Udmurtia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses of "Udmurtia", see Udmurtia (disambiguation).
Udmurt Republic
Удмуртская Республика (Russian)
Удмурт Элькун (Udmurt)
—  Republic  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Anthem: National Anthem of the Udmurt Republic
Coordinates: 57°17′N 52°45′E / 57.283°N 52.750°E / 57.283; 52.750Coordinates: 57°17′N 52°45′E / 57.283°N 52.750°E / 57.283; 52.750
Political status
Country  Russia
Federal district Volga[1]
Economic region Urals[2]
Established November 4, 1920
Capital Izhevsk
Government (as of February 2014)
 - President[4] Alexander Solovyov (acting)[3]
 - Legislature State Council[4]
Statistics
Area [5]
 - Total 42,100 km2 (16,300 sq mi)
Area rank 57th
Population (2010 Census)[6]
 - Total 1,521,420
 - Rank 30th
 - Density[7] 36.14 /km2 (93.6 /sq mi)
 - Urban 69.2%
 - Rural 30.8%
Time zone(s) MSK (UTC+04:00)[8]
ISO 3166-2 RU-UD
License plates 18
Official languages Russian;[9] Udmurt[10]
Official website

Udmurtia (Russian: Удму́ртия, tr. Udmurtiya; IPA: [ʊˈdmurtʲɪjə]; Udmurt: Удмуртия), or the Udmurt Republic (Russian: Удму́ртская Pеспу́блика, tr. Udmurtskaya Respublika; IPA: [ʊˈdmurtskəjə rʲɪsˈpublʲɪkə]; Udmurt: Удмурт Элькун) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). Its capital is the city of Izhevsk. Population: 1,521,420 (2010 Census).[6]

History[edit]

Map of the Udmurt Republic
Part of a series on the
History of Udmurtia
Coat of arms of the Udmurt Republic

The Udmurt language is a member of the Permic branch of the Uralic family, which originated in the late Stone Age in the Ural region. Proto-Udmurts diverged from the Permic group at the end of the first millennium CE. Originally, the Proto-Udmurts lived in the middle Kama River region, then began to settle around the mouth of the Vyatka River.

20th century[edit]

On November 4, 1920, Votsk Autonomous Oblast was formed. On January 1, 1932, it was renamed Udmurt Autonomous Oblast, which was then reorganized into the Udmurt ASSR on December 28, 1934. During World War II, many industrial factories were evacuated from Ukraine and western borderlands to Udmurtia.

The Udmurt Republic in its present form has existed since September 20, 1990.

Geography[edit]

The republic is located in the eastern portion of the Eastern European Plain, between the Kama and Vyatka Rivers.

Borders
Kind Polity or geographical feature Direction
Internal Kirov Oblast SW/W/NW/N
Perm Krai NE/E
Republic of Bashkortostan SE
Republic of Tatarstan S/SW
Water Votkinsk Reservoir E
  • Highest point: 332 m (1,089 ft)
  • Maximum North-South distance:320 kilometers (200 mi)
  • Maximum East-West distance: 200 kilometers (120 mi)

Rivers[edit]

Major rivers include:

Natural resources[edit]

The republic's natural resources include oil, peat, mineral waters, and more. Oil reserves are estimated to be 820 million tons (as of 2002). Approximately 7–8 million tons are extracted annually.[citation needed]

Forests cover over 40% of the republic's territory. Most of the forests are coniferous.[citation needed]

Climate[edit]

The republic has a moderate continental climate, with warm summers and cold winters with a lot of snow.

18.3 °C (64.9 °F)

Average temperatures
Month Average temperature
January −14.5 °C (5.9 °F)
July

Administrative divisions[edit]

Demographics[edit]

Population: 1,521,420 (2010);[6] 1,570,316 (2002);[11] 1,609,003 (1989).[12]

Although as of 2007 the population was declining, the decline was more pronounced in urban areas. Out of the 19,667 births reported in 2007, 12,631 were in urban areas (11.86 per 1000) and 7,036 were in rural areas (14.88 per 1000). Birth rates for rural areas are 25% higher than that of urban areas. Of the total of 21,727 deaths, 14,366 were reported in urban areas (13.49 per 1000) and 7,361 were in rural areas (15.56 per 1000). Natural decline of population was measured at -0.16% for urban areas and an insignificant -0.07% for rural areas (average for Russia was -0.33% in 2007).[13]

As of 2010, the area has recorded slight population growth.

