Triborough Bridge

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Robert F. Kennedy Bridge
(Triborough Bridge)
Triborough Bridge and Hell Gate New York City Queens-edit.jpg
Aerial view of the Queens-Wards Island span of the Triborough Bridge, over the East River; Queens is in the foreground
Official name Robert F. Kennedy Bridge
Other name(s) Triborough Bridge, RFK Triborough Bridge, Triboro Bridge
Carries 8 lanes of I-278
6 lanes of NY 900G
Crosses East River, Harlem River and Bronx Kill
Locale New York City, United States
Maintained by MTA Bridges and Tunnels
Design Suspension bridge, lift bridge, and truss bridge
Total length 2,780 feet (850 m) (Suspension span)
770 feet (230 m) (Lift span)
1,600 feet (490 m) (Truss span)
Width 98 feet (30 m) (Suspension span)
Longest span 1,380 feet (420 m) (Suspension span)
310 feet (94 m) (Lift span)
383 feet (117 m) (Truss span)
Vertical clearance 14 feet 6 inches (4.42 m), but trucks onbound from Manhattan are limited to 13 feet 10 inches (4.22 m)
Clearance below 143 feet (44 m) (Suspension span)
135 feet (41 m) (when raised) (Lift span)
55 feet (17 m) (Truss span)
Opened July 11, 1936; 77 years ago (1936-07-11)
Toll $7.50 for cash; $5.33 for New York State E-ZPass
Daily traffic 165,670 (Suspension span, 2006)
87,606 (Lift span, 2010)[1]
79,996 (Truss span, 2010)[1]
Triborough Bridge is located in New York City
Triborough Bridge
Point where the three spans meet

The Triborough Bridge, renamed the Robert F. Kennedy Bridge in 2008, and sometimes referred to as the RFK Triborough Bridge, is a complex of three separate bridges in New York City, United States, carrying Interstate 278 and New York State Route 900G. Spanning the Harlem River, the Bronx Kill, and the Hell Gate (a strait of the East River), the bridges connect the boroughs of Manhattan, Queens, and the Bronx via Randalls and Wards Islands, which are joined by landfill.

The bridge is owned and operated by the MTA Bridges and Tunnels, part of the Metropolitan Transportation Authority.

History[edit]

Plans for connecting Manhattan, Queens and the Bronx were first announced by Edward A. Byrne, chief engineer of the New York City Department of Plant and Structures, in 1916.[2] While such a bridge complex's construction had long been recommended by local officials, the project failed to receive funding until 1925, when the city appropriated money for surveys, test borings and structural plans.

Location of the bridge in New York City
Art Deco saddle housing

Construction began on Black Friday in 1929, but soon the Triborough project's outlook began to look bleak. Othmar Ammann, who had collapsed the original design's two-deck roadway into one, requiring lighter towers, and thus, lighter piers, saving $10 million on the towers alone, was enlisted again to help guide the project. Using New Deal money, it was resurrected in the early 1930s by Robert Moses, who created the Triborough Bridge Authority to fund, build and operate it. The completed structure was opened to traffic on July 11, 1936.

The total cost of the bridge was more than $60 million, one of the largest public works projects of the Great Depression, more expensive even than the Hoover Dam.[3] The structure used concrete from factories from Maine to Mississippi. To make the formwork for pouring the concrete, a whole forest on the Pacific Coast was cut down.[4]

The American Society of Civil Engineers designated the Triborough Bridge Project as a National Historic Civil Engineering Landmark in 1986.[5] Motorists were first able to pay with E-ZPass in lanes for automatic coin machines at the Randalls Island toll plazas on August 21, 1996.[6]

At some point in the past, a sign on the bridge informed travelers, "In event of attack, drive off bridge," New York Times columnist William Safire wrote in 2008. The "somewhat macabre sign", he wrote, must have "drawn a wry smile from millions of motorists."[7]

On November 19, 2008, the Triborough Bridge was officially renamed after Robert F. Kennedy at the request of the Kennedy family.[8] Forty years had passed since the New York United States Senator and former U.S. Attorney General had been assassinated during a 1968 presidential bid.[9][10][11] Many traffic and news reports have come to commonly refer to the bridge as the "RFK Triborough Bridge" to avoid confusion among residents long accustomed to its original name.[12][13]

On May 5, 2010, the New York City Police Department closed the bridge and sent in the bomb squad to investigate a U-Haul truck from which a man had reportedly fled. This investigation came days after a failed attempt at a car bombing in Times Square. A short time later, the NYPD deemed this incident nonthreatening and reopened the bridge.[14][15]

Usage[edit]

The toll revenues from the Triborough Bridge pay for a portion of the public transit subsidy for the New York City Transit Authority and the commuter railroads.[16] The bridge carries approximately 200,000 vehicles per day.

The bridge has sidewalks in all three legs where the TBTA officially requires bicyclists to walk their bicycles across[17] due to safety concerns.[18] However, the signs stating this requirement have been usually ignored by bicyclists,[19] while the New York City Government has recommended that the TBTA should reassess this kind of bicycling ban.[20] Stairs on the 2 km (1.2 mi) Queens leg impede handicapped access. The Queens stairway along the southern side was demolished at the beginning of the 21st century, thus isolating that walkway, but the ramp of the Wards Island end of the walkway along the northern side was improved in 2007.[citation needed] The two sidewalks of the Bronx span are connected to only one ramp at the Randalls Island end.[citation needed]

The East River suspension bridge
The Harlem River lift bridge
Bronx Kill crossing

Public transportation[edit]

The Triborough Bridge carries the M35, M60 and X80 bus routes operated by MTA New York City Transit, and nine express bus routes operated by the MTA Bus Company, the BxM1, BxM2, BxM6, BxM7, BxM8, BxM9, BxM10, BxM11, BxM18, and X81.

