Transfer (association football)

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Gareth Bale is the most expensive player in the history of association football.
The same applies to Cristiano Ronaldo. Both were signed by Real Madrid.

In professional football, a transfer is the action taken whenever a player under contract moves between clubs. It refers to the transferring of a player's registration from one association football club to another. In general, the players can only be transferred during a transfer window and according to the rules set by a governing body. Usually some sort of compensation is paid for the player's rights, which is known as a transfer fee. When a player moves from one club to another, his old contract is terminated and he negotiates a new one with the club he is moving to, unlike in American, Canadian and Australian sports, where teams essentially trade existing player contracts. However, in some cases, transfers can function in a similar manner to player trades, as teams can offer another player on their squad as part of the compensation.

As well as this type of regular transfer, which results in the player being 'owned' by one club, other forms of transfer are used throughout South America and southern Europe. Co-ownership is a system whereby a club will buy 50% of the rights of a players' contract for one year and pay the wages, while also deciding which of the two clubs he will play for.[1] At the end of the year, both clubs can choose to place a bid in an auction, where the highest bid wins.[1] The co-ownership of Alessio Cerci by Torino and Fiorentina proved fruitful for Cerci and Torino,[2] who had paid €2.5m for the first 50%,[3] and picked up the remainder of his contract after a successful year for just €3.8m.[4] The practice has proved a controversial issue for Martin Samuel, who described it as being similar to a "cattle market".[5]

Third party ownership is ownership of a player's economic rights by third-party sources, such as football agents, sports-management agencies, or other investors. The transfer of Carlos Tevez to Manchester City for £47m in 2009 was controversial for the part played by third-party owner Media Sports Investment.[6]

Another method of transfer is a loan. This is where a player is allowed to temporarily play for a club other than the one he is currently contracted to. Loan deals may last from a few weeks to all season-long and can also be for a few seasons. Rarely, a loan of a player can be included in the transfer of another player e.g. the transfer of Dimitar Berbatov from Tottenham Hotspur to Manchester United for £31m in 2008 included the loan of Fraizer Campbell in the opposite direction.[7]

History[edit]

Early Days[edit]

The concept of a football transfer first came into existence in England after The Football Association introduced player registration sometime after 1885. Before that, a player could agree to play one or more games for any football club. After the FA recognised professionalism in 1885,[8] it sought to control professional players by introducing a player registration system. Players had to register with a club each season, even if he remained with the same club from the season before. A player was not allowed to play until he was registered for that season. Once a player was registered with a club, he was not allowed to be registered with or play for another club during the same season without the permission of the FA and the club that held his registration. The players however, were free to join another club before the start of each season, even if their former club wished to retain them.

Sometime after the Football League was formed in 1888, the Football League decided that restrictions had to be placed on the ability of richer clubs to lure players from other clubs to prevent the league being dominated by a handful of clubs. From the start of the 1893–94 season onwards, once a player was registered with a Football League club, he could not be registered with any other club, even in subsequent seasons, without the permission of the club he was registered with. It applied even if the player's annual contract with the club holding his registration was not renewed after it expired. The club was not obliged to play him and, without a contract, the player was not entitled to receive a salary. Nevertheless, if the club refused to release his registration, the player could not play for any other Football League club. Football League clubs soon came to realize that they could demand and earn a transfer fee from any other Football League club as consideration for agreeing to release or transfer the player's registration.

In 1912, Charles Sutcliffe helped establish the legality of this "retain-and-transfer system" when he successfully represented the club Aston Villa during the Kingaby case.[9] Former player, Herbert Kingaby had brought legal proceedings against Villa for preventing him from playing. Erroneous strategy by Kingaby's counsel resulted in the suit being dismissed.[10] In England, the "retain" aspect of the system was removed after a decision by the High Court in 1963 in Eastham vs. Newcastle United that it was unreasonable.

1995: Bosman Ruling[edit]

The transfer system remained unchanged until the Bosman ruling. The ruling is named after Jean-Marc Bosman, a former Belgian footballer, who, in 1990, was registered with Belgian Cup winners R.F.C. de Liège.[11] His contract had run out he was looking to move to French team Dunkerque, but they refused to pay the transfer fee of £500k that Liege were asking for.[11] Bosman was left in limbo and his wages were cut by 75% due to him not playing.[11] After a lengthy legal battle, Bosman won his case on 15 December 1995, when the European Court of Justice ruled that players should legally be free to move when their contract expired.[12]

The first high-profile "Bosman transfer" was Edgar Davids,[13] who departed Ajax for A.C. Milan, but he lasted just one year in Milan before moving to rivals Juventus for a fee of over £5m. The same summer, Luis Enrique made the controversial decision to let his Real Madrid contract run down by signing for rivals Barcelona.[14] In 1999, Steve McManaman departed his boyhood club Liverpool for Real Madrid,[15] while Sol Campbell was arguably the most controversial Bosman transfer of all time when he moved from Tottenham Hotspur to fierce rivals Arsenal.[16][17] In 2014, it was announced that Borussia Dortmund striker Robert Lewandowski will leave the club for Bayern Munich in the summer when his contract expires.[18][19][20]

