest track tornado family in Europe.[1]
Cádiz, Spain tornado March 1671 Cadiz, Andalucia, Spain - Many fatalities Apparent violent Spanish tornado.[3]
Utrecht, Netherlands tornado 1 August 1674 Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands - - Destroyed part of the Dom Tower of Utrecht.[4]
Rome, Italy tornado 12 June 1749 Rome, Italy - 3 fatalities Destroyed many houses in Rome and Ostia, probably F3 multivortex tornado.[citation needed]
Padua, Italy tornado 17 August 1756 Veneto, Italy - - A likely F3 tornado hit the city of Padua, heavy damaging masonry buildings, with leaded roofs thrown several kilometers away.[citation needed]
Great Malvern tornado of 1761 14 October 1761 Malvern, Worcestershire, United Kingdom - -
Woldegk, Germany tornado 29 June 1764 Germany 3 1 Small tornado outbreak over Poland and Germany with 1 F5, 1 F3 and 1 F1. The F5 tornado travelled for 35 km with a width of 400-800m. killing 1 person and injuring 3 people. This is one of the most powerful events to have hit the Europe.
Hainichen, Germany tornado 23 April 1800 Germany 1 0 A violent tornado (F5/T 10) caused heavy damages (houses destroyed completely and trees debarked) on a path of 9,5 km in a 50m. wide area injuring 5 people.[citation needed]
Fernhill Heath tornadoes 22 September 1810 Farnborough, Hampshire, England, UK - - Widest known and perhaps strongest British tornadoes[1]
Southsea, England tornado 14 December 1810 Portsmouth, Hampshire, England, UK - - Perhaps strongest British tornado[1]
Seine - Maritime, France tornado 19-20 August 1845 France 3 70 A small outbreak produced 3 tornadoes on France,Netherlands and Germany. An F5 T11 tornado struck Montiville in France killing 70 people and injuring 130 on a 15-30 km path. In Netherlands an F2-F3 tornado caused heavy damages in Zevenbergen and on 20 a tornado struck Trier in Germany.[1]
Sicily, Italy tornadoes December 1851 Sicily, Italy 2 ≈500 fatalities Among deadliest European tornadoes[1]
Middle Poland 31 May 1866 Jarluty Duże, Humięcino 2 ≥7 fatalities, 18 injuries One from deadliest tornado in Poland[5]
Brno, Czech tornado 13 October 1870 Brno, Moravia - - Detailed scientific description by Gregor Mendel[2]
Vienna, Austria tornado 29 June 1873 Vienna, Austria - Many fatalities [citation needed]
Madrid, Spain tornado 12 May 1886 Madrid, Spain 1 47 A powerful F3 tornado struck Madrid. It caused extensive damage to buildings,some of them collapsed killing the occupants, on 12 km path from Carabanchel to Ciudad Lineal with a width of 1 km. It is the deadliest Spanish tornado of last two centuries. (Carabanchel)[6]
Rhineland tornado 1 July 1891 North-Rhineland, Germany 5 3 Tornado outbreak over the central Germany. 3 Tornadoes are unclassified. 1 was an F0 that travelled 12 km from Beeskow to Müllrose (Brandenburg ), 1 instead was a powerful F4 (T9) that brought the total destruction of Anrath, a small village killing 3 people and injuring 100 on a 20 km path. 8 cm. of hail fell near Anrath before the arrival of the tornado[citation needed]
Central Germany 18 March 1897 Germany 5 4 A tornado outbreak produced 5 tornado over cantral Germany. The first tornado hit Gelsenkirchen in contemporary with a strong tornado that destroyed a factory and some houses killing 3 people and injuring 4. An F3 T6 tornado struck Kirberg and other villages on 40 km path killing 1 person. Two other tornadoes struck Stelzen ( Thüringen ) and Fürth am Berg ( Bayern )
Oria tornado 21 September 1897 Oria , Puglia 1 40 A strong tornado struck the villages of Sava and Oria killing 40 people (maybe 70) on a 37 km path and a width of 400-800m. Some houses were destroyed and other buildings were severely damaged. Probably this is a violent F3 tornado.
Koln tornado 7 August 1898 Cologne , Germany 1 3 A violent tornado struck the city of Cologne. The storm began 3 km from the city center, in Zollstock accompanied by hail of 5 cm. The tornado caused heavy damages and was classified as F4 T8. The storm ended just northwest of Wipperfürth after a 38 km path and after killed 3 people and wounded about 100.

