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The telephone numbering plan of the USSR was a set of telephone area codes, numbers and dialing rules, which operated in the Soviet Union until the 1990s. After the collapse of the USSR, many newly independent republics implemented their own numbering plans. However, many of the principles of the Soviet numbering plan still remain. The former Soviet international code+7 is still retained by Russia and Kazakhstan.
The Soviet Union used a four-level open numbering plan. The long distance prefix was 8.
One could call a local number without the code. Local numbers usually consisted of 5-7 digits, with seven-digit numbers only occurring in Moscow (since 1968), Leningrad (since 1976) and Kiev (since 1981).
Within the same numbering area (most often within the state or region) the pattern was: 8 2X YYYYYY, where 2 replaced the three-digit area code.
For calls to other areas, one had to first dial long distance prefix 8, then, after the tone, the full code of the numbering area, which consisted of a three-digit code and zone additional digit(X), and then the local phone number.
Emergency numbers in the USSR began with 0 and had two digits. When one called the emergency numbers, no tariff was charged. (except in Moscow, in the second half of the 1980s, free of charge calling emergency services from a payphone , in spite of the declared free-of-charge, was not free).
01 - Fire brigade
02 - Police
03 - Ambulance
04 - Gas leaks
05 was used in some major cities as a city certificate of addresses of residents or organizations.
06 was used in many cities (and in some cases is still ) the reception of telegrams from the home telephone
07 was used to order long-distance calls through the operator, which was reflected in the song of Vladimir Vysotsky "07"
08 was used and continues to be used  to contact the telephone repair bureau.
09 was a telephone inquiry service (search for a phone by the name of the organization or the name of the subscriber). 
In addition, in Moscow there was and continues to operate a toll-free telephone number 100 of the exact time . Also the free telephone of the service of exact time is preserved in other cities of Russia. For example, in Kaliningrad this number is 060.
Area codes with 0 denotes the republics and Oblasts of the European part of the USSR. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, these codes in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine were preserved, with minor changes. Area codes in the Ukraine and Belarus later dropped initial 0. In Russia, in December 2005 the leading zero in the Oblastal area codes was replaced by a 4.