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This article is about the year 1599.
|Centuries:||15th century – 16th century – 17th century|
|Decades:||1560s 1570s 1580s – 1590s – 1600s 1610s 1620s|
|Years:||1596 1597 1598 – 1599 – 1600 1601 1602|
|1599 by topic|
|Arts and science|
|Lists of leaders|
|Birth and death categories|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Ab urbe condita||2352|
|English Regnal year||41 Eliz. 1 – 42 Eliz. 1|
|Chinese calendar||戊戌年 (Earth Dog)
4295 or 4235
— to —
己亥年 (Earth Pig)
4296 or 4236
|- Vikram Samvat||1655–1656|
|- Shaka Samvat||1521–1522|
|- Kali Yuga||4700–4701|
|Japanese calendar||Keichō 4
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||313 before ROC
|Thai solar calendar||2141–2142|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1599.|
- January 8 – The Jesuit educational plan known as the Ratio Studiorum is issued.
- March 12 – Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, is appointed Lord Lieutenant of Ireland by Queen Elizabeth I of England.
- April 23 – The Earl of Essex arrives in Dublin at the head of 16,000 troops, the largest army ever seen in Ireland.
- May 29 – Essex takes Cahir Castle, supposedly the strongest in Ireland, after a short siege.
- June 20 – The Synod of Diamper is convened.
- July 24 – The Swedish King Sigismund III Vasa is dethroned by his uncle Duke Charles, who takes over as regent of the realm until 1604, when he becomes King Charles IX.
- August 15 – First Battle of Curlew Pass: Irish forces defeat the English.
- September 21 – The first reported performance at the Globe Theatre in London (erected over Spring/Summer), a presentation of Shakespeare's Julius Caesar (probably new this year), is recorded by Swiss traveller Thomas Platter the Younger.
- September 28 – The Earl of Essex arrives back in England, disobeying the Queen's strict orders.
- October 18 – Battle of Sellenberk: Michael the Brave, Prince of Wallachia, defeats the army of Andrew Báthory near Șelimbăr, leading to the first recorded unification of the Romanians.
- November – Persian embassy to Europe (1599–1602): A Persian embassy arrives in Moscow.
- The forces of Minye Thihathu II of Toungoo and his ally Min Razagyi of the Kingdom of Mrauk U end the First Toungoo Empire by capturing Pegu (modern-day Bago, Burma).
- The first Capuchin friar is entombed in the Capuchin catacombs of Palermo.
- A Dutch fleet returns to Amsterdam, carrying 600,000 pounds of pepper and 250,000 pounds of cloves and nutmeg.
- The Italian city of Pompeii is rediscovered more than 1500 years after its burial following the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79.
- February 13 – Pope Alexander VII (d. 1667)
- March 22 – Anthony van Dyck, Flemish painter (d. 1641)
- March 28 – Witte Corneliszoon de With, Dutch naval officer (d. 1658)
- April 25 – Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland (d. 1658)
- June 6 – Diego Velázquez, Spanish painter (d. 1660)
- August 12 – Sir William Curtius FRS, German magistrate, English baronet; official resident of the English Crown in the Holy Roman Empire, d. (1678).
- August 14 – Méric Casaubon, English classicist (d. 1671)
- September 20 – Christian, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Wolfenbüttel, German Protestant military leader (d. 1626)
- September 25 – Francesco Borromini, Swiss sculptor and architect (d. 1667)
- October 31 – Denzil Holles, 1st Baron Holles, English statesman and writer (d. 1680)
- November 11 – Ottavio Piccolomini, Austrian-Italian field marshal (d. 1656)
- date unknown
- January 13 – Edmund Spenser, English poet (b. 1552)
- January 22 – Cristofano Malvezzi, Italian composer (b. 1547)
- February 8 – Robert Rollock, first principal of the university of Edinburgh (b. 1555)
- April 10 – Gabrielle d'Estrées, mistress of King Henry IV of France (b. 1571)
- April 14 – Henry Wallop, English statesman (b. c. 1540)
- April 27 – Maeda Toshiie, Japanese samurai and warlord (b. 1538)
- June 14 – Kōriki Masanaga, Japanese military commander (b. 1558)
- July 11 – Chosokabe Motochika, Sengoku Period Daiymo
- August – Cornelis de Houtman, Dutch explorer (b. 1565)
- August 22
- November 7 – Gasparo Tagliacozzi, Italian surgeon (b. 1546)
- November 8 – Francisco Guerrero, Spanish composer (b. 1528)
- December 14 – Joan Boyle, first wife of Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork (b. 1568)
- After December 18 – Minye Kyawswa II of Ava, Burmese defecting crown prince of the Toungoo Empire (killed by invading forces) (b. 1567)
- date unknown