Foreign relations of Poland
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (August 2008)|
|This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
The Republic of Poland is a Central European country and member of the European Union and NATO, among others. In recent years, Poland has extended its responsibilities and position in European and Western affairs, supporting and establishing friendly foreign relations with both the West and with numerous European countries.
Integration with the West and Europe
After regaining independence in 1989, Poland has forged ahead on its economic reintegration with the Western world. Poland also has been an active nation in advocating European integration.
In 1994, Poland became an associate member of the European Union (EU) and its defensive arm, the Western European Union (WEU). In 1996, Poland achieved full OECD membership and submitted preliminary documentation for full EU membership. In 1997, Poland was invited in the first wave of NATO policy enlargement at the July 1997 NATO Summit in Madrid, Spain. In March 1999, Poland became a full member of NATO. Poland promoted its NATO candidacy through energetic participation in the Partnership for Peace (PfP) program and through intensified individual dialogue with NATO. Poland formally joined the European Union in May 2004, along with the other members of the Visegrád group.
Poland was a part of the multinational force in Iraq.
Establishing relationships with European countries
The collapse of the Soviet Union led to the establishment of seven new sovereign states in Poland's immediate neighborhood (Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia), of which Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia (through the Kaliningrad Oblast) border Poland. Poland has actively pursued good relations with all its neighboring countries, signing friendship treaties replacing links severed by the collapse of the Warsaw Pact. The Poles have forged special relationships with Lithuania and particularly Ukraine in an effort to firmly anchor these states to the West.[clarification needed]
Due to its tragic historical experience with a repeating pattern of disloyal allies and simultaneous aggression of powerful neighbors (e.g., Partitions of Poland, Second World War), Polish foreign policy pursues close cooperation with a strong partner, one apt enough to give strong military support in times of critical situations. This creates the background of Poland's tight relations with the USA and their sensitivity in relations towards its partner within the European Union, Germany. At the same time, the equally burdened attitude towards Russia results in very tense diplomatic relations, which have been constantly worsening since Vladimir Putin's rise to power. This is an important factor for the special attention Poland pays to the political emancipation[clarification needed] of all its Eastern neighbors: Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine.
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Albania||See Albania–Poland relations|
|Azerbaijan||1991||See Azerbaijan-Poland relations|
|Belarus||1992-03-02||See Poland–Belarus relations
|Cyprus||1960s||See Cyprus–Poland relations|
|Czech Republic||See Poland – Czech Republic relations|
|Denmark||See Denmark–Poland relations
Denmark and Poland have still not agreed on the formal establishment of the maritime border between the two countries. Denmark supports a border half-way between the two countries, but Poland wants to be awarded an even greater share of the Baltic Sea, since Poland has a much longer coastline than the Danish island of Bornholm. The issue has gained significance alongside Russia's plans to build the controversial Nord Stream natural gas pipeline through the disputed area.
|Estonia||1991-09||See Estonia–Poland relations
|Finland||1919-03-08||See Foreign relations of Finland|
|France||See France–Poland relations
Polish-French relations date several centuries, although they became really relevant only with times of French Revolution and reign of Napoleon I. Poles have been allies of Napoleon; large Polish community settled in France in the 19th century, and Poles and French were also allies during the interwar period. The official relations, having cooled down during the Cold War, have improved since the fall of communism. Currently both countries are part of the European Union and NATO.
|Georgia||1992-04-28||See Georgia–Poland relations|
|Germany||See German–Polish relations
During the Cold War, communist Poland had good relations with East Germany, but had strained relations with West Germany. After the fall of communism, Poland and the reunited Germany have had a mostly positive but occasionally strained relationship due to some political issues. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, Germany has been a proponent of Poland's participation in NATO and the European Union. The Polish-German border is 467 km long.
|Greece||See Foreign relations of Greece|
|Hungary||See Hungary–Poland relations
Relations between the two states date back from the Middle Ages. For a long time, they enjoy traditional close friendship. Hungary has an embassy in Warsaw, a general consulate in Kraków and 2 honorary consualtes (in Łódź and Poznań). Poland has an embassy in Budapest.
|Ireland||See Foreign relations of the Republic of Ireland|
|Italy||See Foreign relations of Italy|
|Latvia||1991-08-30||See Latvia–Poland relations
|Lithuania||See Lithuania–Poland relations
The fall of communism in the years of 1989-1991 led to a formal reestablishment of relations by the Polish and Lithuanian states. Poland was highly supportive of the Lithuanian independence, and became one of the first countries to recognize independent Lithuania. Despite that, there was a relative crisis in the early 1990s, due to Lithuanian mistreatment of Polish minority, and Lithuanian suspicious that Poland would want to put Lithuania under its sphere of influence. After a few years, as the situation normalized, Polish-Lithuanian relations have been steadily improving over the past two decades, with both countries joining the NATO and European Union.