20th century[edit]

Event Date Area Tornadoes Casualties Notes
Javaugues, France tornado 2 June 1902 France 1 1 fatality An F3 tornado struck Javaugues and other villages on its 7 km path. With a width of 3 km this is the widest documented tornado that has hit the continent. [1]
1904 Moscow tornado 29 June 1904 Moscow, Russia 1 9 fatalities An F4 T9 tornado struck the eastern part of Moscow causing severe damages along its 42 km path in a densely populated area and with a width of 400-700m. Its killed 9 people and wounded 93.[citation needed]
Barry - Chester, Wales - England tornado 27 October 1913 United Kingdom - Several fatalities Perhaps deadliest British tornadic supercell[citation needed]
Wiener Neustadt, Austria tornado 10 July 1916 Wiener Neustadt, Vienna, Austria - 32 fatalities, 300+ injured Deadliest and strongest known Austrian supercell tornado. (F3/T7)[citation needed]
Southern Netherlands tornado outbreak 26 April 1924 Netherlands ≥3 - [citation needed]
Borculo, Netherlands tornado outbreak 10 August 1925 Netherlands Many 3 fatalities Same outbreak as below[citation needed]
Uetersen, Germany tornado outbreak 10 August 1925 Uetersen 1 1 fatalities Same outbreak as above, tornado (F3)[citation needed]
Lichtenvoorde - Neede - Tubbergen, Netherlands tornado 1 June 1927 Netherlands/Germany - 10 fatalities Possibly multiple tornadoes, T9-T10 damage near Neede[citation needed]
Montello, Italy tornado 24 July 1930 Montello, Veneto, and Friuli in Italy - 23 fatalities This is the strongest tornado[1] in Europe together with the 1845 Montville tornado in France very similar in power. The storm maybe crossed almost the entire province of Treviso even going so far in the province of Pordenone with a total path of about 80 km. The event lasted a total of 84 minutes,but perhaps this was not the only event of the day. The storm arrived to unleash winds near 500 km / h (F5 tornado) and killed 23 people. [6]
Lublin tornado 22 July 1931 Poland - 6 fatalites Described as the F5 but it is uncertain value.[7] [8]
Nurmijärvi - Konginkangas 4 August 1932 Finland - 1 fatality 6 tornadoes (one F3) track 20 km[7]
Kiuruvesi 11 July 1934 Finland - 1 fatality F4 tornado, strongest one in Finland[7]
Loray, Doubs tornado 9 June 1935 Doubs, France - - [citation needed]
Buckinghamshire - Cambridgeshire, England tornadoes 21 May 1950 United Kingdom - - Longest known British tornado/tornado family[1]
Veluwe, Gelderland - Haulerwijk, Friesland, Netherlands tornadoes 23 August 1950 Gelderland - Friesland, Netherlands ≥2 - Strongest recorded tornado in Nederlands, T10 (F5) damage[citation needed] in 50 kilometre long path in Veluwe forest.[citation needed]
Castelo Branco, Portugal tornado 6 November 1954 Portugal - 4 fatalities, 200 injuries [citation needed]
Rawa Mazowiecka and Nowe Miasto tornado 15–16 May 1958 Rawa Mazowiecka and Nowe Miasto in Poland 2 3 fatalities, >100 injuries [9]
Rzeszów, Poland tornado 20 May 1960 South-East Poland near Rzeszów and Tomaszow Lubelski many 4 fatalities [10]
Parma, Italy tornado 4 July 1965 Italy ≥1 25 fatalities, 160 injuries [citation needed]
Western Europe tornado outbreaks of 1967 24–25 June 1967 France - Netherlands - Belgium ≥8 ≥15 fatalities Same storm system produced two destructive outbreaks with fatalities in three countries[citation needed]
German Black Forest tornado 10 July 1968 Germany - 3 fatalities [8]
Nicosia, Cyprus tornadoes 22 December 1969 Cyprus Several 4 fatalities Waterspouts (probably tornadic) came ashore[citation needed]
Venice and Padua, Italy tornado outbreak 11 September 1970 Veneto, Italy Several, up to F4 36 fatalities The tornado outbreak originated near Padua, passed through it and ended in Venice bringing death and havoc [11] [12] [13]
Ameland Island, Netherlands tornado 11 August 1972 Friesland, Netherlands - 7 fatalities, 90 injuries [citation needed]
Christ's Ascension Day outbreak 24 May 1979 Germany 6 - A major outbreak struck especially parts of Eastern Germany with one violent F4 Tornado near Bad Liebenwerda (Brandenburg) where harvesters were flying.