Another impact the case had was the rules regarding foreign players. Before the ruling was made, clubs throughout Europe were limited to the number of foreign players they could employ, and could only play a maximum of three in European competition.[21] FIFA noted that they were "disappointed" in the ruling,[22] while Gordon Taylor thought the decision would have a major impact and would "lead to a flood of foreign players... to the detriment of our game".[21] The ruling ensured a team could now choose to play a team of 11 foreign players if they wanted,[12] as was the case when Chelsea became the first team to play a team of 11 foreign players.[23] By 2007, the percentage of foreign players in England and Germany had reached 57%, compared with 39% in Spain and France, and 30% in Italy.[24] The last team to field an all-English starting line-up was Aston Villa, ten months before Chelsea's all-foreign starting eleven.[25]

2002: Transfer Window created[edit]

Although there were leagues already implementing the practice, UEFA decided to enforce a continental transfer window in time for the 2002-03 season.[26] UEFA chief executive Gerhard Aigner said that part of the reason behind making the transfer window compulsory was to "stop the confusion that has followed Bosman",[27] and, with regards to it possibly damaging smaller clubs financially, he said that it did not make sense that clubs would "depend on the transfer of a single player to survive the season".[28] From 2002 to the present day, most leagues around Europe have two windows in which players may be purchased; end of the season to 31 August, and then for the whole of January.[29] In England, the club chairmen felt they were "reluctantly being forced" to accept the proposal,[30] and FIFA relented somewhat by relaxing the rules regarding out-of-contract players, meaning that they could be signed up to a new club at any time.[31]

2003: Loan laws updated[edit]

In 2003, the Premier League scrapped a law which forbade loans between clubs in the same division.[32] Professional Footballers' Association chairman Gordon Taylor was critical of the change, fearing the new system would "erode the sporting and competitive element of the game".[33] In February 2004, Newcastle United let striker Lomana LuaLua move on loan to fellow Premier League club Portsmouth for three months, for a fee of £100k.[34] On 29 February, LuaLua scored an 89th minute equaliser against Newcastle in a 1-1 draw,[35] and later apologised to Newcastle supporters.[36] The law was again changed to block players from playing against their parent club, a move which Graham Taylor was critical of.[37] Arsène Wenger has been critical the rule on numerous occasions; in 2012, he asked for the rules to be changed so that only players aged 21 and under can be loaned,[38] in 2013 he aid that the rule lacks "integrity",[39] and in 2014 said the system was "not defendable" and protects the clubs who loan players out.[40] In 2013, Football League clubs voted unanimously to close a "ludicrous" loophole which had allowed Watford to loan 14 players from abroad, including 10 from Udinese.[41][42]

2006–2014: Third-party ownership controversy[edit]

On transfer deadline day in August 2006, West Ham United pulled off what was described as a "major coup" by signing Argentina World Cup stars Carlos Tevez and Javier Mascherano from Corinthians.[43][44] West Ham's official press release stated that Tevez and Mashcerano had "been signed for an undisclosed fee and put pen to paper on permanent contracts" but that "all other aspects of the transfers will remain confidential and undisclosed".[45] Mystery shrouded the transfer immediately with regards to who owned the rights to the players,[46] and continued until three years later when Tevez signed for Manchester City.[47][48][49] In March 2007, West Ham were charged over the transfers, with the Premier League claiming the club had breached two regulations, U6 and U18, which state respectively that "No person may either directly or indirectly be involved in or have any power to determine or influence the management or administration of more than one club" and "No club shall enter into a contract which enables any other party to that contract to require the ability materially to influence its policies or the performance of its teams in league matches".[50] West Ham escaped a points deduction,[51] but were given a record fine of £5.5m by the Premier League.[52][53] Tevez was also cleared to carry on playing for the club,[54] and he scored the goal on the final day which kept West Ham in the Premier League.[55][56] Sheffield United, who were relegated from the Premier League at the end of the season,[57] sued West Ham and eventually received a settlement of approximately £20m.[58][59][60]

Mascherano agreed to leave West Ham to join Liverpool on loan in January 2007, but had to wait for the Premier League to ratify the transfer due to the previous controversy,[61] and the transfer was cleared three weeks later.[62][63] On 29 February 2008, Liverpool signed Mascherano on a four year contract, with a fee of £18m paid to Kia Joorabchian.[64][65] After Joorabchian had paid £2m to West Ham, Tevez departed for Manchester United at the end of the season on a two year loan, with United paying £5m a year.[66][67][68] After the loan ended, Tevez transferred to United's rivals Manchester City for a reported fee of £47m.[6]

In 2008, the Premier League banned third-party ownership in England,[69] and in 2012, UEFA president Michel Platini released a statement in which plans to ban third-party ownership were revealed, stating that "the committee decided that the ownership of football players by third parties should be prohibited as a matter of principle",[70] while UEFA general-secretary Gianni Infantino said "third-party ownership of players bears many threats and there are many issues linked with the integrity of the competition and it is really time to regulate that and to have a stance on that".[71] In 2014, Platini again called for the practice to end, saying "If FIFA fails to act, we will address this issue in our own competitions in Europe. The UEFA Executive Committee has already adopted a position on this issue in principle, and we will see this through", and saying that it is a "danger to our sport" and "threatens the integrity of our competitions, damages football's image, poses a long-term threat to clubs' finances and even raises questions about human dignity",[72] and he was backed by FIFPro, the worldwide representative organisation for 65,000 professional football players, who stated that the rights of the players were "under attack".[73] In September 2014, it was announced by FIFA president Sepp Blatter that third-party ownership was to be banned completely following an indeterminate transitional period.[74][75]

