|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1550s 1560s 1570s – 1580s – 1590s 1600s 1610s|
|Years:||1581 1582 1583 – 1584 – 1585 1586 1587|
|1584 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2337|
|English Regnal year||26 Eliz. 1 – 27 Eliz. 1|
|Chinese calendar||癸未年 (Water Goat)
4280 or 4220
— to —
甲申年 (Wood Monkey)
4281 or 4221
|- Vikram Samvat||1640–1641|
|- Shaka Samvat||1506–1507|
|- Kali Yuga||4685–4686|
|Japanese calendar||Tenshō 12
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||328 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2126–2127|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1584.|
1584 (MDLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday (dominical letter AG) of the Gregorian calendar and a leap year starting on Wednesday (dominical letter ED) of the Julian calendar, the 1584th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 584th year of the 2nd millennium, the 84th year of the 16th century, and the 5th year of the 1580s decade. Note that the Julian day for 1584 is 10 calendar days difference, which continued to be used from 1582 until the complete conversion of the Gregorian calendar was entirely done in 1929.
- January–March – Archangelsk is founded as New Kholmogory in northern Russia by Ivan the Terrible.
- January 11 – Sir Walter Mildmay is given a royal licence to found Emmanuel College, Cambridge.
- March 18 (N.S. March 28) – Death of Ivan the Terrible, ruler of Russia since 1533. He is succeeded as Tsar by his son Feodor.
- May 17 – The conflict between Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu culminates in the Battle of Nagakute.
- June 1 – With the death of the Duc d'Anjou, the Huguenot Henry of Navarre becomes heir-presumptive to the throne of France.
- June 4 – Walter Ralegh sends Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe to explore the Outer Banks of Virginia (now North Carolina), with a view to establishing an English colony; they locate Roanoke Island.
- June 11 – Walk (modern-day Valka and Valga, towns in Latvia and Estonia respectively) receives city rights from Polish king Stefan Bathory.
- July 5 – The Maronite College is established in Rome.
- July 10 – William I of Orange is assassinated.
- September 17 – Ghent falls into the hands of Alexander Farnese, governor of the Spanish Netherlands.
- December – The Treaty of Joinville is signed secretly between the French Catholic League and Spain.
- Ratu Hijau becomes queen regnant of the once Malay Pattani Kingdom.
- The Belgian cartographer and geographer Abraham Ortelius features Ming Dynasty-era Chinese carriages with masts and sails in his atlas Theatrum Orbis Terrarum; concurrent and later Western writers also take note of this peculiar Chinese invention.
- This year, according to Italian heretic Jacopo Brocardo, is regarded as an apocalyptic inauguration of a major new cycle.
- January 29 – Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange (d. 1647)
- February 26 – Albert VI of Bavaria (d. 1666)
- March 29 – Ferdinando Fairfax, 2nd Lord Fairfax of Cameron, English parliamentary general (d. 1648)
- August 13 – Theophilus Howard, 2nd Earl of Suffolk, English politician (d. 1640)
- December 16 – John Selden, English jurist (d. 1654)
- date unknown
- William Baffin, English explorer (d. 1622)
- Francis Beaumont, English dramatist (d. 1616)
- Antonio Cifra, Italian composer (d. 1629)
- Matthias Gallas, Austrian soldier (d. 1647)
- Miyamoto Musashi, Japanese samurai, artist, philosopher (d. 1645)
- John Hales, English theologian (d. 1656)
- Hu Zhengyan, Chinese artist, printmaker, calligrapher and publisher (d. 1674)
- Robert Pierrepont, 1st Earl of Kingston-upon-Hull (d. 1643)
- Mathieu Molé, French statesman (d. 1656)
- Herman Wrangel, Swedish soldier and politician (d. 1643)
- January 4 – Tobias Stimmer, Swiss painter and drawer (b. 1539)
- March 10 – Thomas Norton, English politician and writer (b. 1532)
- March 18 – Tsar Ivan IV of Russia (b. 1530)
- May 18
- June 19 – François, Duke of Anjou (b. 1555)
- July – Francis Throckmorton, conspirator against Queen Elizabeth I of England (b. 1554)
- July 10 – William I of Orange (assassinated) (b. 1533)
- July 12 – Steven Borough, English explorer (b. 1525)
- July 13 – Balthasar Gérard, French assassin of William I of Orange (b. 1557)
- July 23 – John Day, English Protestant printer (b. 1522)
- August 22 – Jan Kochanowski, Polish writer (b. 1530)
- October – Colin Campbell, 6th Earl of Argyll, Scottish nobleman and politician (b. 1541)
- October 29 – Özdemiroğlu Osman Pasha, Turkish grand vizier
- November 4 – Saint Charles Borromeo, Italian cardinal (b. 1538)
- date unknown
- Jan Borukowski, royal secretary of Poland (b. 1524)
- Yi I of Joseon, Korean Confucian scholar (b. 1536)
- Mikołaj "the Red" Radziwiłł, Polish magnate (b. 1512)
- Carolus Sigonius, Italian humanist (b. 1524)
- Francisco de Toledo, Count of Oropesa, viceroy of Peru (b. 1515)
- Michal Wisniowiecki, prince at Wiśniowiec (b. 1529)
- probable – James Balfour of Pittendreich, Scottish judge and politician
- Ford, L. L. (2004). "Mildmay, Sir Walter (1520/21–1589)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/18696. Retrieved 2013-09-02. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Grun, Bernard (1991). The Timetables of History (3rd ed.). New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 259. ISBN 0-671-74919-6.
- Ripley, George; Dana, Charles A. (1873). "Ghent". The American Cyclopaedia 7. New York: D. Appleton & Co. Retrieved 2011-12-04.