Mid June outbreak 15 June 1980 Central Germany 5 8 fatalities, at least 9 injuries (serious) Some tornadoes struck the Central German States of Thuringia and Saxony-Anhalt. A camp site was severely damaged with some fatalities.
1981 Lithuania tornado 29 May 1981 Eastern Lithuania - - F2, among strongest known Lithuanian tornadoes[9]
Moerdijk, Netherlands tornado 6 October 1981 North Brabant, Netherlands - 17 fatalities NLM CityHopper Flight 431 encountered tornado shortly after takeoff and crashed
Gwynedd - Humberside - Essex tornado outbreak, Wales and England Tornadoes 23 November 1981 United Kingdom 105 0 fatalities Largest known European outbreak[1] though predominately weak tornadoes
1984 Ivanovo-Yaroslavl tornado outbreak 9 June 1984 Western Russia 22 >400 fatalities, 213 injured [1] At least one F5, one F4, and one F3 were in the outbreak that damaged 36 cities and villages, including Tver and Kostroma, in a wide area north of Moscow.[citation needed]
Shel'vov 20 July 1987 Ukraine 1 - F4 tornado that destroyed the town of Shel'vov.[citation needed]
Ameland Island, Netherlands tornado 17 August 1992 Friesland, Netherlands - 1 fatality [citation needed]
Sigüenza, Spain tornado 24 May 1993 Sigüenza, Spain - - F2 damage in a path across the town[citation needed]
Spijkenisse, South-Holland 7 June 1997 Netherlands - F1 Damage on houses, and trees ripped out of the ground[citation needed]
Mikkeli, Rantakylä 12 June 1998 Finland - F3 (track 10 km) destroyed some airport facilities[citation needed]
San Leonardo de Yagüe, Spain tornado 1 June 1999 Spain - - F3 damage and thousands of trees uprooted in a forest near Soria, Spain[citation needed]
Gudar Range, Spain tornado 28 August 1999 Sistema Ibérico, Spain 1+ - F3 tornado in mountainous terrain[10]

21st century[edit]

Event Date Area Tornadoes Casualties Notes
Athens, Greece tornado 27 July 2002 Athens, Greece - - Struck near airport[11]
Romania tornado 12 August 2002 Southeastern Romania - 3 fatalities Intense (F3+), long-track (74+ km path) tornado[12]
Cyprus tornadoes 27 January 2003 Southern Cyprus 4 1 fatality Tornadoes and waterspouts; Limassol worst hit at T4-T5[13]
Cyprus tornado outbreak 22 January 2004 Cyprus 7+ Multiple injuries Severe weather outbreak with several T3-T4 tornadoes and waterspouts[13]
Late June outbreak 23 June 2004 Northern and Eastern Germany 4 8 injuries At least one F1, an F2 and an F3 Tornado caused massive destruction. The villages of Micheln and Trebbichau in Saxony-Anhalt were heavily impacted by one of the most powerful tornadoes in modern German history.
Kontiolahti, Viinijärvi tornadoes[14] 20 August 2004 Finland - - F2 (track 10 km) At least 2 tornadoes
Romania tornadoes 7 May 2005 Romania 3+ - 1 F1, 2 F0 tornadoes associated with bow echo[15]
Garderen tornado 27 July 2005 Garderen, Netherlands 1 - T4 tornado damaging mainly woods, also some damage to property.[citation needed]
2005 Birmingham tornado 28 July 2005 Birmingham, United Kingdom - 30 injuries, 3 of which were serious T4 tornado, briefly became a T5 (sustained F2 tornado on the Fujita scale)
Hamburg, Germany tornado outbreak 27 March 2006 Germany 8 2 fatalities
Central Europe tornado outbreak 20 May 2006 Germany ≥12 Some injuries [citation needed]
Noordwijkerhout tornado 21 May 2006 Noordwijkerhout, Netherlands 1 - T3-T4 tornado causing damage to crops and buildings[citation needed]
August 2006 UK tornado outbreaks 16–18 August 2006 United Kingdom - 8 injuries At least 4 tornadoes[citation needed]
August 2006 Mainland Europe outbreak 21 August 2006 Western Europe - 38 injuries At least 7 confirmed tornadoes, a further 4 unconfirmed others[citation needed]
2006 London tornado 7 December 2006 London, England, UK 1 6 injuries[16]
Cyclone Kyrill tornado outbreak 18 January 2007 Eastern Germany >4 at least one injury (serious) an F2 and three F3 tornadoes struck parts of Saxony-Anhalt and Brandenburg. Some houses were completely destroyed. Path length of the F3 tornado of Lauchhammer: more than 30 km.