2006: Webster ruling[edit]

In April 2006, Heart of Midlothian player Andy Webster was placed on the transfer list by the club after Webster's agent attempted to engineer a move to Rangers.[76][77] In late June, Romanov confirmed that Webster, as well as team-mate Rudi Skacel, were in talks to agree a move to Southampton.[78] Days later, Romanov reported the pair to FIFA after the players failed to turn up at the airport to fly to Austria for pre-season training.[79] Later in the month, Webster invoked a new ruling in the FIFA laws which allowed players to free themselves from their contract and join a club in another country, providing they were in the third year of a four year contract and gave his current club due notice, and was set to sign for Wigan Athletic.[80] In September, the transfer was finally ratified by FIFA.[81] despite a late attempt by Hearts to re-sign Webster.[82] After playing just five games for Wigan, however, he moved to Rangers on loan in January 2007,[83] and was given permission to play following a complaint by Hearts.[84] In May 2007, the tribunal to decide the compensation due to Hearts took place, with Hearts seeking up to £5m,[85][86] but were eventually rewarded just £625k.[87][88] Scottish Professional Footballers' Association Fraser Wishart described the ruling as a "landmark".[89] In January 2008, after an appeal, the compensation fee was reduced to £150k by the Court of Arbitration for Sport.[90] In 2007, Matuzalém invoked the same clause as Webster to get out of his contract with Shakhtar Donetsk and signed for Real Zaragoza.[91] Matuzalém was found to be in breach of contract, and he and Zaragoza were ordered to pay £11m on compensation to Shakhtar.[92][93]

2013: Transfer of Neymar from Santos to Barcelona[edit]

In August 2010, Brazilian team Santos's 18 year old homegrown striker Neymar was the subject of a bid in the region of £25m from English team Chelsea,[94] before signing a new five-year contract.[95][96] In June 2011, Neymar was again the subject of a high-profile transfer bids; Chelsea and Spanish team Real Madrid were both reported as preparing offers of €45m,[97][98] before eventually turning them down to sign another new contract with Santos.[99] In December 2011, ahead of the 2011 FIFA Club World Cup Final, it was reported that Spanish team Barcelona had paid Santos a €10m instalment for the guaranteed future transfer of Neymar at any point until 2014,[100] A similar figure of €14m was reported in March by Spanish radio station Cadena SER, who also reported a total transfer fee of €58m had already been agreed between the two clubs.[101] Neymar's father was quoted as saying that Barcelona were a “great option” for his son.[102] A year later, his father again spoke of a possible transfer for his son, saying that he would leave Santos after the 2014 FIFA World Cup, taking place in Brazil, and that Barcelona was the “best path”.[103] The manager of Brazil, Mano Menezes, thought a move to Europe before the World Cup would be the best way for Neymar to develop as a player ahead of the tournament,[104] while Neymar himself said “I’m saying once and for all that I’m not leaving Santos right now”.[105]

On 25 May 2013, Barcelona announced that they had agreed a deal with Santos to sign Neymar,[106] who himself released a statement shortly afterwards saying "I am not going to wait until Monday. My family and friends now know my decision. On Monday I will sign with Barcelona".[107] The transfer was confirmed on 3 June, with Neymar signing a five year contract with Barcelona for a fee reported as £48.6m,[108][109][110] a fee later confirmed by Barcelona vice-president Josep Maria Bartomeu.[111] Shortly after the transfer was confirmed, DIS Esporte executive director Roberto Moreno revealed that DIS had not been paid a proportionate amount that equalled their 40% stake in the player; the investors of DIS had been paid only €9.7m, which Moreno said meant the transfer fee Santos received was €17m.[112][113] Moreno threatened legal action to those privy to the inside knowledge of the transfer deal, saying "I am going to wait one more week and then I will open a case in court to get access to the information".[114] The legal action was pursued, forcing Santos to produce a document as evidence in which they claimed "As Santos FC well knows, the total transfer fee for all the federative and economic rights of Neymar Jr was established at €17,100,000 as stated in the transfer contract signed by both clubs" and they denied any wrongdoing with regards to payments to third parties, stating "Such amounts... will be shared among Santos FC, TEISA and DIS in the amounts contractually agreed between these entities".[115] Barcelona also paid Santos a fee of €7.9m for "preferential rights" for three other Santos players, which Bartomeu claimed was not part of the transfer fee.[116]

In December, Barcelona club member Jordi Cases took the case to court in an attempt to prove "misappropriation of funds", claiming the total fee Barcelona paid was actually €74m.[117][118] In January, Barcelona released a statement in which they denied any wrongdoing, citing that they had disclosed the €40m payment to Neymar's parents from the beginning.[119][120] On 22 January, it was announced that Judge Pablo Ruz would gather information as part of a lawsuit against Barcelona president Sandro Rosell.[121][122] Rosell resigned from his position as president the next day,[123][124][125] and a day later the details of the transfer were revealed by Barcelona; the transfer had in fact cost them a total of €86.2m,[126][127] with Neymar's parents confirmed to have received a €40m sum.[128][129] On 20 February, Barcelona and Bartomeu were charged with tax fraud,[130][131] and paid a "voluntary" amount of €13.6m in the same week in an attempt to save the image of the club.[132][133] Barcelona continued to defend their actions, releasing a statement stating that the club's "dealings with respect to this operation, and in light of all information available, was at all times in line with the relevant legal legislation",[134] while Neymar defended his father's rights to the money he received as part of the deal.[135] Bartomeu, who had been appointed club president following Rosell's resignation, reiterated the belief of himself and the club that the deal was fair and praised the transparency of the club to reveal all the details.[136] The tax charges which had been brought against Bartomeu were dropped in September.[137]