Lithuania has an embassy in Warsaw. Poland has an embassy in Vilnius, a consulate general in Sejny and an honorary consulate in Klaipėda. There are around 250,000 Poles living in Lithuania and around 25,000 ethnic Lithuanians living in Poland. Both countries are full members of the Council of the Baltic Sea States. Both countries share a common border of 103 km.
|Romania||1919-02-09||See Poland–Romania relations|
|Russia||See Poland–Russia relations
In recent years, relations with Russia have worsened considerably. Poland responded with strong disapproval towards the 2008 Georgian Crisis, in which a military invasion of Georgia was led by Russia. Georgia is a former USSR republic, Poland was a member of the Eastern Bloc, and Poland stated its support for Georgia and condemned Russia's actions. The Polish believed the invasion was carried out by the Russians in an attempt to reestablish and reassert its dominance over its former republics. Since 2009, however, relations with Russia somewhat improved - despite the plane accident where the former Polish president died on what is still considered a controversial event. After the 2014 Crimean crisis the relations deteriorated again, as Poland strongly condemned Russian actions against Ukraine.
|Serbia||1919||See Poland–Serbia relations
|Slovakia||1993||See Poland–Slovakia relations|
|Ukraine||See Poland–Ukraine relations
Both countries share a border of about 529 km. Poland's acceptance of the Schengen Agreement created problems with the Ukrainian border traffic. On July 1, 2009 an agreement on local border traffic between the two country's came into effect. This agreement enables Ukrainian citizens living in border regions to cross the Polish frontier according to a liberalized procedure.
|United Kingdom||See Poland – United Kingdom relations
During the cold war Poland retained a largely negative view of Britain as a sluggish ally of Poland during World War II, later acceptance of neglecting Poland in the international arena and placing it in communist influences. In communist times the UK was a part of the NATO block, so consequently it was considered by the communists as natural enemy of "communist block". British efforts meanwhile were focussed at trying to break Poland off from the Warsaw Pact and encouraging reforms in the country. In the 1990s and 2000s democratic Poland has maintained close relations with Britain; both in defence matters and within the EU; Britain being one of only a few countries allowing equal rights to Polish workers upon their accession in 2004.
Rest of world
|Country||Formal Relations Began||Notes|
|Canada||1935||See Canada–Poland relations
|India||See India–Poland relations
Historically, relations have generally been close and friendly, characterized by understanding and cooperation on international front.
|Israel||See Israel–Poland relations
Poland broke off relations with Israel after the Six-Day War of 1967, following most other countries of the Soviet Union controlled Eastern Bloc. Poland was the first Eastern bloc country to recognize Israel again in 1986. Full diplomatic relations have been reestablished in 1990, after the communist People's Republic of Poland was transformed into modern, democratic Poland. Government relations between Poland and Israel are steadily improving, resulting in the mutual visits of presidents and the ministers of foreign affairs.
|Malaysia||See Malaysia–Poland relations|
|Mexico||26 February, 1928||See Mexico–Poland relations
|North Korea||See Poland–North Korea relations
Poland maintains its embassy in Pyongyang and DPRK maintains its embassy in Warsaw. As of 2009, Republic of Poland and DPRK signed 16 bilateral treaties, 12 as People's Republic of Poland and 4 as Republic of Poland
|United States||See Poland–United States relations
A tighter security alliance with the United States was announced in the middle of the Georgian crisis as an agreement between the two countries was reached to allow the US to install and operate an interceptor missile defense shield, a move which Russia sees explicitly targeting it and which it stated made Poland "a legit military target." A high-ranking Russian military official said, "Poland in deploying [the US system] opens itself to a nuclear strike."