Central England tornado outbreak 23 September 2007 Central England - - At least 4 tornadoes reported in Warwickshire, Northamptonshire and West Midlands. [14][dead link]
Salboro (Padua) tornado 6 July 2008 Padua, Veneto, Italy 1 F0 - A small tornado that hit an hurban area[17]
2008 Hautmont tornado 3 August 2008 Hautmont, France - 4 fatalities, 13 injuries Same outbreak as below; F4 damaged several villages[18][19]
Northern Netherlands tornado outbreak 3 August 2008 Friesland, Groningen, Netherlands 2 confirmed, 4 reported - Same outbreak as above; T3-T4 tornadoes caused damage to property[citation needed]
2008 Poland tornado outbreak 15–16 August 2008 Mykanów, Poland 8 confirmed, 11 reported 3 fatalities F3 - F4 tornadoes in Opolskie, Silesian, and Łódzkie Voivodeships
Vallà (Riese Pio X) tornado 6 June 2009 Riese Pio X, Veneto, Italy 1 F3 23 injuries An F3 tornado hit the town of Riese Pio X, notably the suburb of Vallà, with 23 injured people, and other 200 who lost their homes[20][21]
Nicosia tornado September 19, 2009 Nicosia, Cyprus - 17+ injuries 10 homes with serious damage[22]
Chalkidiki, Greece tornado 12 February 2010 Northern Greece - - F2/T3-T4 tornado[23]
Whit Monday outbreak 24 May 2010 Eastern Germany 4 confirmed 1 fatality, 38 injuries F1, F2 and F2+ (possible F3) caused massive destruction in the States of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Brandenburg of at least €250 Million and one fatality
Lichtenvoorde - Vragender - Winterswijk, Netherlands 12 July 2010 Netherlands 1 6 injuries Tornado destroyed church tower in Vragender and Zwarte Cross Festival area in Lichtenvoorde. damage T5-T7, uncertainty about nature of winds, some sources cite a strong derecho as cause of damage.[citation needed]
Veneto tornado outbreak 23 July 2010 Veneto, Italy 3 1 fatality, some injuries 3 tornadoes hit near the cities of Venice, Padua and Vicenza; strong thunderstorms, with downbursts, in other places (a man killed near Verona)[24][25]
Hungary tornado outbreak 16 August 2010 Hungary 3 confirmed - 3 tornadoes, 2 of them likely F2; villages where tornadoes has been reported: Diósjenő, Mezőkövesd, Felsőtárkány
Lumda - Neppermin, Germany 23 August 2010 Germany 5 confirmed - F3 tornado in Lumda & F2 tornado in Neppermin, caused a damage of about €5 Million[citation needed]
Northern Sweden tornado outbreak 4 June 2011 Northern Sweden - At least 3 injuries Several tornadoes reported in the provinces of Ångermanland, Västerbotten, and Norrbotten in northern Sweden. [15][16]
Sachsen - Anhalt, Germany 11 September 2011 Germany 2 - 2 F1 tornadoes confirmed[citation needed]
England and Wales tornadoes 29 November 2011 England and Wales, UK 1 F0, 2 F1 tornadoes 1 injured One tornado in Greater Manchester, England and another in Anglesey, Wales. Later that day, a F1 tornado struck north of Breighton.[citation needed]
Vierlingsbeek/Overloon Tornado 10 May 2012 Netherlands F0 T1 No casualties reported Tornado (partly rainwrapped, probably multi-vortex) Damage to property and crops.