2013: FIFPro legal challenge[edit]

In 2013, FIFPro launched a legal challenge against the transfer system.[138][139][140][141] FIFPro president Phillipe Piat said "the transfer system fails 99% of players around the world, it fails football as an industry and it fails the world's most beloved game". According to FIFPro's European president Bobby Barnes, 28% of the money from a transfer fee is paid to agents,[139] and that many players are not paid on time or at all.[139][140] He claims this leads to these players being "vulnerable targets of crime syndicates, who instigate match-fixing and threaten the very existence of credible football competitions".[138] Writing for the BBC, Matt Slater said "professional footballers do not enjoy the same freedoms that almost every other EU worker does",[141] and that "players look at US sport, and wonder why their career prospects are still constrained by transfer fees and compensation costs". Barnes argues that "the system encourages speculative, unsustainable, immoral and illegal investment models like third-party ownership of players".[140]

2014: Co-ownership ends[edit]

In May 2014, the Italian Football Federation announced that they would be ending co-ownership of players to bring Serie A in line with every other league around Europe.[142][143]

Medical examination[edit]

Players will commonly undergo a medical examination and/or physical fitness test before a transfer can be completed.[144][145][146] Occasionally, previously unknown medical problems will be detected, potentially jeopardizing the transfer or the size of the fee.[147][148][149][150][151] Rarely, a player will still be signed by the interested club even if he fails a medical, as happened when Dominic Matteo failed a medical ahead of move from Liverpool to Leeds United, who spent £4.75 million on Matteo.[152]

According to footballer Shaun Derry, his first medical was as basic as him bending over to touch his toes to check the stability in his knees,[153] but, as the knowledge of sports science has evolved,[154] the medical now involves MRI scans,[153] and, according to former Nottingham Forest physiotherapist Gary Fleming, ECG's are also performed to check for any problems with the heart.[155] The person performing the medical will check all the major joints, ligaments, and the players sight.[155] A player can fail a medical simply by being unfit, as was the case when Inter Milan tried to sign John Carew.[156]

Failed medicals[edit]

In the summer of 2000, Ruud van Nistelrooy looked set to complete a club record £18.5 million transfer to Manchester United.[157] Van Nistelrooy was to be unveiled at a press conference four days later, but instead this was used to announce that the transfer had been postponed over concerns about his fitness; he had not played for a month due to problems with his knee.[158] The transfer was then cancelled after PSV would not agree to further medical tests,[159][160] and the next day he suffered ruptured his anterior cruciate knee ligaments during a training session, leaving him injured for a year.[161][162] A year later, van Nistelrooy signed a five-year contract after passing his medical.[163]

Throughout 2000, Wimbledon striker John Hartson's proposed multi-million pound moves to Tottenham Hotspur,[164] Rangers,[165] and Charlton Athletic[166] all fell through after he failed medicals at each club. In February 2001, Hartson finally transferred to Coventry City.[167]

In July 2003, Gabriel Milito's transfer to Real Madrid from Independiente was cancelled after the medical examination by the Spanish club. Real Madrid doctors said Milito's knees would suffer severe injuries in the incoming years.[168] Milito then signed with Real Zaragoza, becoming one of the most successful defenders in La Liga. In the incoming season, Zaragoza went to win the Copa del Rey final against Real Madrid. In 2007 he joined Real Madrid's lifetime rivals, FC Barcelona.

In 2008, Lilian Thuram agreed to sign for Paris Saint-Germain on a free transfer from FC Barcelona.[169] During his medical, it was discovered that he had a severe heart defect which had also ended his brother's life,[170][171] forcing Thuram to retire.[172][173]

In 2009, A.C. Milan were set to sign Aly Cissokho from Porto,[174] when a medical revealed he had a dental problem which could cause deterioration in posture and potential muscle problems, forcing the transfer to be cancelled.[175][176][177] Cissokho eventually transferred to Olympique Lyonnais a month later.[178]

On transfer deadline in January 2013, Nottingham Forest were attempting to sign George Boyd from Peterborough United when it collapsed due to an inconclusive eye test.[179] Boyd signed for Hull City in February,[180] and subsequently scored against Forest in a fixture in March and mocked them with a celebration whereby he used his fingers to make fake glasses.[181] A permanent transfer was arranged in May.[182]

Highest fees[edit]

For more details on historical highest fees, see World football transfer record.
Zinedine Zidane was the most expensive player in the world for eight years.

