Odessa Oblast

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Odessa Oblast
Одеська область
Odes’ka oblast’
Oblast
Flag of Odessa Oblast
Flag
Coat of arms of Odessa Oblast
Coat of arms
Nickname(s): Одещина (Odeshchyna)
Odessa in Ukraine.svg
Country  Ukraine
Administrative center Odessa
Government
 • Governor Mikheil Saakashvili[1] (independent)
 • Oblast council 120 seats
 • Chairperson Mykhailo Shmushkovych
Area
 • Total 33,310 km2 (12,860 sq mi)
Area rank Ranked 1st
Population (September 1, 2013[2])
 • Total Decrease 2,392,487
 • Rank Ranked 6
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 • Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Postal code 65000-68999
Area code +380-48
ISO 3166 code UA-51
Raions 26
Cities (total)
— Regional cities
19
7
Urban-type settlements 33
Villages 1138
FIPS 10-4 UP17
Website www.odessa.gov.ua

Odessa Oblast (also spelled Odesa Oblast; Ukrainian: Одеська область, Odes’ka oblast’; also Odeshchyna (Одещина)) is an oblast or province of southwestern Ukraine located along the northern coast of the Black Sea. Its administrative center is the city of Odessa.

The region is the biggest in Ukraine by area making it as big as either Belgium or the Netherlands.[3] The length of sea and estuaries coast reaches 300 km (190 mi), while the state border – 1,200 km (750 mi).[3] The region has eight sea ports, over 80,000 ha (200,000 acres) of vineyards, and five the biggest lakes in Ukraine.[3] One of the biggest one is Yalpuh Lake which is as big as the city of Odessa itself.[3]

Its administrative center Odessa is the third biggest city in Ukraine and known in Ukraine as the Black Sea Pearl or the Southern Palmyra.[3] The cities of Odessa was the first city in Ukraine that saw a car with the internal combustion engine that was brought to the city back in 1891 by Vasiliy Navrotskiy, the chief editor of Odesskiy Listok.[3] The cobblestone on vulytsia Deribasivska was made out the Vesuvius volcano lava and was brought to Odessa from his native Naples by the founder of Odessa Jose de Ribas.[3] Under that street stretch out the Odessa catacombs, the area of which is bigger than catacombs of Paris or Rome.[3] The resettlers out of Odessa did not invent any new names for their new homes, therefore in the United States alone there are 11 settlements called Odessa.[3]

History[edit]

Evidence of the earliest inhabitants in this area comes from the settlements and burial grounds of the Neolithic Gumelniţa, Cucuteni-Trypillian and Usatovo cultures, as well as from the tumuli and hoards of the Bronze Age Proto-Indo-Europeans. In the 1st millennium B.C. the Milesian Greeks founded colonies along the northern coast of the Black Sea, including the towns of Olbia, Tyras, Niconium, Panticapaeum, and Chersonesus. The Greeks left behind painted vessels, ceramics, sculptures, inscriptions, arts and crafts that indicate the prosperity of their ancient civilisation.

The culture of Scythian tribes inhabiting the Black Sea littoral steppes in the first millennium B.C. is represented by finds from settlements and burial grounds, including weapons, bronze cauldrons, other utensils, and adornments. By the beginning of the 1st millennium A.D. the Sarmatians displaced the Scythians. In the 3rd–4th centuries A.D. a tribal alliance, represented by the items of Chernyakhov culture, developed. From the middle of the first millennium the formation of the Slavic people began. In the 9th century the Slavs became united into a state with Kiev as its centre. The Khazars, Polovtsy and Pechenegs were the Slavs' neighbours during different times. Archeological evidence of the period of the 9th–14th centuries survives in materials from the settlements and cities of Kievan Rus': Belgorod, Caffa-Theodosia, and Berezan Island.

In 1593 the Ottoman Empire set up in the area what became known as its Dnieper Province (Özü Eyalet), unofficially known as the Khanate of Ukraine.[4] Russian historiography refers to it as the Ochakov Oblast.[5] The territory of the Odessa oblast passed to Russia in 1791 in the course of the Russian southern expansion towards the Black Sea at the end of the 18th century. Subsequently the Russians colonized the area intensively, establishing new cities and ports. In less than a hundred years the city of Odessa grew from a small fortress to the biggest metropolis of New Russia.

After the February Revolution of 1917 in Russia the area became part of the Ukrainian People's Republic (1917-1918), but soon succumbed first to the Russian Volunteer Army (part of the White movement and then to the Russian Bolshevik Red Army. By 1920 the Soviet authorities had secured the territory of Odessa Oblast, which became part of the Ukrainian SSR. The oblast was established on 27 February 1932 from five districts:

  1. Odessa Okruha
  2. Pervomaisk Okruha
  3. Kirovohrad Okruha
  4. Mykolaiv Okruha
  5. Kherson Okruha

In 1937 eastern portions of the Odessa Oblast were split to create the Mykolaiv Oblast.[citation needed]

Odessa Oblast was enlarged in July 1940 as a result of the 28th of June 1940 Soviet Ultimatum sent to the Kingdom of Romania and the 40 hours later invasion of Bessarabia. Northern and Southern parts of Bessarabia were given to Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.[citation needed]

During World War II Romania occupied the oblast and administered it as part of the Transnistria Province (1941-1944). After the war the Soviet administration reestablished the oblast with its pre-war borders. Odessa Oblast expanded in 1954 to absorb Izmail Oblast (formerly known as the Budjak region of Bessarabia).