Venice tornado 12 June 2012 Veneto, Italy Likely an F2 tornado No casualties reported A tornado hit the eastern isles of Venice, notably Lido, Sant'Elena and Sant'Erasmo, and the nearby town of Treporti, with several damages to houses, boats, cars/lorries and trees[26][27][28]
French tornado 7 July 2012 France 4 - Tornado in France F0, F0, F1, F1 [29][30][31][32]
Northern Poland tornado outbreak 14 July 2012 Poland - 1 fatality, 10 injuries Tornadoes hit northern Poland.[33] Severe damages to houses and infrastructure. 400 ha of forests was destroyed. Two F3/T6 tornadoes are confirmed.[34]
Valencia tornado 30 September 2012 Spain - 35 injuries The tornado hit a fairground and flattened a Ferris wheel.[35]
Algarve tornadoes 16 November 2012 Algarve in Portugal F3/T6 tornado plus an F0 1 fatality, 13 injuries [36] Two tornadoes hit the coast of the Algarve about 10 km from one another. The strongest of the two hit Silves[37] and Lagoa and was classified by the Portuguese national weather service as F3/T6.[38][39] The weakest, almost certainly an F0, hit Alvor.[40]
Taranto tornado 28 November 2012 Italy 1 1 fatality, 22 injuries A large F2/F3 tornado wreaks destruction in Taranto and Statte (Apulia region)
Emilia tornado outbreak 3 May 2013 Italy 3 13 injuries Small outbreak in Po valley, in province of Modena and Bologna. The first tornado (F2/T5-F3/T6) travelled for 18 km from the countryside, 7 km west of Castelfranco Emilia (Modena) to San Giovanni In Persiceto (3,5 km South West from the city center) injuring some people and causing partial collapse of some houses and lifting cars or truck in to the air . The second tornado (F2) struck San Martino Spino, Mirandola (Modena) causing severe damages on 15 km path. The third tornado hit the ground 3,5 km east from Sala Bolognese (Bologna) and travelled for about 17-18 km in about 10 minutes. This Wedge tornado was the strongest event of the entire outbreak causing extensive damage to some buildings, in some places classified as strong F3. The outbreak caused a lot of damages affecting the areas affected by the earthquake of 2012.
Grezzago (Milano) tornado 29 Jul 2013 Italy 1 15 injuries F2 tornado
Pommertsweiler tornado 19 Aug 2013 Germany 3 27 injuries F1 tornado in Pommertsweiler, 27 injuries on a campsite
Roscommon tornado 12 Feb 2014 Ireland - - F0 tornado
Nonantola tornado 30 Apr 2014 Italy - 5 injuries At least three tornado were sighted. The strongest, a F3 tornado, caused massive damage
Padua tornado 07 Jul 2014 Italy >1 - EF0 tornado[41]
Kariyevo tornado 29 August 2014 Russia , Republic of Bashkortostan 1 2 A wedge F3 tornado struck Kariyevo and Janaul with a total path of 45 km. The storm killed 2 people and injured about 50.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "British & European Tornado Extremes". Tornado and Storm Research Organisation. Retrieved 2012-02-13. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Atmospheric Research 67–68 (2003): Tornadoes within the Czech Republic from early medieval chronicles to the ‘‘internet society’’ Linked 2013-05-21
  3. ^ Gayà, Miquel (Jun 2011). "Tornadoes and severe storms in Spain". Atmos. Res. 100 (4): 334–43. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2010.10.019. 
  4. ^ Hauer, Katrin; N. Pfeifer (Jun 2011). "Reporting on historical severe storms: Two examples of Utrecht (1674) and Abtenau (1796)". Atmos. Res. 100 (4): 580–5. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2010.08.007. 
  5. ^ http://curioza.blogspot.com/2013/06/1866-najbardziej-smiercionosne-tornado.html
  6. ^ Gayà, Miquel (Feb 2007). "The 1886 tornado of Madrid". Atmos. Res. 83 (2-4): 201–10. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2005.10.017. 
  7. ^ a b https://www.escholar.manchester.ac.uk/api/datastream?publicationPid=uk-ac-man-scw:142460&datastreamId=POST-PEER-REVIEW-NON-PUBLISHERS.PDF
  8. ^ Nestle, R. (1969). "Der Tornado vom 10. 7. 1968 im Raum Pforzheim". Meteor. Rundsch. 22: 1–3. 