The three sections of the bridge[edit]

East River suspension bridge (I-278)[edit]

  • Span crosses the East River at the Hell Gate between Queens and Wards Island
  • Connects to Grand Central Parkway and Brooklyn–Queens Expressway
  • Length of main span: 1,380 feet (421 m)
  • Length of each side span: 700 feet (213 m)
  • Length, anchorage to anchorage: 2,780 feet (847 m)
  • Width of bridge: 98 feet (30 m)
  • Number of traffic lanes: 8 lanes
  • Height of towers above mean high water: 315 feet (96 m)
  • Clearance at center above mean high water: 143 feet (44 m)
  • Number of sidewalks: 1

Harlem River lift bridge (NY 900G)[edit]

  • Span crosses the Harlem River between Manhattan and Randalls Islands
  • Connects to Harlem River Drive, FDR Drive, and 125th Street
  • Length of main lift-truss span: 310 feet (94 m)
  • Length of each side truss span: 230 feet (70 m)
  • Length, anchorage to anchorage: 770 feet (235 m)
  • Height of towers: 210 feet (64 m)
  • Clearance of lift span above mean high water: 55 feet (17 m)
  • Clearance of lift span in raised position: 135 feet (41 m)
  • Number of traffic lanes: 6 lanes
  • Number of sidewalks: 2 (1 on each side)

Bronx Kill crossing (I-278)[edit]

  • Span crosses the Bronx Kill between The Bronx and Randalls Island
  • Connects to Major Deegan Expressway and Bruckner Expressway
  • Length of main truss span: 383 feet (117 m)
  • Length of approach truss span: 1,217 feet (371 m)
  • Length, anchorage to anchorage: 1,600 feet (488 m)
  • Clearance of truss span above mean high water: 55 feet (17 m)
  • Number of traffic lanes: 8 lanes
  • Number of sidewalks: 2 (1 on each side)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes
  1. ^ a b "2010 Traffic Data Report for New York State" (PDF). New York State Department of Transportation. Appendix C. Retrieved February 27, 2010. 
  2. ^ "Triboro Plaza". New York City Department of Parks & Recreation. Retrieved February 25, 2010. 
  3. ^ Roberts, Sam (July 11, 2006). "Reappraising a Landmark Bridge, and the Visionary Behind It". The New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 2010. 
  4. ^ Caro, Robert (1974). The Power Broker. New York: Vintage Books. p. 386. ISBN 0-394-72024-5. 
  5. ^ "Robert F. Kennedy Memorial Bridge". ASCE Metropolitan Section. Retrieved February 25, 2010. 
  6. ^ Purdy, Matthew (August 22, 1996). "Drivers Give Passing Grade To E-Z Pass In Major Test". The New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 2010. 
  7. ^ Safire, William (July 13, 2008). "On Language: Dead End". The New York Times. Retrieved December 4, 2008. 
  8. ^ Gershman, Jacob (January 8, 2008). "Enduring Wish May Come True in RFK Bridge". The New York Sun. Retrieved January 9, 2008. 
  9. ^ "Triborough Bridge may be renamed for Robert F. Kennedy". Daily News (New York). Associated Press. January 8, 2008. Retrieved January 9, 2008. 
  10. ^ "Triborough Bridge Renamed Robert F. Kennedy Bridge" (Press release). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. November 21, 2008. Retrieved December 4, 2008. 
  11. ^ Chan, Sewell (November 19, 2008). "The Triborough Is Officially the R.F.K. Bridge". The New York Times. Retrieved December 4, 2008. 
  12. ^ de Kretser, Leela (May 6, 2010). "U-Haul Abandoned on R.F.K.-Triborough Bridge". DNAinfo. Retrieved December 5, 2011. 
  13. ^ Schlussel, Debbie (May 6, 2010). "Testing the System... Again: RFK Triborough Bridge U-Haul an Obvious Dry Run". www.debbieschlussel.com. Retrieved December 5, 2011. 
  14. ^ "New York shuts Triborough Bridge after truck found abandoned". The Washington Post. Reuters. May 5, 2010. Retrieved August 27, 2010. 
  15. ^ Panagi, Georgia (July 13, 2011). "RFK/Triborough Bridge turns 75". Queens Courier. Retrieved December 5, 2011. 
  16. ^ Steinhauer, Jennifer (February 13, 1994). "F.Y.I.". The New York Times. Retrieved February 25, 2010. 
  17. ^ "Rules and Regulations Governing the Use of the Triborough Bridge and Tunnel Authority Facilities" (PDF). MTA Bridges & Tunnels. October 1, 2003. Section 1022.1(e). Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  18. ^ "MTA Bike & Ride". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  19. ^ "New York City Bicycle Master Plan" (PDF). New York City Department of City Planning. May 1997. p. 16. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 
  20. ^ "New York City Bicycle Master Plan" (PDF). New York City Department of City Planning. May 1997. p. 57. Retrieved February 20, 2010. 

External links[edit]