Swiss French

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Swiss French
suisse romand
Native to Switzerland, northeast France
Native speakers
1.5 million  (2000 census)[1]
Official status
Official language in
  Switzerland (as French)
Language codes
ISO 639-3
The French-speaking part of Switzerland is shown in green on this map.
Map of the Arpitan language area, historical language spoken in Romandie, with place names in arpitan and historic political divisions.

Swiss French (French: suisse romand) is the variety of French spoken in the French-speaking area of Switzerland known as Romandie. Swiss French is distinct from Franco-Provençal (Arpitan), the closely related Romance language originally spoken in Romandie. Swiss French dialects include Frainc-Comtou.

The differences between Swiss French and Parisian French are minor and mostly lexical: a Swiss French speaker would have no trouble understanding a French speaker, while a French speaker would encounter only a few unfamiliar words while listening to a Swiss French speaker. Swiss French differs from the French of France to a far lesser extent than Swiss German differs from standard German. This was not always the case, as most of the dialects spoken in the Romandie died out and thus are no longer spoken or used.

There is not a single standardized Swiss French language: different cantons (or even different towns in some cases) will use different vocabulary, often derived from the local regional language or from German, since Switzerland is predominantly German-speaking.
Many Standard French terms are used in certain cantons such as Geneva due to their proximity to the French border.

Differences between Swiss French and standard French[edit]

Many differences between Swiss French and French are due to the different administrative and political systems between Switzerland and France. Some of its distinctive lexical features are shared with Belgian French (and some also with Quebec French), such as:

  • The use of the word septante for seventy and nonante for ninety as opposed to soixante-dix (literally 'sixty-ten') and quatre-vingt-dix (literally 'four twenties-ten') of the "vigesimal" French counting system.
  • The use of the word déjeuner for "breakfast" ("lunch" in France, which uses petit déjeuner for "breakfast"), and of the words le dîner and le souper for "lunch" and "dinner" respectively (in French of France, déjeuner and dîner respectively), much like the varying uses of dinner and supper throughout the English-speaking world.

Other examples which are not shared with Belgian French:

  • The word huitante is sometimes used for eighty instead of quatre-vingts (literally 'four twenties'), especially in the cantons of Vaud, Valais and Fribourg; the term octante (from the Latin octaginta) is now considered defunct.
  • The word canton has a different meaning in each country.
  • In France, a post office box is called a boite postale (BP), whereas in Switzerland, it is called a case postale (CP).

Examples of words that differ between Swiss French and Standard French[edit]

Swiss French Standard French Translation
action promotion special offer
assurance ménage assurance responsabilité civile civil liability insurance
attique dernier étage top floor
bancomat guichet automatique bancaire ATM
biffer rayer/barrer quelque chose d'écrit to scratch/delete
bobet bête or stupide stupid
boguet mobylette moped
bonnard sympa or bien nice
bonne-main pourboire tip (gratuity)
borne hydrante bouche d'incendie fire hydrant
bourbine suisse-allemand Swiss-German
chenis désordre mess
chiquelette chewing-gum chewing-gum
gymnase (Vaud) or collège (Genève) lycée high-school
cornet sac en plastique plastic bag
cycle collège middle-school
déjeuner petit-déjeuner breakfast
dent de lion pissenlit dandelion
dîner déjeuner lunch
s'encoubler se prendre les pieds dans quelque chose/trébucher to trip over
s'énuquer se briser la nuque to break one's neck
étude d'avocats cabinet d'avocats law firm
faire la noce faire la fête to party
fœhn sèche-cheveux hairdryer
frouz les Français people from France - French
un fonds un terrain or un champs a field
fourre dossier folder
galetas grenier attic
giratoire rond-point roundabout
gouille flaque puddle
huitante quatre-vingts eighty
linge serviette towel
maman de jour assistante maternelle day care assistant
maturité baccalauréat high-school final examination
natel (téléphone) portable mobile phone
mutr mère mother
nom de bleu! nom de dieu! in the name of god!/god dammit!
nonante quatre-vingts-dix ninety
panosse serpillière floorcloth
pive pomme de pin conifer cone
poutzer nettoyer to clean
Procès verbal d'examen (PV) bulletin de note report card
régie agence immobilière real estate agent
royer pleuvoir to rain
septante soixante-dix seventy
services couverts cutlery
signofile clignotant turn signal
souper dîner dinner
tablard étagère shelf
talus pente slope
uni (short word for université) fac (short word for faculté) university
votations scrutin voting
vatr père father

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Swiss French at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)