During the 1991 referendum, 85.38% of votes in Odessa Oblast were in favor of the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine. A survey conducted in December 2014 by the Kyiv International Institute of Sociology found 2.3% of the oblast's population supported their region joining Russia, 91.5% did not support the idea, and the rest were undecided or did not respond.[6] A poll by Alexei Navalny found similar results.[7]

Geography[edit]

The country's largest oblast by area, it occupies an area of around 33,300 square kilometres (12,900 sq mi). It is characterised by largely flat steppes divided by the estuary of the Dniester river. Its Black Sea coast comprises numerous sandy beaches, estuaries and lagoons. The region's soils are renowned for their fertility, and intensive agriculture is the mainstay of the local economy. The southwest possesses many orchards and vineyards, while arable crops are grown throughout the region.

Points of interest[edit]

Akkerman fortress

Economy[edit]

Rapeseed field in Odessa Oblast.

Significant branches of the oblast's economy are:

The region's industrial capability is principally concentrated in and around Odessa.

Demographics[edit]

The oblast's population (as of 2004) is 2.4 million people, nearly 40% of whom live in the city of Odessa.

Significant Bulgarian (6.1%) and Romanian (5.0%) minorities reside in the province.[8] It has the highest proportion of Jews of any oblast in Ukraine (although smaller than the Autonomous City of Kiev) and there is a small Greek community in the city of Odessa.

Bulgarians and Moldovans/Romanians represent 21% and 13% respectively, of the population in the salient of Budjak, within Odessa oblast.

Year Fertility Birth
1990 1,8 33 166
1991 1,7 32 119
1992 1,6 30 155
1993 1,5 28 185
1994 1,4 26 197
1995 1,4 24 993
1996 1,3 23 666
1997 1,2 22 491
1998 1,2 21 273
1999 1,1 19 969
2000 1,1 20 042
2001 1,1 20 423
2002 1,2 21 227
2003 1,2 22 326
2004 1,3 23 343
2005 1,3 23 915
2006 1,4 25 113
2007 1,5 26 759
2008 1,6 28 780
2009 1,6 28 986
2010 1,6 28 690
2011 1,6 29 225
2012 1,7 30 384

Age structure[edit]

0-14 years: 15.5% Increase (male 188,937/female 179,536)
15-64 years: 70.7% Decrease (male 812,411/female 867,706)
65 years and over: 14.0% Decrease (male 116,702/female 218,808) (2013 official)

Median age[edit]

total: 38.4 years Steady
male: 35.4 years Steady
female: 41.5 years Increase (2013 official)

Administrative divisions[edit]

The Odessa Oblast is administratively subdivided into 26 raions (districts) and 7 municipalities which are directly subordinate to the oblast government - (Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi and Chornomorsk), (Izmail, Kotovsk, Teplodar, Yuzhne and the administrative center of the oblast, Odessa).