  9. ^ Marcinoniene, Izolda (Jul–Sep 2003). "Tornadoes in Lithuania in the period of 1950–2002 including analysis of the strongest tornado of 29 May 1981". Atmos. Res. 67-68: 475–84. doi:10.1016/S0169-8095(03)00060-7. 
  10. ^ Homar, V.; M. Gayà; R. Romero; C. Ramis; S. Alonso (Jul–Sep 2003). "Tornadoes over complex terrain: an analysis of the 28th August 1999 tornadic event in eastern Spain". Atmos. Res. 67-68: 301–17. doi:10.1016/S0169-8095(03)00064-4. 
  11. ^ Matsangouras, J.T.; P.T. Nastos (2010). "The 27 July 2002 tornado event in Athens, Greece". Adv. Sci. Res. 4: 9–13. 
  12. ^ Lemon, Leslie R.; A. Stan-Sion (A. Bell), C. Soci, E. Cordoneanu (Jul–Sep 2003). "A strong, long-track, Romanian tornado". Atmos. Res. 67-68: 391–416. doi:10.1016/S0169-8095(03)00063-2. 
  13. ^ a b Sioutas, Michalis; R. Doe; S. Michaelides; M. Christodoulou1; R. Robins (Jan 2006). "Meteorological conditions contributing to the development of severe tornadoes in southern Cyprus". Weather 61 (1): 10–6. doi:10.1256/wea.268.04. 
  14. ^ http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-7774288817480826661&pr=goog-sl
  15. ^ Oprea, I.C.; A. Bell (2009). "Meteorological environment of a tornado outbreak in Southern Romania". Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci. 9: 609–22. doi:10.5194/nhess-9-609-2009. 
  16. ^ "Six hurt as tornado hits London". BBC. 2006-12-07. Retrieved 2011-12-08. 
  17. ^ Tornado at Salboro (Padua)
  18. ^ Mahieu, Pierre; E. Wesolek (Oct 2009). "The Deadly EF-4 Tornado of August 3, 2008, in Northern France". 5th European Conference on Severe Storms. Landshut, Germany: European Severe Storms Laboratory. 
  19. ^ Wesolek, Emmanuel; P. Mahieu (Jun 2011). "The F4 tornado of August 3, 2008, in Northern France: Case study of a tornadic storm in a low CAPE environment". Atmos. Res. 100 (4): 649–56. doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2010.09.003. 
  20. ^ Tornado F3 in Vallà di Riese Pio X
  21. ^ Tornado devastates Riese Pio X
  22. ^ http://www.desastres.org/noticias.php?id=21092009-12
  23. ^ Matsangouras, I.T.; P.T. Nastos and I. Pytharoulis (2011). "Synoptic-mesoscale analysis and numerical modeling of a tornado event on 12 February 2010 in northern Greece". Adv. Sci. Res. 6: 187–94. doi:10.5194/asr-6-187-2011. 
  24. ^ Tornadoes in Venice, Vicenza and Padua, a man killed in Verona
  25. ^ Tornado in the Padua area, damages and injuries
  26. ^ Tornado at Lido and Sant'Elena
  27. ^ Tornado in Venice
  28. ^ Tornado in Venice and on the Venetian Coast: report
  29. ^ Keraunos: Tornade à Montviette (14) le 7 juillet 2012 Re-linked 21/05/2013
  30. ^ Keraunos: Tornade à Verderel-lès-Sauqueuse (60) le 7 juillet 2012 Re-linked 2013-05-21
  31. ^ Keraunos: Tornade à Saint-Pierre-de-Manneville (76) le 7 juillet 2012 Re-linked 2013-05-21
  32. ^ Keraunos: Tornade à Fervaques (14) le 7 juillet 2012 Re-linked 2013-05-21
  33. ^ "Poland shocked by tornadoes, one dead". Reuters. 15 July 2012. 
  34. ^ [1]
  35. ^ "35 injured as tornado knocks over Ferris wheel at fairground in Spain", Independent.ie
  36. ^ [2]
  37. ^ Tornado in Silves LIVE (video footage)
  38. ^ [3],
  39. ^ [4],
  40. ^ [5],
  41. ^ "Vento a 108 chilometri orari, decine di fulmini: ecco i dati del nubifragio". il Mattino di Padova. Retrieved 8 July 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]