The first player to ever be transferred for a fee of over £100 was Scottish striker Willie Groves when he made the switch from West Bromwich Albion to Aston Villa in 1893,[183] eight years after the legalisation of professionalism in the sport. It took just twelve years for the figure to become £1000, when Sunderland striker Alf Common moved to Middlesbrough.[184][185]

It was not until 1928 that the first five-figure transfer took place. David Jack of Bolton Wanderers was the subject of interest from Arsenal, and in order to negotiate the fee down, Arsenal manager Herbert Chapman got the Bolton representatives drunk.[186][187] Arsenal paid £10,890 after Bolton had asked for £13k, which was double the previous record made when Sunderland signed Burnley's Bob Kelly a fee of for £6,500.[185]

The first player from outside Great Britain to break the record was Bernabé Ferreyra, a player known as La Fiera for his powerful shot. His 1932 transfer from Tigre to River Plate cost £23k,[187] and the record would last for 17 years (the longest the record has lasted) until it was broken by Manchester United's sale of Johnny Morris to Derby County for £24k in March 1949. The record was broken seven further times between 1949 and 1961, when Luis Suárez was sold by FC Barcelona to Inter Milan for £152k, becoming the first ever player sold for more than £100k.[185]

Diego Maradona is the only player to twice be transferred for world record fees.

In 1968, Pietro Anastasi became the first £500k player when Juventus purchased him from Varese,[187] which was followed seven years later with Giuseppe Savoldi becoming the first million pound player when he transferred from Bologna to Napoli.[185][187]

The only player to twice be transferred for world record fees is Diego Maradona.[185][187] His transfers from Boca Juniors to Barcelona for £3m, and then to Napoli for £5m, both broke the record in 1982 and 1984 respectively.

In the space of 61 days in 1992,[187] three transfers broke the record,[185] all by Italian clubs: Jean-Pierre Papin transferred from Marseille to A.C. Milan, becoming the first ever £10m player.[187] Almost immediately, rivals Juventus topped that with the signing of Gianluca Vialli for a fee of £12m from Sampdoria. Milan then completed the signing of Gianluigi Lentini for a fee of £13m which stood as the record for three years.

The 1996 transfer of Alan Shearer from Blackburn Rovers to Newcastle United, for a fee of £15m,[188] kickstarted a year-by-year succession of record breaking transfers: Ronaldo moved the following year to Inter Milan from FC Barcelona for a fee of £17m,[189] which was followed in 1998 by the shock transfer of his fellow countryman Denílson from São Paulo to Real Betis for a fee of approximately £21m.[185][187][190]

In 1999 and 2000, Italian clubs returned to their record-breaking ways, with Christian Vieri transferring from Lazio to Inter Milan for £28m,[191] while Hernán Crespo's transfer from Parma to Lazio ensured he became the first player to cost more than £30m.[185][192] The transfer prompted the BBC to ask "has the world gone mad"?[193]

Luís Figo was the world's most expensive player following a controversial €62m move from Barcelona to arch rivals Real Madrid.

It took two weeks for the record to be broken when Luís Figo made a controversial £37m move from Barcelona to rivals Real Madrid.[185][194] Since then, Real Madrid have always held the record, with the only players to subsequently break the record being Zinedine Zidane in 2001 when signed for £46m from Juventus,[185] the £80m transfer of Cristiano Ronaldo from Manchester United in 2009,[185] and Gareth Bale in 2013, who became the first player to cost €100m when he transferred from Tottenham Hotspur.

There have been occasions when a world-record bid has been made but the transfer was never completed. In 2003, shortly after Roman Abramovich had taken over Chelsea, the club made a bid of £71.4m (€101.5m) for Real Madrid's Raúl which was rejected,[195] and in 2009, shortly having been taken over by Mansour bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Manchester City made a bid of £100m (€111m) for A.C. Milan's Kaká.[196] The bid was accepted, but after deliberating over the move for a week, Kaká turned down the transfer despite being offered weekly wages of £500k.[197][198]

The sharp rise in transfer fees since the 1990s, and in particular into the 3rd millennium has been attributed primarily to a large rise in television rights fees and sponsorship.[199][200][201] For example, in 2013, new broadcaster BT Sport announced they had agreed to pay £897m over a three year period to gain exclusive broadcast rights to UEFA Champions League and UEFA Europa League,[202]

Transfer fees are not always officially confirmed by the transacting clubs,[203] and figures published by unofficial sources may or may not take into account various fees such as those paid to agents or a third-party,[204] performance related elements of the fee, and the notional value of any players included in part exchange. This leads to different figures being given by different sources. Performance related clauses have become more common in recent years, meaning that it is harder to produce definitive lists of the largest transfer fees than was the case in the past. For example, the 2004 transfer of Wayne Rooney from Everton to Manchester United cost an initial fee of £20m that rose to £27m due to the amount of appearances he made and the number of trophies he won with the club.[205]

The following tables show the highest transfer fees ever paid in euro for players and managers. The first features the top 20 most expensive transfers involving players, and contains five transfers which broke the world transfer record: those of Gareth Bale, Cristiano Ronaldo, Zinedine Zidane, Luís Figo, and Hernán Crespo all broke the record.

The second list shows the top 20 most expensive transfers involving managers. When a manager moves from one club to another, it usually involves a small figure of compensation being paid, and the figure is rarely released publicly. Because of this, there have only been 20 managers who have ever cost more than £1 million in compensation, as detailed in the table.

Suárez
Suárez is the third most expensive player of all time.
James
James Rodríguez is the fourth most expensive player of all time.
Di Maria
Ángel Di María is the fifth most expensive player of all time.
Crespo
Hernán Crespo broke the world record when he transferred from Parma to Lazio in 2000.