Detailed map of Odessa Oblast
Name Ukrainian name Area
(km2)
Population
census 2015[9]
Admin.center Urban Population Only*
Odessa Одеса (місто) 139 1,010,490 Odessa (city) 1,010,490
Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi Білгород-Дністровський (місто) 31 57,559 Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (city) 57,559
Chornomorsk Чорноморськ (місто) 25 72,553 Chornomorsk (city) 67,323
Izmail Ізмаї́л (місто) 53 72,266 Izmail (city) 72,266
Kotovsk Котовськ (місто) 25 40,613 Kotovsk (city) 40,613
Teplodar Теплодар (місто) 3 10,277 Teplodar (city) 10,277
Yuzhne Южне (місто) 9 32,149 Yuzhne (city) 32,149
Ananyivyi Raion Ананьївський (район) 1,050 26,999 Ananyiv 8,441
Artsyzyi Raion ^ Арцизький (район) 1,379 45,274 Artsyz 14,886
Baltiskyi Raion Балтський (район) 1,317 41,666 Balta 18,940
Berezivskyi Raion Березівський (район) 1,637 33,930 Berezivka 12,614
Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi Raion ^ Білгород-Дністровський (район) 1,852 60,774 Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi (city) N/A *
Biliaivkyi Raion Біляївський (район) 1,497 94,083 Biliaivka 14,334
Bolhradskyi Raion ^ Болградський (район) 1,364 69,148 Bolhrad 15,451
Frunzivkyi Raion Фрунзівський (район) 956 20,233 Frunzivka 8,881
Ivanivkyi Raion Іванівський (район) 1,162 26,604 Ivanivka 8,807
Izmailyi Raion * Ізмаїльський (район) 1,194 51,584 Izmail (city) N/A *
Kiliyskyi Raion ^ Кілійський (район) 1,358 52,400 Kiliya 28,434
Kodymskyi Raion Кодимський (район) 818 29,586 Kodyma 11,195
Kominternivskyi Raion Комінтернівський (район) 1,499 71,158 Kominternivske 14,028
Kotovskyi Raion Котовський (район) 1,037 27,091 Kotovsk (city) N/A *
Krasno Oknyaskyi Raion Красноокнянський (район) 1,013 20,186 Krasni Okny 5,338
Liubashivskyi Raion Любашівський (район) 1,100 30,688 Liubashivka 10,954
Mykolaivskyi Raion Миколаївський (район) 1,093 16,127 Mykolaivka 2,850
Ovidiopolskyi Raion Овідіопольський (район) 829 78,941 Ovidiopol 32,486
Renskyi Raion ^ Ренійський (район) 861 58,352 Reni 25,527
Rozdilnanskyi Raion Роздільнянський (район) 1,368 37,353 Rozdilna 19,003
Saratskyi Raion ^ Саратський (район) 1,474 45,057 Sarata 4,351
Savranskyi Raion Савранський (район) 617 19,083 Savran 6,420
Shyriaivskyi Raion Ширяївський (район) 1,502 27,151 Shyriaieve 6,781
Tarutynskyi Raion ^ Тарутинський (район) 1,874 41,603 Tarutyne 12,932
Tatarbunarskyi Raion ^ Татарбунарський (район) 1,748 38,825 Tatarbunary 10,988
Velyko Mykhailivkyi Raion Великомихайлівський (район) 1,436 31,006 Velyka Mykhailivka 8,472
Note: An asterisk (^) indicates the two municipalities and nine raions which previously constituted Izmail Oblast until that former oblast's merger with Odessa Oblast on 15 February 1954; these areas lie to the west of the Dniester River, and formerly constituted the territory known as the Budjak (southern Bessarabia).
Note: Asterisks (*) Though the administrative center of the rayon is housed in the city/town that its named after, cities do not answer to the rayon authorities only towns do; instead they are directly subordinated to the oblast government and therefore are not counted as part of rayon statistics.

Personalities[edit]

One of the most famous Odessits is Sergei Utochkin who was an universal sportsman exceling in cycling, boxing, swimming and played football for the Odessa British Athletic Club (OBAC).[3] Utochkin had challenged a steam-powered tram while running, on a bicycle he beat a galloping horse, while on roller skates he was passing a bicyclist.[3] The next stage for him was to conquest skies.[3] Utochkin managed to buy an airplane from a local banker and completed dozens of exhibition flights.[3] Eventually, he managed to assemble his own Farman-type airplane.[3] In Kiev, Utochkin was demonstrating his piloting skills in front of some 50,000 people, among which was a future creator of helicopters Igor Sikorsky.[3]

In the Southern Palmyra were also born a poetess Anna Akhmatova, former NASA scientist Nicholas E. Golovin who worked with the Apollo program, as well as the founder of jazz in the Soviet Union Leonid Utyosov.[3]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ "State Statistics Committee of Ukraine". Retrieved September 1, 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Tell about Ukraine. Odessa Oblast. 24 Kanal (youtube).
  4. ^ Secrieru, Mihaela. "Republic of Moldavia – an Intermezzo on the Signing and the Ratification of the European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages" (PDF). Iași: “Alexandru Ioan Cuza” University of Iaşi. p. 2. Retrieved 2014-09-19. On the left shore of the River Nistru [Dniester] there was the Khanate of Ukraine and of the properties of the Polish Crown, and their inhabitants, until the end of the 18th century, were the Moldavians[.] 
  5. ^ Friesen, Leonard G. (2008). Rural Revolutions in Southern Ukraine: Peasants, Nobles, and Colonists, 1774-1905. Harvard series in Ukrainian studies 59. Harvard University Press. p. 40. ISBN 9781932650006. Retrieved 2014-09-19. [...] the war with the Ottoman Empire [...] ended with the Treaty of Eternal Peace in December 1791, whereby the so-called Ochakiv (Ochakov) oblast was brought into the empire. 
  6. ^ Лише 3% українців хочуть приєднання їх області до Росії [Only 3% of Ukrainians want their region to become part of Russia]. Dzerkalo Tyzhnia (in Ukrainian). 3 January 2015. 
  7. ^ Navalny, Alexei (23 September 2014). Соцопрос ФБК по Харьковской и Одесской областям. Европа, Россия, Новороссия [Survey of Kharkov and Odessa Oblasts] (in Russian). navalny.com. Archived from the original on 23 September 2014. 
  8. ^ Results of the 2001 All-Ukrainian population census for the Odessa oblast
  9. ^ "Population Quantity". UkrStat (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 7 January 2016. 

External links[edit]

Coordinates: 47°00′N 30°00′E / 47.000°N 30.000°E / 47.000; 30.000