- List of diplomatic missions in Poland
- List of diplomatic missions of Poland
- Polish involvement in the 2003 invasion of Iraq
- Canada–Poland relations
- Israel–Poland relations
- "Austrian embassy in Budapest (in German and Polish only)". Bmeia.gv.at. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- "Polish embassy in Vienna (in German and Polish only)". Wien.polemb.net. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- "Polish embassy in Yerevan (in Armenian and Polish only)". Erewan.polemb.net. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- "Embassy of Belarus in Poland" belembassy.org'.' Retrieved 26 March 2009.
- "Embassy Belarus in Poland" belembassy.org'.' Retrieved 26 March 2009.
- "Embassy of Poland in Belarus" minsk.polemb.net'.' Retrieved 26 March 2009.
- Bulgarian embassy in Warsaw[dead link]
- "Polish embassy in Sofia". Polamba-bg.org. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- "Croatian embassy in Warsaw (in Croatian and Polish only)". Pl.mfa.hr. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- "Embassy of the Republic of Poland in Nicosia". Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej. Retrieved 2009-07-01.
- "Poland - Embassy of the Republic of Poland (Praha 1)" mzv.cz'.' Retrieved 29 March 2009.
- "POLAND - Embassy of the Czech Republic in POLAND" mzv.cz'.' Retrieved 29 March 2009.
- "Estonian embassy in Warsaw". Estemb.pl. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- "Polish embassy in Tallinn". Tallinn.polemb.net. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- "Polish embassy in Helsinki (in Finnish and Polish only)". Helsinki.polemb.net. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- (Polish) Informacje o Polsce - informacje ogólne. Page gives Polish PWN Encyklopedia as reference.
- "Latvian embassy in Warsaw (in Latvian and Polish only)". Am.gov.lv. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- "Polish embassy in Riga". Ryga.polemb.net. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- Stephen R. Burant and Voytek Zubek, Eastern Europe's Old Memories and New Realities: Resurrecting the Polish-lithuanian Union, East European Politics and Societies 1993; 7; 370, online
- Polish foreign relations with the former Soviet Republics from the mid-1990s perspective
- "Polish embassy in Bucharest". Bukareszt.polemb.net. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- "Romanian embassy in Warsaw". Varsovia.mae.ro. 2010-12-17. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- Polish embassy in Bratislava
- "Slovak embassy in Warsaw (in Polish and Slovakian only)". Ambasada-slowacji.pl. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- Local Border Traffic Agreement With Poland Takes Effect, Ukrainian News Agency (July 1, 2009)
- The New Atlanticist: Poland’s Foreign and Security Policy Priorities, pp.80-84, by Kerry Longhurst and Marcin Zaborowski, from The Royal Institute of International Affairs, first published 2007 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd., ISBN 978-1-4051-2646-5 (hardback), ISBN 978-1-4051-2645-8 (paperback).
- "Polish embassy in Buenos Aires (in Polish and Spanish only)". Buenosaires.polemb.net. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- "Ambasada Brazylii w Warszawie". Brasil.org.pl. 2009-05-18. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- "Embaixada da República da Polônia". Buenosaires.polemb.net. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- "Mensagem do Embaixador". Brazylia.polemb.net. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- Canadian embassy in Warsaw
- "Polish embassy in Ottawa". Ottawa.polemb.net. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- "Polish embassy in Bogotá (in Polish and Spanish only)". Retrieved 2013-11-29.
- "Indo-Polish relations". Embassy of India in Poland. Retrieved 2008-10-10.
- "CEEOL Yearbook of Polish Foreign Policy (English Edition) , Issue 01 /2006". Ceeol.com. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- "Official Website of Embassy of Malaysia, Warsaw". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Malaysia. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- "Embassy of the Republic of Poland in Kuala Lumpur". Poland Embassy, Kuala Lumpur. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- Raziah Geneid Mahmud. "Malaysia & Poland Ties". Raziah Geneid. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- Embassy of Mexico in Warsaw
- Embassy of Poland Mexico City
- "Ministerstwo Spraw Zagranicznych Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej". Msz.gov.pl. Retrieved 2010-12-25.
- "Rice to visit Poland to sign missile shield deal". AFP. August 18, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
- Bhadrakumar, M.K. (August 18, 2008). "China seeks Caucasian crisis windfall". Asia Times Online. Retrieved 2008-08-18.
- Fedorowicz, Krzysztof (July 2007). "National Identity and National Interest in Polish Eastern Policy, 1989-2004". Nationalities Papers 35 (3): 537–553. doi:10.1080/00905990701368761.