Players[edit]

Rank

Player From To Transfer Fee
(M £)
Transfer Fee
(M )
Year Ref.
1–2 Wales Bale, GarethGareth Bale England Tottenham Hotspur Spain Real Madrid £78–85.3 €91–100 2013 [206][207]
1–2 Portugal Ronaldo, CristianoCristiano Ronaldo England Manchester United Spain Real Madrid £80 €94.4 2009 [208][209][210][211]
3 Uruguay Suárez, LuisLuis Suárez England Liverpool Spain Barcelona £75 €94 2014 [212][213][214][215]
4 Colombia Rodríguez, JamesJames Rodríguez France AS Monaco Spain Real Madrid £63 €79.5 2014 [216]
T-5 Argentina Di María, ÁngelÁngel Di María Spain Real Madrid England Manchester United £59.7 €75 2014 [217][218][219]
T-5 France Zidane, ZinedineZinedine Zidane Italy Juventus Spain Real Madrid £46 €75 2001 [220][221][222]
7 1 Sweden Ibrahimović, ZlatanZlatan Ibrahimović Italy Inter Spain Barcelona £59 €69 2009 [223][224]
8 Brazil Kaká Italy Milan Spain Real Madrid £56 €65 2009 [225][226][227][228]
9 Uruguay Cavani, EdinsonEdinson Cavani Italy Napoli France Paris Saint-Germain £55 €64 2013 [229][230][231][232]
10 Brazil David Luiz England Chelsea France Paris Saint-Germain £50 €62.6 2014 [233][234][235]
11 Portugal Figo, LuísLuís Figo Spain Barcelona Spain Real Madrid £37 €62 2000 [194][236][237]
12 Colombia Falcao, RadamelRadamel Falcao Spain Atlético Madrid France AS Monaco £51 €60 2013 [238][239]
13 Spain Torres, FernandoFernando Torres England Liverpool England Chelsea £50 €58 2011 [240][241]
14 2 Argentina Crespo, HernánHernán Crespo Italy Parma Italy Lazio £35.5 €56.5 2000 [242][243]
15 Argentina Tevez, CarlosCarlos Tevez England Manchester United
England MSI
England Manchester City £47 €53 2009 [6][244]
16 Germany Özil, MesutMesut Özil Spain Real Madrid England Arsenal £42.4 €50 2013 [245][246][247]
17 Portugal Costa, RuiRui Costa Italy Fiorentina Italy Milan £30 €49.7 2001 [248]
18 Spain Mendieta, GaizkaGaizka Mendieta Spain Valencia Italy Lazio £29 €48 2001 [249][250][251]
19 Brazil Ronaldo Italy Inter Spain Real Madrid £30 €46 2002 [252]
T-20 Colombia James Rodríguez Portugal Porto France AS Monaco £38.5 €45 2013 [253][254]
T-20 3 Italy Buffon, GianluigiGianluigi Buffon Italy Parma Italy Juventus £30 €45 2001 [255]
  Fee broke the world football transfer record at the time of the transfer
  Fee broke the national record

1. ^ Ibrahimović was transferred in a part-exchange deal worth €46 million, plus the rights to Samuel Eto'o (valued at €20m by Barcelona), and a single season loan of Alexander Hleb. Since Hleb refused to move to Inter, Barcelona had to pay a reported extra €3m to complete Ibrahimović's switch. The combined fee was thus €69m.[256]
2. ^ An indeterminate size of the fee was paid via the transfer of Matías Almeyda and Sérgio Conceição.
3. ^ Part of the fees was paid via the transfer of Jonathan Bachini to Parma.

Managers[edit]

For football managers, the list is as follows:

André Villas-Boas was purchased by Chelsea from Porto for a record breaking fee in 2012.
Rank Coach From To Transfer Fee
(M £)
Transfer Fee
(M )
Year
1 Portugal Villas-Boas, AndréAndré Villas-Boas[257][258][259] Portugal Porto England Chelsea £13.3 €15 2011
2 Portugal Mourinho, JoséJosé Mourinho[260] Italy Inter Spain Real Madrid £6.8 €8 2010
T-3 Wales Hughes, MarkMark Hughes[261] England Blackburn Rovers England Manchester City £5 €6.2 2008
T-3 Northern Ireland Rodgers, BrendanBrendan Rodgers[262] Wales Swansea City England Liverpool £5 €6.2 2012
5 Chile Pellegrini, ManuelManuel Pellegrini[263] Spain Villarreal Spain Real Madrid £3.4 €4 2009
6 Italy Ancelotti, CarloCarlo Ancelotti[264] France PSG Spain Real Madrid £3.3 €3.8 2013
T-7 England Bruce, SteveSteve Bruce[265] England Birmingham City England Wigan Athletic £3 €3.4 2007
T-7 England Bruce, SteveSteve Bruce[266] England Wigan Athletic England Sunderland £3 €3.4 2009
8 Portugal Jardim, LeonardoLeonardo Jardim[267] Portugal Sporting CP France Monaco £2.3 €3 2014
T-10 England Redknapp, HarryHarry Redknapp[268] England Portsmouth England Tottenham £2 €2.5 2008
T-10 Spain Martinez, RobertoRoberto Martinez[269] Wales Swansea City England Wigan Athletic £2 €2.5 2009
T-10 England Mowbray, TonyTony Mowbray[270] England West Bromwich Albion Scotland Celtic £2 €2.5 2009
T-10 England Hodgson, RoyRoy Hodgson[271] England Fulham England Liverpool £2 €2.5 2010
T-14 Scotland McLeish, AlexAlex McLeish[272] England Birmingham City England Aston Villa £2 €2.2 2011
T-14 Spain Martínez, RobertoRoberto Martínez[273] England Wigan Athletic England Everton £2 €2.2 2013
16 Portugal Mourinho, JoséJosé Mourinho[274] Portugal Porto England Chelsea £1.7 €2.5 2004
T-17 Northern Ireland O'Neill, MartinMartin O'Neill[275] England Leicester City Scotland Celtic £1 €1.1 2000
T-17 Scotland Moyes, DavidDavid Moyes[276] England Preston North End England Everton £1 €1.1 2002
T-17 Scotland McLeish, AlexAlex McLeish[277] Scotland Scotland England Birmingham City £1 €1.1 2007
T-17 Scotland Coyle, OwenOwen Coyle[278] England Burnley England Bolton Wanderers £1 €1.1 2010
T-17 Republic of Ireland Hughton, ChrisChris Hughton[279] England Birmingham City England Norwich City £1 €1.1 2012