Vital statistics[edit]

Source[14]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total fertility rate
1970 1 421 23 286 13 265 10 021 16.4 9.3 7.1
1975 1 459 26 497 14 666 11 831 18.2 10.1 8.1
1980 1 508 27 601 16 862 10 739 18.3 11.2 7.1
1985 1 562 29 343 17 553 11 790 18.8 11.2 7.5
1990 1 614 24 345 15 816 8 529 15.1 9.8 5.3
1995 1 615 15 484 22 445 - 6 961 9.6 13.9 - 4.3
2000 1 592 16 256 21 852 - 5 596 10.2 13.7 - 3.5
2005 1 543 17 190 24 006 - 6 816 11.1 15.6 - 4.4
2010 1 522 21 684 21 100 584 14.3 13.9 0.4 1,78
2011 1 519 21 905 20 358 1 547 14.4 13.4 1.0 1,83
2012 1 518 23 225 19 526 3 699 15.3 12.9 2.4 1,98
2013 1 517 22 232 19 456 2 776 14.6 12.8 1.8 1,93(e)

TFR source[15]

Ethnic groups[edit]

According to the 2010 Census,[6] Russians make up 62.2% of the republic's population, while the ethnic Udmurts only make up 28%. Other groups include Tatars (6.7%), Ukrainians (0.6%), Mari (0.6%), and a host of smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the republic's total population.

Ethnic
group
1926 Census 1939 Census 1959 Census 1970 Census 1979 Census 1989 Census 2002 Census 2010 Census1
Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  %
Udmurts 395,607 52.3% 480,014 39.4% 475,913 35.6% 484,168 34.2% 479,702 32.1% 496,522 30.9% 460,584 29.3% 410,584 28.0%
Besermyan 9,200 1.2% 2,998 0.2% 2,111 0.1%
Russians 327,493 43.3% 679,294 55.7% 758,770 56.8% 809,563 57.1% 870,270 58.3% 945,216 58.9% 944,108 60.1% 912,539 62.2%
Tatars 19,248 2.5% 40,561 3.3% 71,930 5.4% 87,150 6.1% 99,139 6.6% 110,490 6.9% 109,218 7.0% 98,831 6.7%
Others 4,716 0.6% 19,481 1.6% 30,314 2.3% 36,794 2.6% 43,061 2.9% 53,435 3.3% 53,408 3.4% 42,558 2.9%
1 54,797 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[16]

Over two thirds of the world population of Udmurts live in the republic.[17]

Religion[edit]



Circle frame.svg

Religion in Udmurtia (2012)[18][19]

  Russian Orthodox (33.1%)
  Unaffiliated Christian (5%)
  Muslim (4%)
  Rodnover and Udmurt Vos (2%)
  Other Orthodox (2%)
  Protestant (1%)
  Old Believers (1%)
  Spiritual but not religious (29%)
  Atheist (19%)
  Other or undeclared (3.9%)

According to a 2012 official survey,[18] 33.1% of the population of Udmurtia adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 5% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 2% adheres to other Orthodox Churches, 4% are Muslims, 2% of the population adheres to Slavic Rodnovery (Slavic Neopaganism) or to Udmurt Vos (Udmurt Neopaganism), 1% to forms of Protestantism, 1% to Starovery (Old Believers). In addition, 29% of the population deems itself to be "spiritual but not religious", 19% is atheist, and 3.9% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[18]

Politics[edit]

The head of the government is the President, who is selected by the President of Russia. In February 2009 Alexander Volkov was appointed as the Udmurtia President.[3]

Culture[edit]

St. Michael's Cathedral is the main[citation needed] church of Udmurtia

In Udmurtia, there are eight professional theaters, a Philharmonic Society, and more than ten state and numerous public museums, which tell of the history and culture of Udmurtia and its people, like the Museum of History and Culture in Sarapul, or the Tchaikovsky Museum in Votkinsk. One of the oldest arms museums is located in Izhevsk, as well as the newer Kalashnikov Museum (dedicated in November 2004), which has recently become a general small-arms museum. Since the breakup of the Soviet Union a new, pan-Uralic cultural movement has evolved called "Ethnofuturism".[20]

Education[edit]

Higher education facilities include the Udmurt State University and Izhevsk State Technical University.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  2. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  3. ^ a b "Михаил Бабич представил исполняющего обязанности Главы Удмуртии". Official website of the Udmurt Republic. Retrieved February 20, 2014. 
  4. ^ a b Constitution, Article 9.1
  5. ^ "GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION". Udmurtia Official. Retrieved 18 November 2012. 
  6. ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  7. ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
  8. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  9. ^ Official on the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  10. ^ Constitution, Article 8
  11. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  12. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  13. ^ Statistics
  14. ^ http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/publications/catalog/doc_1137674209312
  15. ^ http://www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/b12_111/Main.htm
  16. ^ http://www.perepis-2010.ru/news/detail.php?ID=6936
  17. ^ "General Information". Land and People. Udmurtia Official. Retrieved 22 March 2014. 
  18. ^ a b c Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
  19. ^ 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.
  20. ^ Ethnofuturism

References[edit]

  • №663-XII 7 декабря 1994 г. «Конституция Удмуртской Республики», в ред. Закона №62-РЗ от 22 ноября 2007 г. (#663-XII December 7, 1994 Constitution of the Udmurt Republic, as amended by the Law #62-RZ of November 22, 2007. ).

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]