Pre-contracts[edit]

A pre-contract is an agreement by a player and an agreeing to take his registration at a later date, and became more well known after the Bosman ruling in 1995.[280] A club may sign a pre-contract with a player while he is still with another club, by which the player agrees to move to the club at a future date, usually after his contract with his current club expires. Under the Bosman ruling, a player can sign a contract with a new club up to six months before his existing contract expires.[281]

A pre-contract agreement may be broken by the player or the club,[280] as was the case when Ross County midfielder Richard Brittain signed a pre-contract with St. Johnstone. The agreement was made in January 2013,[282][283] but Brittain changed his mind three months later,[284] citing family reasons.[285] Ross County registered the player as their own in June,[286] and, after discussions with the Scottish FA,[287] St. Johnstone and Ross County came to an agreement to let Brittain stay at the club, with St. Johnstone cancelling the pre-contract agreement if Ross County paid compensation.[280][288]

Although a pre-contract agreement is usually signed to secure the future registration of a player, an agreement can be reached where the club gaining the registration can pay a fee to the other club to sign the player earlier, as was the case in January 2013, when Schalke 04 midfielder Lewis Holtby, who had six months remaining on his contract, signed a pre-contract agreement with Tottenham Hotspur,[289] but at the end of the month, Tottenham paid a fee of £1.5m to bring the transfer forward.[290]

Solidarity contribution[edit]

Under FIFA rules,[291] if a professional football player transfers to another club during the course of a contract, 5% of any transfer fee, not including training compensation paid to his former club, shall be deducted from the total amount of this transfer fee and distributed by the new club as a solidarity contribution to the club(s) involved in his training and education over the years.

This solidarity contribution reflects the number of years he was registered with the relevant club(s) between the seasons of his 12th and 23rd birthdays, as follows:

Season of birthday % of compensation % of total transfer fee
12th 5% 0.25%
13th 5% 0.25%
14th 5% 0.25%
15th 5% 0.25%
16th 10% 0.50%
17th 10% 0.50%
18th 10% 0.50%
19th 10% 0.50%
20th 10% 0.50%
21st 10% 0.50%
22nd 10% 0.50%
23rd 10% 0.50%
Total 100% 5%

Examples[edit]

  • Stephen Appiah: solidarity contribution was excluded from the agreed €8M price. Fenerbahçe had an obligation to pay former clubs for additional €0.4M.[292]
  • Vitorino Antunes: €1,500,000 x 5% x (5% x 4 seasons + 10% x 4 seasons) = €45,000 to Freamunde from Roma[293]
  • Arjen Robben: €500,000 to Groningen from Bayern Munich[294]
  • Robinho: €1.805 million to Santos from Manchester City[295]

Training compensation[edit]

Training Compensation is compensation to the cost of training the players. In FIFA status:

Training compensation shall be paid to a player’s training club(s): (1) when a player signs his first contract as a professional and (2) each time a professional is transferred until the end of the season of his 23rd birthday."[296]

However, FIFA does not have any power to force member associations to enforce the clause, thus FIFA only has jurisdiction on international transfers for claiming compensation. Youth clubs are ranked by their sizes to receive certain amount of money, which the schedule of rate would be updated periodically, however the rates would also be affected by the new club that signs the player.[297] Newcastle United had to pay compensation for Charles N'Zogbia even though was signed as a free agent.[298][299]

Disagreement over training compensation sometimes produces legal battles in order to escape the payment, which Matthias Lepiller was signed in 2006 by ACF Fiorentina, however an appeal in the Court of Arbitration for Sport was rejected in 2011, 5 years after Lepiller left the club. Clubs also arranged special transfer agreement in order to lower the actual signing cost. For example, Attila Filkor joined a Maltese club as free agent and immediately sold to Inter. As the schedule of rates between Maltese and Italian top division were different, cost was saved until Filkor's mother club sued Inter to FIFA.

The FA has its own system of training compensation, for example Chelsea were required to pay compensation to Manchester City for Daniel Sturridge.

In Italy,[300] Career Premium (Italian: Premio alla carriera) were paid to mother club once the players had make his Serie A debut or Italy U21 debut,[301] for example, Davide Moscardelli. While Preparation Premium (Italian: Premi di Preparazione) were paid to youth clubs when the players signed his first professional contract.[302]

Transfer bans[edit]

One method of club punishment used by the football governing body FIFA is a ban on transfers.

In 2005, Italian team Roma were given a one year transfer ban by FIFA, beginning on 1 July, when in September 2004, French centre back Philippe Mexès joined the club while still under contract with French team Auxerre.[303][304] On appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS) in December 2005, the ban was reduced to end after the January transfer window, but CAS upheld the view that Roma had "not only encouraged Mexès to break his contract with Auxerre, but actively provoked the break".[305]

In April 2009, Swiss team Sion were told by FIFA that they could not sign any players until the 2010 off-season, as punishment for signing Egyptian goalkeeper Essam El-Hadary from Egyptian team Al-Ahly in 2008 before his contract expired. In 2011, UEFA threatened to ban all Swiss teams from European competition,[306][307] ordering the SFV to make the decision.[308] Sion were eventually given a 36 point deduction.[309][310]

On 3 September 2009, English team Chelsea were banned from registering any new players in the January and Summer 2010 transfer windows, after FIFA's dispute resolution chamber (DRC) ruled that French winger Gaël Kakuta had breached his contract with French team Lens when he joined Chelsea in 2007, and that Chelsea had induced him to do so.[311][312] However the ban was quickly lifted by the Court of Arbitration for Sport when Chelsea agreed to pay £793,000 in compensation and training costs.[313][314]

In 2009, English team Portsmouth were banned from signing new players until debts owed to fellow English teams Chelsea and Arsenal were paid with regards to the transfers of Glen Johnson in 2007 and Lassana Diarra in 2008.[315] The ban was lifted 3 months later by the Premier League.[316]

In February 2012, English team Port Vale received a transfer embargo due to an unpaid bill, which meant that the signing of ex-Vale player Chris Birchall could not be completed.[317] Less than two weeks later, Vale entered administration.[318] In November 2012, upon the completion of the purchase of the club by Paul Wildes, Vale exited administration and the embargo was lifted.[319] Soon after, Vale eventually completed the signing of Birchall,[320] who had been playing with American team Columbus Crew.[321]

In 2012, Scottish team Rangers were given a 12-month registration ban by the Scottish Football Association for breaching rule 66 - bringing the game into disrepute. This meant Rangers could still Transfer players into the club, however they could not be registered with the Governing body. This came after Rangers entered administration.[322] Also in 2012, fellow Scottish team Hearts received a 2-month ban for failing to pay the wages of six first-team players and manager John McGlynn on time.[323] In 2013, they received an 8-month ban of signing over-21 for entering administration, meaning new players would not be able to registered with the club until February 2014.[324]

In December 2012, English team Bury received a transfer ban after the club took out a short-term loan with the Professional Footballers' Association.[325] The ban was lifted in January 2013 after they repaid the loan,[326] but in February, they received a second embargo after receiving another loan from the PFA.[327] This embargo lasted until May 2013, when the club were taken over by Stewart Day and the loans were repaid, at which point the club had been relegated to League Two and been forced to released 16 players.[328]

In 2013, English team Watford received a 5-month transfer ban for breaching football rules during the period of September 2011 until former owner Laurence Bassini sold the club to Giampaolo Pozzo in June 2012. Watford and Bassini were found guilty of failing to inform the football authorities about financial agreements set up with a company called LNOC, in particular their role in the transfer of Danny Graham to Swansea City.[329] During the period, Watford were still able to register players with prior permission from league officials.

In 2013, French team Nantes received a ban lasting two transfer windows after breaking rules over the 2012 signing striker Ismaël Bangoura from Al Nasr SC.[330] It was ruled that Nantes had persuaded Bangoura to break his contract with the UAE team, and were fined €4.5m by FIFA, to be paid to Al Nasr.[331] After an initial reprieve,[332] the ban was upheld.[333][334][335]

In April 2014, Spanish club Barcelona received a transfer ban for two consecutive windows starting June 2014 and a fine of £305k for breaches relating to the international transfer and registration of players under the age of 18, while the Real Federación Española de Fútbol received a fine of £340k and told to "regularise its regulatory framework and existing system concerning the international transfer of minors in football".[336][337] [338] FIFA's regulations dictate that international transfers regarding minors are only accepted in three scenarios - the player's parents have moved to another country for non-related reasons; the move takes place within the European Union if the player is aged between 16 and 18, or the player's home is less than 50 kilometres from the national border being crossed.[339][340] However, it was temporarily lifted until the end of the end of the transfer window, giving the club the chance to purchase players in the summer transfer window of 2014,[341][342][343] during which they were able to complete the purchases of Marc-André ter Stegen,[344] Claudio Bravo,[345] Luis Suárez,[212] Jérémy Mathieu,[346] and Thomas Vermaelen.[347] The appeal was rejected on 20 August.[348][349] The ban was said to have "shattered" Barcelona's image.[350]

In December 2014, English teams Blackburn Rovers, Leeds United, and Nottingham Forest were given a transfer ban of one transfer window for breaking league-implemented financial fair play regulations; the three clubs exceeded deviation limitations on operating loss and shareholder investment, set at £8m.[351][352]

See also[edit]

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External links[edit]